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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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Journal DOI :
Korean Geotechical Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
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The Behavior of Piled Bridge Abutments Subjected to Lateral Soil Movements - A Study on the Centrifuge Model Tests -
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 5~19
A series of centrifuge model tests were conducted to investigate the behavior of piled bridge abutments subjected to lateral soil movements induced by approach embankments. The effect of clay layer depth and the rate of embankment construction on piled bridge abutments are the main focus of this study. Tests were performed for two loading types: (1) incremental loading applied in six lifts to the final embankment height; (2) instant loading corresponding to the final embankment height applied in one lift quickly. A variety of instrumentations such as LVDTs, strain gauges, earth pressure transducers, and pore pressure transducers are installed in designed positions in order to clarify the soil-pile interaction and the short- and long-term behavior for piled bridge abutments adjacent to surcharge loads. Based on the results of a series of centrifuge model tests, the distribution of lateral flow induced by staged embankment construction has trapezoidal distribution. The maximum lateral soil pressure is about 0.75
H at surcharge loading stage, and about 0.35
H at over 80% consolidated stage.
The Behavior of Piled Bridge Abutments Subjected to Lateral Soil Movements - Design Guidelines -
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 21~29
In this study, practical guidelines to check the possibility of some lateral movement of piled abutment were investigated. In these tests, both the depth of soft clay and the rate of embankment construction are chosen to examine the effect on lateral soil movements. The depth of soft clay layer varies from 5.2 m to 11.6 m, and the rate of embankment construction has two types : staged construction(1m/30days, 1m/15days) and instant construction. Various measuring instruments such as LVDTs, strain gauges, pressure cells, and pore pressure transducers are installed in designed positions in ordo. to clarify the soil - pile interaction and the short and long term behavior f3. piled bridge abutments adjacent to surcharge loads. The validity of the proposed guidelines by centrifuge test was compared with the observed performance by lateral movement index, F(Japan Highway Public Corporation) and modified I index(Korea Highway Corporation). Based on the results obtained, the critical values off and modified I, as a practical guidelines, are proposed as 0.03 and 2.0, respectively.
New Design Method for Pile Group Under Vertical Load
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 31~40
Current design of pile group is based on the estimation of the overall bearing capacity of a pile group from that of a single pile using a group efficiency. However, the behaviors of a pile group are influenced by various factors such as the method of pile installation, pile-soil-pile interaction, cap-soil-pile interaction, etc. Thus, it is practically impossible to take into account these factors reasonably with the only group efficiency. In this paper, a new method for the design of pile groups is proposed, where the significant factors affecting the behavior of a pile group are considered separately by adopting several efficiencies. Furthermore, in the proposed method, the load transfer characteristics of piles and the difference of pile behaviors with respect to the pile locations in group can be taken into account. The efficiencies for the method are determined using the settlement failure criterion, which is consistent with the concept of allowable settlement fur structures. The efficiencies calculated from the results of existing model tests are presented, and the bearing capacity of a pile group in the other model test is calculated and compared with that from the test result to verify the validity of the proposed method.
In-situ Monitoring of Matric Suctions in a Weathered Soil Slope
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 41~49
Rainfall-induced landslides in a weathered granite soil slope usually happen on shallow slip surfaces above the groundwater table. The pore-water pressure of soil above the groundwater table is usually negative. This negative pore-water pressure (or matric suction) has been found to make a large contribution to the slope stability. Therefore, the variation of in-situ matric suction profiles with time elapse in a soil slope should be understood. In this study, a field measurement program was carried out from June to August, 2001 in order to monitor in-situ matric suctions and volumetric water contents in a weathered granite soil slope. Finite-element transient seepage analyses are also conducted using SEEP/W. The influence of climatic conditions on the variation of in-situ matric suctions could be found to decrease rapidly with the change of depth. It could be found that decrement of matric suction induced by precipitation is affected not only by the amount and duration of rainfalls but also by the initial matric suction just prior to rainstorms. The soil-water characteristic from the field monitoring tends toward the wetting path of SWCC obtained from the laboratory test.
Bearing Capacity Characteristics of SIP Piles
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 51~60
As piling works in urban area are increasing, SIP which has low noise & vibration piling method takes the place of driven pile which has good bearing charateristics and is economical. Although SIP has been used far more than 15 years and it's use is increasing year by year, accurate analysis of bearing mechanism of SIP is not enough. So the design of SIP is much more conservative than driven pile. This paper is aimed at analysing the bearing charateristics of 103 SIPs constructed in Korea to give rational design criteria. Research result shows that bearing capacity of SIP is 40% lower than that of driven pile and conservative Meyerhof(20
) method produced closer result to load test results than any other design method. And this result shows that in order to use optimised design criteria for the economical SIP design, quality control criteria must be settled down to produce high bearing capacity.
