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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Geotechical Society
Editor in Chief :
Seong Wan Park
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 18, Issue 5 - Oct 2002
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Aug 2002
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Apr 2002
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Feb 2002
Selecting the target year
The Characteristics of Undrained Shear Strength for Normally Consolidated Decomposed Weathered Mudstone Soil
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 7~18
Generally, natural soils are affected by one-dimensional consolidation so that the behavior characteristic could be somewhat different from the isotropic consolidation specimen. But, due to experimental difficulties and the lack of equipment, the isotropic triaxial tests are mainly performed in most lab. tests. So it seems to be very effective if it is possible to predict pore water pressure and undrained shear strength in the
state as the results of isotropic triaxial consolidation test. In this study, isotropic triaxial consolidation test and
triaxial consolidation test were performed and we obtained parameters related to pore water pressure ratio using the Hyperbolic model. And then we predicted the behavior of pore water pressure that occurred in the
state from the results obtained in the isotropic triaxial cosolidation test through the equation suggested by Lo(1969). It is possible to seize the validity of Lo(1969) equation. Also, considering undrained shear strength obtained from consolidation method in relation with water content, we find that consolidation method have an effect on undrained shear strength. Finally, using the Wroth(1984) equation that is based on the theory of critical state, undrained shear strength in the
state was predicted from that of the isotropic triaxial consolidation test. The usefulness of the equation was verified by comparing the predicted value with experimental results.
Soil Stabilization with time and Rice Husk Ash
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 19~25
In this paper, a laboratory investigation was carried out to change the geotechnical properties of clayey soil with quicklime and rice husk ash for surplus soil strength improvement. The organic content of soils is 8.67%, 6.45% and 3.84% respectively. The geotechnical properties of treated soil were evaluated by a series of laboratory unconfined compression test, consolidation test and etc. The test results indicated that the presence of RHA enhanced the efficiency of lime stabilization. Especially, the increase in strength is very high at the first stage, while the significant improvement occurs in a sample C with organic content of 3.84%. These results can be identified by X-ray diffraction(XRD) and scanning electron microscope(SEM). The results of consolidation test indicate that the presence of RHA with lime reduces the properties of swelling of soil. Thus, it was verified that the addition of RHA is more effective than using only lime for soil stabilization.
Stability Analyses for Excavated Slopes Considering the Anisotropic Shear Strength of the Layered Compacted Ground
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 27~35
To construct pipe lines, culverts, or other utility lines, temporary slopes formed by excavating the compacted embankment are frequently met with in the field. Ignoring stability analyses for such slopes and applying inappropriate slope inclinations often result in safety problems. In this study, stability of such slopes were investigated considering the influence of anisotropic shear strength of the layered compacted ground. A series of stability analyses were conducted for slopes varying the slope angle and the height, and assuming isotropic and anisotropic shear strength conditions, respectively. The anisotropic shear strength of the compacted soil was determined from the direct shear test for layered soil blocks varying the inclination angle between the horizontal shear surface and the direction of the soil layer. As a result of the analyses, it has been concluded that the appropriate slope inclination f3r a temporary slope could vary in accordance with the consideration of anisotropy. However, the factor of safety as well as the location of the failure surface did not show significant variation.
