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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Geotechical Society
Editor in Chief :
Seong Wan Park
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
A Study on Caissons for Accelerating Consolidation Considering Anisotropic Permeability
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 7~14
This study has investigated the feasibility of caissons for accelerating consolidation (C.A.C.) constructed in clays with anisotropic permeability by improving the former study on C.A.C. in isotropic clays. Analytical solutions for excessive pore water pressures of two-dimensional consolidation equation and average degrees of consolidation with varying time factors have been provided by considering anisotropic permeability. With varying anisotropic permeability ratios of 5, 10, and 50, consolidation times required for reaching the average degree of consolidation of 90% for C.A.C. at the section of
=0.1 are shorter than those for conventional caissons by 8, 13, and 47 times, respectively. C.A.C. is more effective in reducing consolidation time as anisotropic permeability ratio increases. This study provides also plots for average degrees of consolidation versus the width to depth ratios of analyzed sections and permeability ratios, which will enable engineers to determine easily average consolidation settlements.
Characteristics of Pore Pressure and Volume Change During Undrained lending of Unsaturated Compacted Granite Soil
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 15~21
A series of triaxial compression tests were performed on samples of compacted granite soil in a modified triaxial cell that allowed separate control of pore air pressure (
) and pore water pressure (
) in order to examine the characteristics of pore pressure, volume change and stress-strain behavior during undrained loading conditions. Triaxial samples of unsaturated and saturated compacted granite soil, 50mm in diameter and 100mm in height, were prepared by compaction in a mould. These samples were tested at 3 different suction values (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 kgf/cm
) for unsaturated compacted granite soil and at 3 different confining stresses (1.0, 2.0, 4.0 kgf/cm
). Results showed that only effective cohesion increased with little variation of friction angle, according to matric suction.
Displacement Measuring System for the Slope Stability Analysis Using the Softcopy Photogrammetry
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 23~32
The displacement measuring systems of slope ground surface are very expensive instruments and have disadvantages concerning installing, maintaining and surveying. The measuring works are very dangerous. Recently, simple systems are required to measure the displacement of slope ground surface in stages of cutting and maintaining slope. In this study, the mechanism of Softcopy Photogrammetry is applied to measure the displacement of slope ground surface. Three dimensional data of the slope ground surface can effectively be obtained in order to analyze slope stability. Computer Program, DIMA (Design IMmage Analysis), including the reformation process of a contour line was developed. As a result of this study, countermeasure and instruction standards of the displacement of slope ground surface before and after slope failure are established. Also, disadvantages of the existing system can be complemented.
Comparison Analysis of Factor of Safety on Rock Slope in Boeun Region Using Distinct Element Method and Limit Equilibrium Method
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 33~41
The large planar failure has occurred in a rock cut slope of highway construction site in Boeun. This area is considered to be unstable since the discontinuity, whose orientation is similar to the orientation of the failure plane, is observed in many areas. Therefore, several analysis techniques such as SMR, stereographic analysis, limit equilibrium, numerical analysis, which are commonly used in rock slope stability analysis, are adopted in this area. In order to analyze the stress redistribution and nonlinear displacement caused by cut, which are not able to be obtained in limit equilibrium method, DEM and shear strength reduction technique were used in this study. Then the factors of safety evaluated by shear strength reduction technique and limit equilibrium were compared. In addition, the factor of safety under fully saturated slope condition was calculated and subsequently, the effect of the reinforcement was evaluated.
Sample Disturbance due to Sampling Techniques and Comparison of Consolidation Parameters Between Testing Methods on Pusan Clays
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 43~53
To get improved soil parameters in the laboratory tests, the effects of sample disturbance should be excluded as much as possible. A collaborative research between Dong-A University and PHRI (Japan) was conducted to investigate the effects of sample disturbance due to sampling techniques and samplers on Pusan clays. The results of unconfined compression and consolidation tests performed on the clay samples taken by them have been compared in terms of soil parameters and sample disturbance. As the result of the study, it was found that when the Korean sampler was used with a different technique of cleaning the borehole bottom and removing slime before inserting and penetrating the sampler tube, similar to the one commonly used in Japanese practice, the quality of samples could be greatly improved. Furthermore, the CRS test with the rate of 0.02%/min yielded larger values of consolidation parameters and better degree of sample disturbance than those of oedometer test, due to the difference in testing method.