Determination of Critical State Parameters in Sandy Soils from Standard Triaxial Testing (I) : Review and Application
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 61~75
Comprehensive review on the determination of critical state parameters in sandy soils from standard triaxial testing was performed to facilitate the application of critical state soil mechanics to the shear behavior of sandy soils. First, semantic differences in literature were clarified, inferring that critical state should be considered as the ultimate state at large deformation. Second, the characteristics of critical state parameters were discussed, and also the uniqueness of critical state line and the sensitivity of quasi-steady state condition were verified in relation to initial state, fabric, loading condition, and drainage condition. Third, as an example, the critical state soil mechanics was applied to evaluate the post-liquefaction shear strength, i.e. the reliable ultimate shear strength in liquified soils, in terms of critical state parameters.
Determination of Critical State Parameters in Sandy Soils from Standard Triaxial Testing (II) : Experiment and Recommendation
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 77~92
A set of standard triaxial testing was performed to identify underlying physical processes and inherent limitations in the determination of critical state parameters in sandy soils. The experimental test results showed that the critical state friction angle for a given soil is constant regardless of drainage condition while the critical state line on the e-log p'space is significantly affected by drainage condition mainly because of insufficient strain attained in standard triaxial tests and strain localization effects in udrained tests. It appeared that the best method to determine critical state parameters in laboratory testing is to use homogeneous loose specimens under drained shear condition. In addition, a reference state parameter was suggested to design tests that will avoid dilatancy or strain localization effects in drained tests.
A Study on the Estimation of In-situ Undrained Shear Strength Using Effective Stress Paths of Reconstituted Sample by Unconfined Compression Test
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 93~102
Unconfined compression test (UC) has been widely used to determine the undrained shear strength (
) of clay, because it is convenient and economical. However, UC can not represent the behaviour of in-situ stress condition and the strength obtained by the test is generally underestimated compared to that of triaxial compression, due to no confining pressure. Therefore, a simple and practical method to correct the (
) for sample disturbance and to be used in geotechnical practice is needed. This study is aimed at proposing the method to estimate in-situ undrained shear strength from UC with suction measurement. The proposed method is based on theoretical shear strength equation of perfect sample (Noorany & Seed, 1965), and effective overburden stress and analysis results (
) of effective stress behaviour by UC are needed for the equation. The shear resistance angle (
) can be simply estimated through the result that
-line slope of the UC is 1.6 times higher than that of triaxial compression test. The result of this study shows that the measured strength by this method is very similar to that of the undrained shear strength by triaxial compression test (CK
A Study on Basic Properties of the Reinforced-roadbed Material Using Water Quenched Blast Furnace Slag
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 103~110
The development of reinforced-roadbed material in substitute for existing roadbed is necessary to protect its failure from the dynamic stress and vibration caused by the traveling of the high-speed and heavy trains. The water quenched blast furnace slag having potential hydraulic reactivity is one of the materials in substitute for soil reinforced-roadbed. We carried out the study of basic properties of roadbed material using Portland cement and CSA(calcium sulphoaluminate) as the activator for the evaluation of its application. As the result of the strength test, this material satisfied design criterion for reinforced-roadbed. Optimum mixing ratio of this reinforced-roadbed material was 15 ~ 17.5 percent of cement and 2.5 percent of CSA by weight of the blast furnace slag. Especially, as permeability is above
cm/sec, this material proved to have functions of both reinforced roadbed and drainage layer.
A New Stress Path Test Method for Evaluating Settlement Behaviors of Clay Deposits
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 111~120
A new stress path test method, which is more suitable f3r evaluating settlements of clay deposits, was introduced. This new method is basically based on back pressure equalization concept and makes it possible to estimate deformations corresponding to all points on a specific stress path by only one test. As a result, deformation characteristics of a clay deposit can be predicted by a few tests and the more practical application of stress path method can be realized. In addition, anisotropic deformation behaviors following arbitrary stress paths also can be experimentally measured by this test method. Experimental applicability of the proposed method was confirmed by performing various stress path tests on remolded kaolinite samples and the actual process to evaluate overall deformation characteristics and settlements was also presented.
The Analysis of the Bearing Capacity of Layered Clay by Numerical Methods
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 121~129
Numerical studies on bearing capacity problems of layered clay are performed for smooth and rough strip footings. The finite element method and finite difference method (FLAC) are used for computations of the bearing capacity, entire load-displacement curve and the failure mechanism. The presented results show that it is possible to analyze the bearing capacity of layered clay and to give a progressive failure mechanism clearly. To obtain high quality solutions, it is necessary to review the results on control parameters(e.g., yield function, number of calculation) and compare the results by two numerical methods.