The Analysis of Liquefaction Evaluation in Ground Using Artificial Neural Network
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 37~42
Artificial neural networks are efficient computing techniques that are widely used to solve complex problems in many fields. In this paper a liquefaction potential was estimated by using a back propagation neural network model applicated to cyclic triaxial test data, soil parameters and site investigation data. Training and testing of the network were based on a database of 43 cyclic triaxial test data from 00 sites. The neural networks are trained by modifying the weights of the neurons in response to the errors between the actual output values and the target output value. Training was done iteratively until the average sum squared errors over all the training patterns were minimized. This generally occurred after about 15,000 cycles of training. The accuracy from 72% to 98% was shown for the model equipped with two hidden layers and ten input variables. Important effective input variables have been identified as the NOC,
. The study showed that the neural network model predicted a CSR(Cyclic shear stress Ratio) of silty-sand reasonably well. Analyzed results indicate that the neural-network model is more reliable than simplified method using N value of SPT
Improvement Effects of Soft Ground by Granular Pile
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 43~54
As construction cases of structure are increasing in the soft ground, the necessity of ground improvement is also increasing. Granular pile is one of the improvement methods for soft ground and for loose sandy soil. In domestic, SCP(Sand Compaction Pile) method using sand material has been mainly used to improve soft ground, but Granular pile with crushed-stone was not used much. However, alternative material such as crushed-stone is needed to substitute for sand due to the environmental and economical problems. In this study, staged load test and consolidation test were performed in the laboratory to observe the behavior of soft ground improved by Granular pile. In order to evaluate the characteristics such as bearing capacity, drainage, md settlement, sand and crushed-stone were applied as each pile material. The test results show that crushed-stone has higher bearing capacity and less settlement than those of sand under similar fore water pressure condition. Therefore, crushed-stone is determined to be appropriate as the substitute for sand.
Evaluation of Lateral Earth Pressure on Buried Pipes in Soft Ground Undergoing Lateral Movement
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 55~65
Model tests were performed to investigate the mechanism of lateral earth pressure on a buried pipe, which was installed in a plastic flowing soil mass undergoing lateral movement. On the basis of failure mode tests, the equation of lateral earth pressure to apply Maxwell's visco-elastic model was proposed to consider the soil deformation velocity. Through a series of model tests of differential soil deformation velocity, lateral earth pressure of theoretical equation was compared with experimental results. When lateral soil movement was raised, the lateral earth pressure acting on buried pipe increases linearly with the soil deformation velocity. It shows that the lateral earth pressure on buried pipe is largely affected by soil deformation velocity. When plastic soil movement was raised, lateral earth pressure predicted by theoretical equation showed good agreement with experimental results. Also, coefficient of viscosity by theoretical equation had a good agreement with direct shear test results.
A Coupled Moisture and Bent Flow Analysis Model in Unsaturated Soil
Kim, Suk-Nam ; Kim, Suk-Nam ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 67~72
Water content of soils within pavement varies seasonally depending on climatic factors such as rainfall, temperature and so on, since a hydraulic gradient due to rainfall causes moisture flow, and a thermal gradient due to temperature change induces not only heat flow but also moisture flow directly and indirectly. Soils within pavement are usually in an unsaturated state, and heat flow and moisture flow have been recognized as coupled processes with complex interactions between them. This paper presents a one-dimensional analysis model by the finite element method for the coupled heat flow and moisture flow in unsaturated soils. The model can be used to predict not only the change of temperature and water content, but also frist heave with time. It will be a meaningful work for the design and maintenance of pavement to predict the change of the temperature and water content and frist heave. The model is tested through comparisons with the results by other models.
Study on Shearing Properties and Behavior of the Grout-reinforced Underground with ERP Pipes
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 73~81
Nowadays , the grouted-reinforcing method, which is called FRP(Fiberglass-reinforced-plastic) pipe .reinforcing method, has been introduced in the community of pound reinforcements. The resistance to corrosion and chemical attack high strength to weight ratio, and ease of handling make these pipes a better alternative to steels in tunnel. However, to fully utilize FRP pipes as grouted reinforcing members at the face and the crown in tunnel, their mechanical properties and behaviors and the grout-reinforced underground have to be verified. Laboratory shear tests were conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties for FRP pipes, the grout-reinforced members and the grout-reinforced body of FRP pipes. According to the test results, it was observed that FRP pipes play a dominant role in shearing behavior of the grout-reinforced members and that their shearing resistance exerts after the shearing displacement increases to some extent.
