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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Geotechical Society
Editor in Chief :
Seong Wan Park
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
Geotechnical Characteristics of Clays Reconsolidated at High Temperature
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 7~14
A series of laboratory tests, which can show how different curing conditions influence an aging effect on clay, were carried out for the clay samples collected in the area of Kwangyang Bay and Mokpo. Clay samples were remolded and reconsolidated under three different curing temperatures (20, 50, and 80 degree Celsius) and low different curing durations (1, 7, 14, and 40 days). To find out an aging effect and geotechnical characteristics between undisturbed samples and reconsolidated samples, laboratory tests, consisting of uniaxial compression tests, CU triaxial test, and consolidation tests, were preformed. Results showed that the compression index ratio is very useful factor to indicate the aging effect of natural clays. Also geotechnical characteristics of clays reconsolidated at high temperature were very similar to those of undisturbed clays. Finally, curing temperature and curing duration influenced an aging effect on clays. The best curing condition was 80 degree Celsius and 27 days.
A Study on the Characteristics of Unsaturated Discharge Capacity of Horizontal Drains
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 15~25
To evaluate the effect of trapped air bubbles in horizontal drains on discharge capacity, unsaturated discharge capacity tests are carried out for four types of drains selected according to the size of section as well as the shape of core. Unsaturated discharge capacities with the elapse of time, the increase of confining pressures, and hydraulic gradients are examined and are compared with saturated discharge capacities. It is found that the unsaturated discharge capacities at a hydraulic gradient of 0.01 decreased by 17%~80% due to the remained air bubbles in the drains compared with the saturated discharge capacities. It is caused by the fact that the horizontal direction of water flow is not consistent with the direction of movement of floating air bubbles in case of horizontal drains. Especially, far the drain with filament shaped core, discharge capacities decreased significantly due to the difficulty in removing air bubbles.
The Influence of Net Normal Stresses on the Shear Strength of Unsaturated Residual Granite Soils
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 27~38
The characteristics and prediction model of the shear strength of unsaturated residual granite soils were studied in this paper. In order to investigate the influence of the net normal stress on the shear strength, unsaturated triaxial tests and SWCC tests were carried out by varying the net normal stress. Experimental data for unsaturated shear strength tests were compared with predicted shear strength envelopes obtained from existing prediction models. It was shown that the soil-water characteristic curve and the shear strength of the unsaturated soil varied with the change of the net normal stress. Therefore, to achieve a truly descriptive shear strength envelope for unsaturated soils, the effect of the normal stress on the contribution of matric suction to the shear strength has to be taken into consideration. In this paper, a modified prediction model f3r the unsaturated shear strength was proposed.
Removability and Stability Analysis Method of Rock Blocks Considering Discontinuity Persistence in Tunnel Constructions
Hwang, Jae-Yun ; Ohnishi, Yuzo ; Nishiyama, Satoshi ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 39~48
Previous analytical models for key blocks have been based on the assumption of infinite persistent discontinuities. In this paper, a key block analysis method considering the finite persistence of discontinuities is proposed as a stability evaluation method in tunnel constructions, and then applied to an actual example site. Three-dimensional rock block identification with consideration of the persistence of discontinuities is performed by using discontinuity disk model. The removability and stability analyses of rock blocks formed by the identification method are performed. The identification method can handle convex and concave shape blocks. In order to demonstrate the applicability of this developed numerical method to the stability evaluation in tunnel constructions, the analytical results are examined and compared one another.
A Study on the Vertical Bearing Capacity of Batter Piles Subjected to Vertical Load
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 49~55
In this study, based on the relationship of the vertical force - settlement of batter piles obtained by pressure chamber model tests, the vertical bearing capacity of vertical and batter piles according to the increase of pile inclination was analyzed. A model open - ended steel pipe pile with the inclination of 5
was driven into saturated fine sand with relative density of 50 %, and the static compression load tests were performed under each confining pressure of 35, 70 and 120 kPa in pressure chamber. The vertical bearing capacity of pile obtained from pressure chamber tests increased with the pile inclination. In the case of the inclination of 5
, increasing ratios of pile bearing capacity were 111, 121, 127 ~ 140 % of vertical bearing capacity respectively. In the case of the inclination of above 20
, the model tests could not be performed because of pile of pile head during compressive loading on the pile head.