Analysis of Electroosmosis Drainage in Clayey Soil
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 131~142
The characteristics of electroosmosis drainage in clayey soil were investigated, when an electrokinetic technique was applied for the purpose of separating heavy metals in contaminated ground. A series of laboratory tests, considering voltage, zeta potential, pH distribution, and current, were performed for a lead-contaminated kaolin. The results of laboratory tests were compared with numerical analysis of finite difference method. The 1311owing conclusions were obtained: The flow velocity in electroosmosis was very sensitive to the chemical and electrical characteristics of the clay. As the concentration of ion increases, the flow rate decreases and the amount of drainage also decreases as time elapses.
Stress-Strain-Strain Rate of Overconsolidated Clay Dependent on Stress and Time History
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 143~150
This study deals with the stress-strain-strain rate behaviour of overconsolidated clay. Consolidated-drained stress path tests were performed on the stress-time dependent condition. Stress history consists of rotation angle of stress path, overconsolidation ratio, and magnitude of length of recent stress path. Time history includes loading rate of recent and current stress path. Test results show that all influence factors have an increasing strain rate with time, and the strain rate varies with the change of the rotation angle of stress path. With the increase of overconsolidation ratio and loading rate of current stress path, the strain rate also increases. For the stress history, correlation between stress-strain and strain rate is indicated but the time history is not.
Initial Excess Pore Pressure Induced by Cone Penetration in Normally Consolidated Clays
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 151~161
In this study, an interpretation method is proposed to evaluate the stress conditions, including individual excess pore pressure components (
), of normally consolidated clay elements adjacent to the cone face. It is assumed that the stress path of triaxial compression is representative f3r that of the soil element and the soil is elastic-perfectly plastic material. The proposed method is applied to the results of miniature piezocone tests conducted at Louisiana State University calibration chamber system. Based on the results of interpretation, it was found that the ratio of
estimated by the proposed method is affected only by the pore pressure parameter. The proposed method gives consistent and reliable values of
compared with early works, whereas those obtained by other solutions are significantly dependent on the accuracy in estimating soil properties such as undrained shear strength and rigidity index.
Engineering Properties of Composite Silicate Grout Materials
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 163~172
The engineering properties of composite silicate grout materials that were developed recently were analyzed. In this laboratory tests, OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) was mainly used as grout materials. Moreover, the properties of composite silica, silica sol and sodium silicate (No.3) acting as coagulating agent were analyzed and compared with each other. For the purpose of finding the engineering properties of composite silicate grout materials, various physical and chemical tests were performed : naked eye measurement, photographing by using SEM, uniaxial compression test and in-situ application test. A series of test results showed that the strength of composite silicate grout materials was about 3～6 times that of ordinary sodium silicate grout materials in 6～24hr. Especially, based on the evaluation of the application of JS-CGM grout to the construction fields, composite silicate grout would be very effective in reducing the coefficient of permeability.
The Effect of Displacement Rate on Shear Characteristics of Geotextile-involved Ceosynthetic Interfaces
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 173~180
In spite of its potential importance in the assessment of geosynthetic-related dynamic problems, no serious attempt has yet been made to investigate a probable dependence of dynamic friction resistance of the geosynthetic interface on shear displacement rate. Hence, an experimental study of geosynthetics was carried out on a shaking table, and the relationship between dynamic friction resistance and shear displacement rate of geosynthetic interfaces was investigated. A cyclic, displacement rate-controlled experimental setup was used. The subsequent multiple rate tests showed that interfaces that involve geotextiles have such unique shearing characteristics that shear strengths tend to increase with displacement rate. In contrast, once submerged with water, the shear strength appears to be no longer dependent on the displacement rate, partly due to lubrication effect of water trapped inside the interface. The results of the experimental study can be used in the seismic safety assessment of a landfill cover and slope where the geosynthetic materials are exposed to a relatively low normal stress.
Nonlinearly Distributed Active Earth Pressure on n Translating Rigid Retaining Wall : I. Formulation
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 181~189
The active earth pressure against a rigid retaining wall has been generally calculated using either Rankine's or Coulomb's formulation. Both assume that the distribution of active earth pressure exerted against the wall is triangular. However, many experimental results show that the distribution of the active earth pressure on a rigid rough wall is nonlinear. These results do not agree with the assumption used in both Rankine's and Coulomb's theories. The nonlinearity of the active earth pressure distribution results from arching effects in the backfill. Several researchers have attempted to estimate the active earth pressure on a rigid retaining wall, considering arching effect in the backfill. Their equations, however, have some limitations. In this paper, a new formulation for calculating the active earth pressure on a rough rigid retaining wall undergoing horizontal translation is proposed. It takes into account the arching effects that occur in the backfill.