A Damage Model for Predicting the Nonlinear Behavior of Rock
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 83~97
An experimental model which considers post-peak behaviors and pre-peak damage characteristics representing changes of elastic moduli in each damage level was developed. From experiments, some damage thresholds of rocks were determined, and regression analyses were carried out in order to represent changes of elastic moduli in each damage level as functions of confining pressure. In addition, it was intended to simulate post-peak behaviors with Hoek-Brown constants,
for post-failure. The developed experimental model was implemented into
by a FISH function. From results of parametric studies on Hoek-Brown constants for post-peak, it was revealed that uniaxial compressive strength more highly depends upon
, although it depends on both
. It was also shown that the post-peak slopes of stress-stain curves depend mainly on
. When the optimum models obtained from parametric studies were applied to numerical analysis, they predicted maximum strengths obtained from experiments and well simulated stiffness changes due to damage levels.
Numerical Evaluation of the Rock Damaged Zone Around a Deep Tunnel
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 99~108
The nonlinear-brittle-plastic model derived from experiments as well as elastic and elasto-plastic models was applied to the analysis of the rock damaged zone around a highly stressed circular tunnel. The depths of stress redistribution and disturbed zone as well as the characteristic behaviors predicted from each numerical model were compared, As the magnitudes and stress differences of in situ stresses increased, influences of stress redistribution and stress disturbance on un(tiled region of rock mass also intensified. As a result, larger stress redistribution and disturbed zone as well as greater deviatoric stress and displacement were obtained by the nonlinear-brittle-plastic model rather than other conventional models such as elasto-plastic and elastic models. from such results, it was concluded that as the magnitudes and stress differences of in situ stresses increased, larger rock damaged zone might be predicted by the nonlinear-brittle-plastic model. Therefore, it is thought that the damage analysis may be indispensable far highly stressed tunnels.
Dynamic Deformational Characteristics of Subgrade Soils with Variations of Capillary Pressure and Water Content
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 109~122
The water content of soil near the ground subgrade varies seasonally, and dynamic deformational characteristics of soil are affected by the variation of water content. Contrary to previous studies which used various specimens of different compaction moisture contents, the influences of water content and capillary Pressure on dynamic deformational characteristics of soil were investigated using the given specimen controlling the matric suction. RC/TS(resonant column and torsional shear) testing equipment was modified so that it can control water content with changing capillary pressure(matric suction). RC/TS tests were performed on subgrade soil collected in the KHC(Korea Highway Corporation) test road. In the field, the cross-hole tests were performed and the water contents were measured at the same site to verify the feasibility and applicability of RC/TS test results. As water content decreased, the tendency of increasing shear moduli in field was well matched with laboratory test results.
A Prediction of Shear Behavior of the Weathered Mudstone Soil Using Dynamic Neural Network
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 123~132
The purpose of this study is to predict the shear behavior of the weathered mudstone soil using dynamic neural network which mimics the biological system of human brain. SNN and RNN, which are kinds of the dynamic neural network realizing continuously a pattern recognition as time goes by, are used to predict a nonlinear behavior of soil. After analysis, parameters which have an effect on learning and predicting of neural network, the teaming rate, momentum constant and the optimum neural network model are decided to be 0.5, 0.7, 8
2 in SU model and 0.3, 0.9, 8
2 in R model. The results of appling both networks showed that both networks predicted the shear behavior of soil in normally consolidated state well, but RNN model which is effective fir input data of irregular patterns predicted more efficiently than SNN model in case of the prediction in overconsolidated state.
Characterization of Tensile Strength of Anisotropic Rock Using the Indirect Tensile Strength Test
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 133~141
Isotropic rock and anisotropic rock have different tensile strength which has the greatest influence on rock failure. In this study, elastic modulus of anisotropic rock is obtained through uniaxial compression test, and tensile strength and tension failure behavior are analyzed through indirect tensile strength test. Stress concentration factor of a specimen at the center is obtained from anisotropic elastic modulus and strain by indirect tensile strength test. Theoretical solutions for tensile strength of isotropic and anisotropic rock are compared. Stress concentration factor of anisotropic rock is either higher or lower than isotropic rock depending on the inclination angle of bedding plane. The use of stress concentration factor of isotropic rock resulted in overestimation or underestimation of tensile strength.