A Study on the Effects of Sample Preparation on Liquefaction Estimation Using Cyclic Triaxial Test Conditions
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 57~64
The liquefaction potential of saturated sands under seismic loading conditions has been carefully considered by many investigations. Typical of these investigations is the laboratory determination of cyclic strength of sands by means of cyclic triaxial tests. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the method of sample preparation on the liquefaction characteristics of remolded samples of saturated uniform sands. Cyclic triaxial tests were performed on saturated uniform sand compacted to the same density by 3 different procedures of pluvial compaction through air, pluvial compaction through water and vibratory compaction. It was validated that the cyclic stress ratio of remolded saturated uniform sands by different compaction procedures at the same density was very different.
An Experimental Study on Frost Heaving Pressure Characteristics of Frozen Soils
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 65~74
Most of land reclamation projects are being implemented along the south and west coastal lines of the Korean Peninsula. The earth structures and in-ground LNG tank, and buildings can be constructed using artificial freezing method on the reclaimed land to control the uplift pressure caused by capillary forces. In this study, upon freezing a saturated soil in a closed-system from the top, a considerable frost heaving pressure was developed. Decomposed granite soils, silty soil, and sandy soil were used in the laboratory freeze test which is sometimes subjected to thermal gradients under closed-systems. A major concern has been the ability to predict the frost heaving pressure over the results of relatively short-term laboratory tests. The frost heaving pressure arising within the soil samples and the temperature of the samples inside were monitored with time elapse. The degree of saturation versus heaving pressure curve is presented for each soil sample and the maximum pressure is closely related to this curve. TDR apparatus was used to measure the volumetric water content by the measurement of unfrozen water contents of frozen soils. Unfrozen water increased in soils containing a high percentage of fine-grained particles. In fine-grained soils with strong attractive farces between soil grains and water molecules, additional water is attracted into the pores leading to further volume changes and ice segregation.
Experimental and Numerical Approach foy Optimization of Tunnel Blast Design
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 75~85
Laboratory model blast and in-situ rock blast tests were conducted to determine blast-induced stress wave propagation characteristics under different explosive types, different loading conditions and different mediums. Dynamic numerical approaches were conducted under the same conditions as experimental tests. Stress magnitudes at mid-point between two blast holes which were detonated simultaneously increased up to two times those of single hole detonation. The rise time of maximum stress in a decoupled charge condition was delayed two times that of a fully charged condition. Dynamic numerical analysis showed almost similar results to blast test results, which verifies the effectiveness of numerical approaches fur optimizing the tunnel blast design. Dynamic numerical analysis was executed to evaluate rock behavior and damage of the contour hole, the sloping hole adjacent to the contour hole in the road tunnel blasting pattern. The rock damage zone of the sloping hole from the numerical analysis was larger than that of the contour hole. Damage in the sloping hole can be reduced by using lower density explosive, by applying decoupled charge, or by increasing distance between the sloping hole and the contour hole.
Evaluation of Stability of Lining Systems of Landfill Using Discrete Element Method
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 87~95
In this paper, the discrete element method was applied to evaluate the stability of composite cover and lining system of landfill. This method is capable of estimating the distribution of tensile force and shear stress mobilized in each liner component and its interfaces, based on a relationship of force and displacement. It was assumed that the cover soil and geomembrane were comprised of slices connected with elastoplastic Winkler springs and tensile spring respectively. Parametric study using this method was performed and compared with other techniques based on limit equilibrium method fur the example analysis.