Nonlinearly Distributed Active Earth Pressure on a Translating Rigid Retaining Wall : II. Application
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 191~199
It is known that the distribution of the active earth pressure against a rigid wall is not triangular, but nonlinear, due to arching effects in the backfill. In the farmer paper, a new formulation was proposed for the nonlinear distribution of active earth pressure on a translating rigid retaining wall considering arching effects. In this paper, parametric study is performed to investigate the effect of
and wall height on the magnitude and distribution of active earth pressure calculated from the proposed equations. In order to check the accuracy of the proposed formulation, the predictions from the equation are compared with both existing full-scale test results and values from existing equations. The comparisons between calculated and measured values show that the proposed equations satisfactorily predict both the earth pressure distribution and the lateral active earth force on the translating wall. Simplified design charts are also proposed for the modified active earth pressure coefficient and fur the height of application of the lateral active force in order to facilitate the use of the proposed equation.
The Utilization of Waste Foundry Sand as Backfill Material for Underground Electric Utility Systems
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 201~207
In this paper, the utilization of waste foundry sand produced in the molding process is studied as a backfill material for underground electric utility systems such as concrete box structures and pipe lines for power supply. The physical, chemical and thermal properties for waste foundry sand are investigated far mechanical stability, environmental hazard and power transmission capacity Also its properties are compared with those of the natural river sand. The test results show that waste foundry sand can be utilized for underground concrete box structures as a backfill material; however, it can not be applied to underground pipe lines due to high thermal resistivity or low power transmission capacity.
Estimation of Shaft Resistance of Drilled Shafts Based on Hoek-Brown Criterion
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 209~220
Modification of general Hoek and Brown criterion is carried out to estimate the shaft resistance of drilled shaft socketed into rock mass. Since the general Hoek-Brown criterion can consider the in-situ state of the rock mass, the proposed method, estimating the unit shaft resistance of drilled shafts based on the Hoek-Brown criterion, has increased flexibility compared to other methods exclusively considering uniaxial compressive strength of intact rocks. The proposed method can form the upper and lower bounds, and most culled data (from 21 pile load tests) from the literature can be found between these two bounds. A comparison between the estimated and observed unit shaft resistances shows quite a good correlation even with crude assumptions for the input parameters. The best-fit line drawn from this analysis shows that at the lower strength of intact rocks (up to 10MPa), Horvath and Kenney's equation shows a good correlation with the measured values, and fur strong rocks Rosenberg and Journeaux's equation provides a close estimation with colleted data. The results of parametric studies for GSI and confining stress show that the normalized unit shaft resistance increases with these two factors. In addition, coefficient of the equational form of the estimation can vary with GSI and confining stresses.
An Equation for the Prediction of Material Function of Super Soft Clay
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 221~228
In land reclamation construction using marine clay, a measure of material function, that is, the relation between void ratio-effective stress and permeability, is very important aspect for the prediction of self-weight consolidation behavior. But reclaimed ground has very high water content, so there are many difficulties in the laboratory test for measuring material function. For this reason, some researches are carried out using slurry cconsolidometr to measure material function. In this study, material function was measured using slurry consolidometer, and to overcome the shortcoming of researches using slurry cosolidometer, an equation for the prediction of material function was proposed on the basis of column test's parameter. Material function was determined through low stress consolidation test and permeability test, and it also was calculated with the equation using column test parameter. The continuity of material function could be confirmed through these tests. Material function is easily determined with the equation proposed in this study, and can be used for the prediction of self-weight consolidation behavior.
An Experimental Study on the Dynamic Characteristics of Frozen Soil
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 229~236
Ultrasonic propagation velocities of both the dilatational and shear waves through the weathered tuff soil sampled from the area tying between Ulanbator and Beijing were measured under temperature condition of near subzero by means of sing-around method. After comparing the results with obtained data on unfrozen water content, a linear relation between velocities and unfrozen water content was performed with high coefficient value. Experimental results of two kinds of rather uniform materials, namely, glass-beads and silica micro-beads, testified the similar linear relations. In addition, the change rate of dilatational wave velocities with the change of volumetric unfrozen water content was not dependent on soil type. Although a rational theory of the ultrasonic velocities dependence on the unfrozen water content is not yet proposed, the presented empirical relationships may suggest the appropriate evaluation to the effect of unfrozen water on dynamic characteristics of frozen soil.