Mechanism of TCE Removal with Foundry Sands and Design of Permeable ]Reactive Barriers
;Benson, Craig H;;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 143~157
Batch and column tests were conducted with common groundwater contaminants (i.e., trichloroethylene) to determine transport parameters and reactivity of the foundry sands. The reactivities of foundry sands for common groundwater contaminants are comparable to or slightly higher than those for Peerless iron a common medium used in permeable reactive barriers. In addition, the TOC and clay in foundry sands can significantly retard the movement of target contaminants, which may result in lower effluent concentrations of contaminants due to biodegradation. In general, permeable reactive barriers with the thickness of 1m can be constructed with many foundry sands to treat typical groundwater comtaminants provided the zero-valent iron content in the foundry sand is higher than 1%.
Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated with Zinc Using Permeable Reactive Barriers Containing Foundry Sands
;Benson, Craig H;;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 159~167
Partition coefficients for zinc vary on a broad range depending on properties of the foundry sands (TOC, clay content, total iron content) and solution pH. Among these properties, solution pH was found to be the most important factor. Empirical equations were developed from batch tests to predict partition coefscients and rate constants as a function of foundry sand properties and solution pH. Rate constants obtained from batch (kinetic) tests and batch sorption tests were found to be comparable when the solution pHs were comparable.
The Influence of Initial Stress Ratio on the Stress~Strain Characteristics of Geosynthetics Reinforced Clayey Soil
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 169~178
The stress~strain characteristics of geosynthetics reinforced clayey soil were investigated by triaxial compression tests. All the tests were peformed either on unreinforced or reinforced soils under fully drained condition after having been consolidated isotropically or anisotropically to the required level of effective stresses by the small increment of 0.05kgf/
. The anisotropically consolidated drained tests were performed to simulate the in-situ condition of reinforced soil structures such as reinforced soil wall, abutment and embankment which are generally in the anisotrpic state. From a series of tests it was ffund that the behavior of the anisotropically consolidated reinforced clayey soils was very different from stress~strain characteristics of consolidated reinferced clayey soils. It was found especially that the initial Young's moduli of anisotropically consolidated reinforced clayey soils were higher than those of isotropically consolidated reinforced clayey soils. It was found also that the reinforcement effect in anisotropically consolidated reinforced soils developed at a much lower level of axial strain(0.01%) compared with isotropically consolidated ones(about 1.0~5.0%).
Leaching Characteristics of Foundry Sands When Used as Reactive Media in Permeable Reactive Barriers
;Benson, Craig H;;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 179~193
Waste foundry sands were tested to determine their leaching characteristics when used as reactive media in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). Water leach tests and column leach tests were performed on twelve foundry sands and three reference materials such as Peerless iron, a local fill material, and torpedo sand. The latter three materials were tested to compare concentrations of heavy metals and anions found in other materials commonly placed below the groundwater table with those from the foundry sands. Results of water leach tests md total elemental analyses showed that all of the laundry sands are Category 2 materials per Section NR 538 of the Wisconsin Administrator Code. However, tests on Peerless iron, torpedo sand, and a typical fill material indicate that these materials, which are commonly placed below the groundwater table, also are Category 2 materials. Thus, using foundry sand as a PR3 medium should pose no greater risk than that imposed using conventional construction materials.
Application of Copper Slag as a Substitute for Sand in Sand Compaction Pile
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 195~207
The domestic, quantity of copper slag as a by-product at copper smelting process reaches 700,000 tons annually while its application is limited. Therefore, the secure disposal plan of copper slag is urgently required. For this reason, in this study, copper slag was used as a substitute for sand in Sand Compaction Pile that is one of the improvement methods of soft ground because the particle size distribution of copper slag ranges from 0.15mm to 5m(coarse state) and it maintains stable glassy state environmentally. The geotechnical characteristics of copper slag were evaluated through laboratory model tests and the field application of copper slag was compared with generally used sand by pilot tests. From these experimental results, copper slag's material characteristics, bearing capacity, settlement reduction and improvement effects of surrounding ground were found to be superior to generally used sand. The copper slag can be used as a substitute far sand in the Sand Compaction Pile method and as recycling material of industrial by-product with high econonical and environmental value when natural resources are being exhausted.