Deformation Analysis of Geosynthetic Reinforced Retaining Wall by Using Temperature Dependent Confined Tension Test Results
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 97~106
In this study, the effect of temperature and soil confining stress on geosyntheic stress-strain properties was quantified by performing the temperature dependent confined tension tests for four types of geosynthetic including woven geotextile, composite, geomembrane and geogrid specimen. Temperature instrumentation on the GRS-retaining wall constructed in Jaechon-shi area was also performed to examine the a seasonal temperature variation of geosynthetic reinforcements in the backfill. Based on the test results, a comparison was made between unconfined and confined moduli far each temperature to quantify the soil confinement and temperature effect on stress-strain properties. And it was also proposed that the simple expressions for the secant moduli of geosynthetics as a function of temperature and confining stress on geosynthetics. As a result of the FDM analysis of GRS-retaining wall, the method of considering the effect of temperature and confining stress on geosynthetic reinforcements when performing the FDM analysis of GRS-retaining wall was proposed.
Modeling of Force Components Acting on Quay Walls During Earthquakes
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 107~121
When the seismic stability of quay walls is analyzed, the magnitudes of force components acting on quay walls during earthquakes and the phase relations among these force components must be properly evaluated. In general, force components include inertia force of the quay wall, lateral earth force, and water force. The magnitude and the phase relation of each force component vary according to the magnitude of the excess pore pressures developed in backfill soils of the quay wall. The dynamic thrust mobilized at the contact surface between the backfill soil and the wall develops as a result of the interactions among these force components. We propose a simple model to evaluate the magnitude and phase variation of the dynamic thrust on the back of the wall in terms of the excess pore pressure. The proposed model can predict the dynamic thrust by summing the magnitudes of farce components calculated from design equations for seismic pressures on the wall. The proposed model was verified by comparing its results with the results from a series of shaking table tests.
The Importance of Geotechnical Variability in the Analysis of Earthquake-induced Slope Deformations
Kim, Jin-Man ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 123~133
A practical statistical approach that can be used to model various sources of uncertainty systematically is presented in the context of reliability analysis of slope stability. New expressions for probabilistic characterization of soil properties incorporate sampling and measurement errors, as well as spatial variability and its reduced variance due to spatial averaging. The stochastic nature of seismic loading is studied by generating a large series of hazard-compatible artificial motions, and by using them in subsequent response analyses. The analyses indicate that in a seismically less active region such as the Korean Peninsular, a moderate variability in soil properties has an effect as large as the characterization of earthquake hazard on the computed risk of slope failure and excessive slope deformations.
Evaluation of Shear Wave Velocity Profiles by Performing Uphole Test Using SPT
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 135~146
Uphole test is a seismic field test using receivers on ground surface and a source in depth. In this paper, the uphole test using SPT(standard penetration test) which is economical and reliable for obtaining shear wave velocity profile was introduced. In the proposed uphole test, SPT sampler which is common in site investigation, was used as a source and several 1Hz geophones in line were used as receivers. Test procedures in field and interpretation methods for obtaining interval times and for determining shear wave velocity profile considering refracted ray path were introduced. Finally, uphole test was performed at three sites, and the applicability of the proposed uphole test was verified by comparing wave velocity profiles determined by the uphole test with the profiles determined by downhole test, SASW test and SPT-N values.
Development of a New Direct Shear Apparatus Considering the Boundary Conditions of Rock Joints
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 147~157
The characteristics of a rock joint which influence the stability of rock mass structures such as cut slopes and tunnels are largely controlled by the conditions of the rock joint as well as its boundary conditions. The conditions of rock joints comprise asperity strength, roughness, and filling materials. Boundary conditions can be represented by assuming that the deformability(or stiffness) of the rock mass surrounding the joints is modelled by a spring with stiffness. A new direct shear apparatus was developed in this study, which adapts a servo control system using PID algorithm. This apparatus can be used to investigate the various aspects of shear characteristics of the rock joints at conditions of constant normal stress and constant normal stiffness and so on. The test results for saw-cut teeth joints show that shear strength should be evaluated by considering its specific boundary conditions far the design of tunnels and cut slopes.