Evaporation Theory for Reclaimed Clay
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 55~64
Desiccation of a soil is basically the removal of water by evaporation, which is controlled by evaporativity and evaporability. Surface evaporation improves the trafficability which is essential for the access of construction equipment in the area reclaimed with soft clay. The existing traditional methods for evaluating evaporation can not account for the deformation of reclaimed soft soils during evaporation. Therefore, a theoretical model for predicting the rate of evaporation from the surface of a deformable material is proposed. The model is based on a system of equations for coupled heat and mass transfer in unsaturated soils. The modified pressure plate extractor test and glass desiccator test were carried out to obtain the soil-water characteristic curve for a deformable soil. The column drying test was conducted to investigate one dimensional water flow, heat flow and evaporation in the surface. A finite difference program was developed to solve the coupled nonlinear partial differential equations, which permit the study of water, vapor and heat flows in the deformable soil. Comparison between measured and simulated values shows a reasonably good matching between the two.
Comparative Study Between Finite Element Method and Limit Equilibrium Method on Slope Stability Analysis
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 65~74
This paper presents the results of a comparative study between FEM and LEM on slope stability analysis. For validation, factors of safety were compared between FEM and LEM. The results from the two methods were in good agreement. This suggests that the FEM with the shear strength reduction method can be effectively used on slope stability analyses. A series of analyses were then performed using the FEM for various constitutive laws, slope angles, flow rules, and the finite element discretizations. Among the findings, the finite element method in conjunction with the shear strength reduction method can provide reasonable results in terms of safety. Also revealed is that the results of FEM can be significantly affected by the way in which the type of constitutive law and flow nile we selected.
Reinforcing Effect of Dredged Marine Clay Mixed with Micro-Fiber
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 75~81
To investigate the reinforcing effect of subsurface layers of marine dredged clay(DMC) mixed with the micro-fiber(MF), a series of laboratory tests were performed on the DMC specimens with and without MF through uniaxial and triaxial compression tests. For the test programme, the elapsed time after dredging of marine clay, mixing rate and length of MF, and curing time of the composite were chosen as the important factors affecting the strength behaviour. The strength of the DMC mixed with MF and waste lime(WL) used for the admixture was found to be enhanced with the increasing content and length of MF, and with decreasing water content of DMC. MF and WL were applied as materials for trafficability improvement of the very soft reclaimed ground by DMC.
Variation of Undrained Shear Behavior with Consolidation Stress Ratio of Nakdong River Sand
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 83~93
This research, in order to study the effects of initial shear stress of anisotropically consolidated sand that has 0.558% fines, performed several undrained static and dynamic triaxial test. To simulate the real field conditions, loose and dense samples were prepared. Besides, the cyclic shear strength of Nakdong River sand under various combinations of initial static shear stress, stress path, pore water pressure and residual strength relationship was studied. By using Bolton's theory, peak internal friction angle at failure which has considerable effects on the relative density and mean effective stress was determined. In p'- q diagram, the phase transformation line moves closer to the failure line as the specimen's initial anistropical consolidation stress increases. Loose sands were more affected than dense sands. The increase of consolidation stress ratio from 1.4 to 1.8 had an effect on liquefaction resistance strength resulting from the increase of relativity density, and showed similar CSR values in dense specimen condition.
Assessment of Design Criteria for Bearing Capacity of Rock Socketed Drilled Shaft
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 95~105
The existing design criteria f3r the estimation of ultimate bearing capacity of drilled shaft socketed into rock masses are mainly obtained from the ultimate pile load capacities, which are determined by inconsistent failure criteria. Therefore, these design criteria generally produce difffrent predictions even for drilled shaft in the same condition. In this paper, the accuracies of the existing design criteria are investigated to develop an optimized design process for drilled shaft socketed into rock masses. Reasonable and consistent ultimate capacities of drilled shafts socked into rock masses, necessary far the check of accuracies of predictions, are determined by applying a specific failure criterion to a total of 11 pile load test results. A comparison between the predicted and the measured load capacities shows that ultimate base load capacities calculated from Zhang and Einstein's equation and NAVFAC are close to the measured values. Rosenberg and Journeaux's equation produces satisfactory prediction f3r ultimate side load capacity.