Thermal Resistivity of Backfill Materials for Underground Power Cables
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 209~220
Because the allowable current loading of buried electrical transmission cables is frequently limited by the maximum permissible temperature of the cable or of the surrounding ground, there is a need for cable backfill materials that can maintain a low thermal resistivity (less than 5
-cm/watt) even while they are subjected to high temperatures for prolonged periods. Temperatures greater than 5
may lead to breakdown of cable insulation and thermal nlnaway if the surrounding backfill material is unable to dissipate the heat as rapidly as it is generated. This paper describes the results of studies aiming at the development of backfill material to reduce the thermal resistivity. A large number of different additive materials were tested to determine their applicability as a substitute material. Tests were called out for DonUing river sand, a relatively uniffrm sand of very high thermal resistivity (5
-cnuwatt at 10% water content, 26
-cm/watt when dry), and Jinsan granite screenings, and A-2(sand and gravel mixture), E-1 (rubble and granite screenings mixture), a well-graded materials with low thermal resistivity (about 35
-cm/watt when at 10 percent water content, 10
-cm/watt when dry). Based on this research, 3 types of backfill materials were suggested for improved materials with low thermal resistivity.
Study on the Seepage Forces Acting on the Tunnel Face with the Consideration of Tunnel Advance Rate
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 221~228
The stability of a tunnel face is one of the most important factors in tunnel excavation. Especially, if a tunnel is located under groundwater level, groundwater may flow into the tunnel face and seepage forces acting on the tunnel face due to groundwater flow may affect seriously the stability of the tunnel face. Therefore, the seepage pressure at the tunnel face should be considered fir the proper design and safe construction of a tunnel. In this paper, the effect of tunnel advance rate on the seepage forces acting on the tunnel face was studied. The finite element program to analyze the groundwater flow around a tunnel with the consideration of tunnel advance rate was developed. Using the program, the parametric study for the effect of the tunnel advance rate and hydraulic characteristics of the ground on the seepage forces acting on the tunnel face was made. From this study, it was concluded that the tunnel advance rate must betaken into consideration as an additional parameter to assess the seepage forces at the tunnel face and a rational design methodology fer the assessment of support pressures required for maintaining the stability of the tunnel face was suggested for undetwater tunnels.
A Study on the Properties of Grout Materials Based on Cement Type
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 229~236
In this study, the characteristics of chemical grouting, such as solidification, penetrability, were analyzed experimentally by grain size of grout materials and permeability, relative density of the ground. For evaluating applicability of grout material, solidification tests and permeability tests were peformed. From the results of the tests, effective solidification ratio and penetrability ratio of Micro Cement were 75% and 86% respectively when ground permeability was in the range of 10
cm/sec. On the other hand, effective solidification ratio and penetrability ratio of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) were both lower than 50%. When penetrability of grout material is needed for improvement of dam foundation and soft ground, application of Micro Cement is much superior to that of the other materials. The results of the grouting tests in the hydrodynamic ground show that the solidification effect of long gel-time grout material is excellent as injection pressure increases when groundwater velocity is relatively low. But when groundwater velocity is relatively high, the solidifcation effect of long gel-time grout material is very poor because most grout materials are outflowed.
Numerical Analysis of Anisotropic Soil Deformation by the Nonlinear Anisotropic Model
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 237~249
Nonlinearity and anisotropy of soil should be considered for the exact prediction of deformation before the failure state. In this study, a new constitutive model is developed in which the nonlinearity of soil is formulated by Ramberg-Osgood equation and the soil anisotropy is implemented by the cross-anisotropic elasticity. Nonlinear anisotropic model and other models for comparison are used to analyze the simple boundary value problems and the circular footing problem. In the results, the anisotropic ratio of elastic modulus is a key value for the bulk modulus of soil, the coeffcient of earth pressure at rest, and the slope of effective stress paths. Furthermore, it is found that the nonlinearity of soil considering the in-situ stresses has the great influence on the magnitude of settlements.