The Injection Characteristics and Environmental Effects for Grouting Materials Based on Cement
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 159~170
In this study, the mixed design of grout with hish strength.high permeation.high durability and environmental stability as the state of the art in material field was performed. Also, the subjects of grouting, grouting effects for ground conditions, and environmental effects were analyzed. According to these results, the fundamental data will be suggested as a design of grouting in the field application. The physical, mechanical and chemical characteristics with particle shape of the grouts were analyzed. Then, the gel-time of grouts, which is essential for workability and permeation range, were controlled. Also, the laboratory model grouting tests were performed to find the characteristics of solidification, permeation and durability with grouts. The ordinary portland, slag and microcement which have been used in the construction field were evaluated fur the environmental effects. To find the leaching of
characteristics in cement grouts,
leaching tests were performed for the raw materials. Also, the results of leaching test were shorn by surrounding environment. Then, the unconfined compression strength tests were performed with the homo-gel samples, and the amount of changed
was measured by curing solution.
A Micro-observation on the Wing and Secondary Cracks Developed in Gypsum Blocks Subjected to Uniaxial Compression
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 171~178
Wing and secondary cracks are unique types of cracks observed in rock masses subjected to uniaxial and biaxial compressive loading conditions. In this study, morphological features of wing and secondary cracks developed in gypsum specimens are investigated in the macro and micro scales. Along the path of wing crack, microtensile cracks are observed. Microtensile cracks coalesce with pores and show branch phenomenon. From the onset of the wing crack, multiple initiations of microtensile cracks are observed. Microtensile cracks show tortuous propagation paths and relatively constant aperture of the cracks during the propagation. It is shown that microtensile cracks propagate by splitting failure. At the micro scale, microfsults are observed in the path of the secondary cracks. Along the path of the secondary cracks, separation of grains and conglomerate grains, oblique microfaults, and irregular aperture of microfault are observed. These features show that the secondary cracks are produced in shear mode. The measured sizes of fracture process zone across the propagation direction near the tip of wing and secondary cracks range from 10
far wing cracks and from 100
for secondary cracks, respectively.
Determination of Equivalent Properties of Composite Foundation Using Elasto-plastic Theory
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 179~187
Vertical reinforcement of soft ground using granular column is a very effective ground improvement technique which is being used fur increasing bearing capacity and decreasing settlement. In this study, the theories of elasticity and plasticity including the upper bound theorem of limit analysis were used to derive the equations for obtaining elastic properties and shear strength parameter of equivalent ground of composite foundation. The developed equations were verified using the finite element computer program, SAGE CRISP. For validation, finite element analyses were conducted f3r the various different cases including different type of soil and replacement ratios. The results of the analysis show that the proposed equation could determine the properties of equivalent ground material for practical application effectively.
Nonlinear Dynamic Properties of Fiber Reinforced Soils
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 189~197
In this paper, deformation characteristics of fiber-mixed-soils were studied at small strain range(0.0001%～1%) using resonant column test and triaxial test, and reinforcement effect was evaluated by the measure of maximum shear moduli. The effects of the major parameters such as fiber content, aspect ratio and fiber type on reinforcement were comparatively assessed. The specimens were remolded from Jumunjin Sand randomly mixed with discrete polypropylene staple fibers. Maximum shear moduli of fiber-mixed-soils increased by up to 30% and modulus reduction was also restrained in nonlinear range. Shear moduli increased as the aspect ratio increases. The reinforcement was more effective with fibrillated fiber than with monofilament fiber. The most effective reinforcement was achieved with the specimen of 0.3 % fiber content.