A Study on the Characteristics of Landslides Having Occurred in Gangneung Area in 2002
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 107~119
Serious damages occurred in Yeongdong area of Gangwondo by typoon Rusa in August, 2002. Therefore, this study intends to investigate and analyse the characteristics of landslide having occurred in Gangneung area. 11 sites including many features of landslide were selected and scales, soil properties and a state of vegatation of slopes were investigated. It can be concluded that rainfall intensity, the velocity of the wind, geomorphology, vegatation and forest fire etc. are considered as main factors affecting occurrence of landslides in this area.
Seepage-induced Face Stability of n Tunnel with Steel Pipe-reinforced Multistep Grouting
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 121~131
Tunneling in difficult geological conditions is often inevitable especially in urban areas. Ground improvement and reinforcement techniques are often required to guarantee safe tunnel excavations and/or to prevent damage to adjacent structures. The steel pipe-reinforced multistep grouting method has been recently applied to tunnel sites in Korea as an auxiliary technique. In this study, the face stability with steel pipe-reinforced multistep grouting was evaluated emphasizing the effect of seepage forces. The study revealed that the influence of the steel pipe-reinforced multistep grouting on the support pressure in dry condition is not significant while there is relatively a large amount of reduction in seepage forces by adopting the technique in saturated condition. The effect of the anisotropy of permeability on the seepage force acting on the tunnel face was also estimated by conducting the coupled analysis. It was found that a higher horizontal permeability compared with the vertical one causes reduction in the seepage farce acting on the tunnel face.
Data Reduction and Analysis of the Resonant Column Testing Based on the Equation of Motion
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 133~144
The resonant column testing is a laboratory testing method to determine the shear modulus and material damping factor of soils. The method has been widely used for many applications and its importance has increased. Since the first use of the testing method in 1960's, the low-technology electronic devices fir testing and data acquisition have limited the measurement only to the amplitude of the linear spectrum. The limitations of the testing method are also attributed to the assumption of linear-elastic material in the theory of the resonant column testing and also to the incomplete understanding of the dynamic behaviour of the resonant column testing device. Recently, Joh et al. proposed a theory to overcome the limitations of the resonant column testing by deriving the equation of motion and providing its solution for the resonant column testing device. This study proposed the improved data reduction and analysis method for the resonant column testing, thanks to the advanced data acquisition system and the new theoretical solution for the resonant column testing system. For the verification of the proposed data reduction and analysis method, the numerical simulation of the resonant column testing was performed by the finite element analysis. Also, a series of resonant column testing were performed fir Joomunjin sand, which verified the feasibility of the proposed method and revealed the limitations of the conventional data reduction and analysis method.
Theoretical Modeling of the Resonant Column Testing with the Viscosity of a Specimen Considered
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 145~153
The resonant column testing determines the shear modulus and material damping factor dependent on the shear strain magnitude, based on the wave-propagation theory. The determination of the dynamic soil properties requires the theoretical formulation of the dynamic behavior of the resonant column testing system. One of the theoretical formulations is the use of the wave equation for the soil specimen in the resonant column testing device. Wood, Richart and Hall derived the wave equation by assuming the linear elastic soil, and didn't take the material damping into consideration. Hardin incorporated the viscoelastic damping of soil in the wave equation, but he had to assume the material damping factor for the determination of the shear modulus. For the better theoretical formulation of the resonant column testing, this study derived a new wave equation to include the viscosity of soil, and proposed an approach for the solution. Also, in this study, the equation of motion for the testing system, which is another approach of the theoretical formulation of the resonant column testing, was also derived. The equation of motion leads to the better understanding of the resonant column testing, which includes the dynamic magnification factor and the phase angle of the response. For the verification of the proposed equation of motion for the resonant column testing, the finite element analysis was performed for the resonant column testing. The comparison of the dynamic magnification factors and the phase angles far the system response were performed.