2-Dimensional Equilibrium Analysis and Stability Analysis of Geotextile Tube by Hydraulic Model Test
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 251~260
Geotextile tribes are made of sewn geotextile sheet and hydraulically or mechanically filled with dredged materials. They have been applied in hydraulic and coastal engineering in recent years(shore protection structure, detached breakwater, groins, and jetty). Therefore, it is composed of geotextile and confined fill material. Recently, new preliminary design criteria supported by model and prototype tests, and some stability analysis calculations have been studied. The stability analysis of geotextile tube is composed of geotechnical and hydrodynamic analysis. The stability check points are sliding failure, overturning, bearing capacity failure against the wave attack. In this paper are presented the stability analysis method by empirical equation and 2-D equilibrium analysis for geotextile tube. Also, the hydraulic model tests were performed to verify the theoretical stability analysis with geotextile tube shape, filling ratio, significant wave height, and so on. The results of this study show that the stability of geotextile tube depends on the tube shape, contact area, projection area. The theoretical analysis and hydraulic model test show almost the same results.
Laboratory Assessment of Geotextile Tube for Dewatering High Water Content Material
Mo, Xinghua ; Kim Tae-Hyung ; Moo-Young. Horace K ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 261~269
The objectives of this paper are to study the use of geotextile tribes for dewatering high water content sludges and sediments and to evaluate their feasibility and affecting fsctors. To accomplish these objectives, pressure filtration tests were conducted on woven geotextile (Geotex
46T and 1212T) fir high water content materials with a modified experimental apparatus. Test results indicate that 1) the filter cake formed on the inside of the geotextile tube is the major contributor to the retention of fine particles, but also causes a decrease in permeability, 2) controlling the formation of the filter cake and thus achieving a balance between soil retention and permeability is vital to a successful project, and 3) geotextiles, sludge properties, and filtration pressures have some effects on the dewatering efficiency and dewatering rate.
A Study to Develop a Practical Probabilistic Slope Stability Analysis Method
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 271~280
A probabilistic approach to identify the effects of uncertainties of soil strength parameters on searching a critical slip surface with the lowest reliability is introduced. In general construction field, it is impossible for the engineer to always gather a variety of statistical information of soil strength parameters for which lots of laboratory and in-situ soil testing are required and to use it with enough statistical knowledge. Thus, in order that the engineer may easily understand the probabilistic concept for the slope stability analysis, this study proposes a combined procedure to incorporate the engineering probabilistic tools into the existing deterministic slope stability analysis methods. Using UTEXAS 3, a slope stability analysis computer program developed by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (U.S. COE), this study provides the results of this probabilistic slope stability analysis in terms of probability of failure or reliability index. This probabilistic method f3r slope stability analysis appears to yield more comprehensive results of slope reliability than does existing deterministic methods with safety factors alone.
Prediction of the Shaft Resistance of Pile Sockets
Seidel, J.P. ; Cho, Chun-Whan ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 281~293
Empiricism has characterized the traditional methods of pile design; in essence, pile design recommendations are based on the accumulated knowledge of pile behaviour based on the construction and subsequent load testing of piles in soil and rock. In this paper, the traditional approaches to design of piles in rock will be briefly reviewed. It will be shown that the unrelated empirical relationships developed fur rock lead to considerable uncertainty in the design of piles. A new method for predicting the shaft resistance of piles socketed into rock, and based on fundamental principles is outlined. It is shown that the shaft resistance predictions of this method agree well with the field test data for rock and hard soil. It is demonstrated by way of a limited parametric study that shaft roughness and socket diameter are critical factors in the performance of piles constructed in these materials. The application of the method to piles socketed into the granites and gneisses of Korea is discussed by way of a case study and by reference to recent direct shear tests on these rocks.