Fragmentation Fractal Analysis on Particle-size Distribution
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 199~206
Particle-size distribution in soils is one of the most fundamental physical properties of soils. One of the latest developments in the study of particle-size distributions has focused on the use of fractal theories. In this study, the fragmentation fractals were used for determining the characteristics of the particle-size distribution curve. It was shown that the mass-size distribution method was more practical than the cumulative number-size distribution method. From the co-relation between fractal dimensions(
) and the coefficient of uniformity(
), there was a sharp increase in fractal dimensions for
<4, but fractal dimension converged the single value for
6. Fractal dimensions were affected by small sized particles for
3 and large sized particles for
/<3. As a result of the analysis of the influence of the effective size(
), it was observed that the changes of
/ were nominal beyond the effective size.
Optimization of Reinforcement Effect of Large-diameter Drilled Deep Foundation
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 207~216
Drilled deep foundations of large diameter are often used for foundations of transmission towers. As tower structures become larger in modern society, there is a need of more efficient and economical design of large-diameter drilled deep foundations. Reinforced drilled deep foundations are popular in Japan for the foundation of tower structures. Stiffeners attached to the shaft of the foundation are used to increase the shaft resistance. This study aims at analyzing the effect of reinforcement with large-diameter drilled deep foundations based on numerical analysis of the representative soil and rock conditions in Korea. The numerical analyses are conducted to analyze the reinforcement effect of various stiffener conditions of number, inclination, location and length. Regarding to number of stiffeners, the effect of reinforcement for weathered and soft rocks increases proportionally as the number of stiffeners increases. For weathered soil, however, the effect of reinforcement increases at a lower rate. The effect of stiffener location is nearly negligible for axially loading cases, while it is significant for laterally loading cases. For the laterally loading cases, upper locations of stiffener give greater reinforcement effect than that of lower location. For stiffener inclinations of axial loading cases, a stiffener inclination equal to 60
gives the greatest reinforcement effect.
Investigation of the Optimum Injection Pressure in Pressure Grouting by Laboratory Model Tests
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 217~225
The ground reinforcement effect of pressure grouting depends on grout penetration into ground. It is not, however, easy to predict the grout penetration in the design process because of the heterogeneity of ground conditions. This study investigates the proper grouting pressure and grouting method through laboratory model tests for pressure grouting using loose to medium dense crushed rock and sandy ground using specially designed and fabricated device. The optimum injection pressure, grout quantity and injection time are investigated through performing pressure grouting under changing conditions of injection in this test. From the test results, it was found that optimum injection pressure covers the range of 3 to 4kg/cm
Evaluation of Weathering Intensity and Strength Parameter for Weathered Granite Masses (I)
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 227~236
The evaluation of the reliable strength and deformation characteristics of weathered granite masses is very important for the design of geotechnical structure under working stress conditions. Various types of laboratory test such as triaxial compression test can be performed to determine the strength parameters. However, it is very difficult to obtain the representative undisturbed samples on the site and also the rock specimen cannot represent rock mass including discontinuities, fracture zone, etc. This study aims to investigate the strength and deformation characteristics of granite masses corresponding to its weathering and develop a practical strength parameter evaluation method using the results of PMT. To predict weathering intensity and strength parameters of the weathered granite masess in the field, various laboratory tests and in-situ tests including field triaxial test and PMT are carried out. Based on the results of weathering index tests, the classification method is proposed to identify the weathering degree in three groups for the weathered granite masses. Using the analytical method based on the Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria and the cavity expansion theory, the strength parameters of rock masses were evaluated from the results of PMT. It shows that weathering intensity increases with decreasing the strength parameters exponentially. The strength parameters evaluated with the results of PM almost coincide with the results of field triaxial test.
The Bearing Capacity Comparison of Drilled Shaft by the Static Load Test and the Suggested Bearing Capacity Formulas
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 237~246
The driven pile has environmental problems such as vibration and noise. Especially, if the site consists of gravel, cobble and weather rock, the driven pile can not be applied. Therefore, the application of the drilled shafts is increasing in Korea. However, the bearing capacity values by the suggested theoretical formulas are generally considered too conservative. In this paper, static load tests for the rock socketed drilled shaft at Gwangandaero and Suyeong3hogyo are performed and in order to estimate the side friction of the shaft, strain gauges are applied. The bearing capacities from the field test data and the bearing capacity values by the theoretical formula are compared. Even the static load tests didn't reach to the ultimate bearing capacity condition, and all the measured bearing capacity values were higher than those by the theoretical formulas. The field data also showed that the major bearing capacities were not due to end bearings but side friction resistances. Based on the above results, several suggestions are proposed for the drilled shaft design.
A Study on the Skin Friction Characteristics of SIP and Numerical Model of the Interface Between SIP and Soils
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 247~254
While the interests in the environmental problem during the construction are increasing, the use of low noise-vibration auger-drilled pilling is increasing to solve noise and vibration problem in pilling. Therefore, in Korea, SIP (Soil-Cement Injected Precast Pile) method is mainly used as auger-drilled pilling. However, there is no proper design criteria compatible with the ground condition of Korea, so which is most wanted. To improve and supplement this situation, direct shear tests for the friction between SIP pile skin interface and soil were executed on various conditions. Through the analysis of test results, skin friction characteristics of SIP were investigated thoroughly Also, hyperbolic model parameter fomulas which describe the friction behavior and the new non-linear unit skin friction capacity model with SM, SC soil were suggested.
A Basic Study on the Geobag System for Urgent Restoration of the Collapsed Roadbed
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 255~265
A series of laboratory tests were performed to evaluate engineering properties of geobag system which is used for urgent restoration of the collapsed roadbed. In this study, the suitable geobag size was proposed as 44cm wide and 66cm long, and the suitable filling ratio of geobag was also proposed as 80% through the static loading tests. Also a series of model tests were carried out to investigate the characteristics of the engineering behavior and the distribution of earth pressure of the geobag roadbed under static and dynamic loading.
The Development of Tunnel Behavior Prediction System Using Artificial Neural Network
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 267~278
Artificial neural networks are efficient computing techniques that are widely used to solve complex problems in many fields. In this study, in order to predict tunnel-induced ground movements, Tunnel Behavior Prediction System (TBPS) was developed by using these artificial neural networks model, based on a Held instrumentation database (i.e. crown settlement, convergence, axial force of rock bolt, compressive and shear stress of shotcrete, stress of concrete lining etc.) obtained from 193 location data of 31 different tunnel sites where works are completed. The study and test of the network were performed by Back Propagation Algorithm which is known as a systematic technique for studying the multi-layer artificial neural network. The tunnel behaviors predicted by TBPS were compared with monitored data in the tunnel sites and numerical analysis results. This study showed that the values obtained from TBPS were within allowable limits. It is concluded that this system can effectively estimate the tunnel ground movements and can also be used f3r tunneling feasibility study, and basic and detailed design and construction of tunnel.
Assessments of Creep Properties of Strip Type fiber Reinforcement
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2003, Pages 279~289
Geosynthetic reinforced earth wall was introduced about 20 years ago and many structures have been constructed. Especially, segmental concrete panel facing and friction tie system are the most popular system in Korea, and this friction tie was composed of high tenacity PET filament and LDPE(Low Density Polyethylene) sheath. Due to the lack of direct-test results, design coefficients of friction tie (creep reduction factor) had been determined by quoting the previous and the foreign reference data. This is an unreasonable fact for the use of friction ties. In this study, the creep tests were performed to evaluate the creep behavior of friction tie, and the reduction factor of creep was calculated for the correct design of geosynthetic reinforced earth retaining walls. From the test results, finally it was found that the allowable creep strength of friction tie is 60% of Tult during service life, and creep reduction factor is 1.67 for each grade of friction ties.