A Study on the Sediment Volume Change and Two-dimensional Deposited Characteristics of Pumping-dredged Soil
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 155~165
A series of one-dimensional cylinder sedimentation test, seepage consolidation test and two-dimensional deposition model test were conducted to examine the characteristics of deposition and volume change of dredged soils containing the high water content, and these experimental results were compared with the sedimentary conditions of actual dredged-reclaimed fields to obtain the relations of a volume change by settling what is required for design. In addition, the change of water content and the distribution of fine grained soils after sedimentation were investigated. Thus, it was concluded that deposition height increased lineary as substantial soil volume increased, and also the elevation of interface increasea proportionately at both the starting time and the finishing time of virtual self-weight consolidation in one-dimensional sedimentation. Furthermore, the two-dimensional model test results were shown to describe the plain distribution of water content and fine grained silt where dredged soil was deposited by two dimensional flowing, and the water content was distributed to wide range from the minimum water content 30% to maximum 180% according to the passed amount of №200 sieve percentage.
Tunnel Stability Assessment Considering Rock Damage from Blasting Near to Excavation Line
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 167~178
Damage and overbreak of the remaining rock induced by blasting can not be avoided during tunnel construction which may result in either short-term or long-term tunnel instability. Therefore, in this paper, a methodology to take into account the effect of blast-induced damage in tunnel stability assessment is proposed. Dynamic numerical analysis was executed to evaluate damage and overbreak of the remaining rock for the most common blasting pattern in road tunnel. Rock damage was quantified by utilizing the damage variable factor which is adopted proposed in continuum damage mechanics. The damaged rock stiffness and the damaged failure criteria are used to consider the effect of rock damage in tunnel stability analysis. The damaged geological strength index of the damaged rock was newly proposed from the relationship between deformation modulus and geological strength index. Also the Hoek-Brown failure criteria of the damaged rock was obtained using the damaged geological strength index. Analysing the tunnel stability with the consideration of the blast-induced damage of remaining rock, it was found that the extend of plastic zone and deformation increased compared to the undamaged rock. Therefore the short-term or long-term tunnel stability will be threatened when the rock damage from blasting is ignored in the tunnel stability analysis.
The Physical Properties Variation of Grout Materials and Improvement of Grouting Effects on Application of High Performance Injection Equipment
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 179~190
The grout based on solution type makes it difficult to get the improvement of ground strength and the effefct of water curtain because it has lower strength and durability than suspension type. Nowadays, the technology of particle acceleration, that enhance the material permeability, such as grout based on solution type, and inexpensive grout, is being required. For these reasons, in this study, using wet milling system, we evaluated physical properties of manufactured factors such as water-cement ratio of particles before being milled, optimum milling capacity by controlling milling time and rpm, viscosity of materials, permeation coefficient, and unconfined compressive strength. Also, using micro wet milling apparatus which could manufacture ordinary Portland cement and high speed shear mix which could forcefully separate conglomerate particles in situ, we performed electrical resistivity investigation and falling head permeability tests to analyze differences of grouting effects. From these results, we found that the permeability of the applied equipment was much superior, and in the case of using high speed shear mixer, particles of grout material were well separated.
Rheological Properties of Bitumen for Reducing Negative Skin Friction
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 191~200
This paper presents the rheological properties of bitumen for reducing negative skin friction. The bitumen has been widely used due to both the cost and construction effectiveness. Also, it is well known that the use of bitumen for reducing negative skin friction renders the best results among other available methods. Three different modified bitumens were used for the testing programs. The physical tests include the penetration, the softening point and penetration index. The rheological tests include phase angle, complex modulus, creep tests and flow tests. The tests were conducted at four different temperatures(15, 30, 45 and 6
) in order to simulate the field condition. The test results were analyzed using the phase angle, G
, creep compliance and shear viscosity. The result of tests showed that the phase angle increased and G
decreased with the increase of temperature. The creep compliance increased as the loading time increased. The difference of the creep compliance is detected as the time and temperature are varied, however, the difference of the shear viscosity is not significant among the samples tested in this study. The rheological properties of the bitumen also showed that the physical testing method and the temperature dependant testing method are somewhat limited to showing and expressing the full rheological properties of the modified bitumen. The introduction of the time and the temperature dependent testing method is necessary to find out the full rheological properties of the modified bitumen.
The Relationship between Rock Strength Characteristics and Net Penetration Rate of RBM by Pilot Test
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 201~209
For the purpose of research study, a vertical shaft of 98m in length and 3.05m in diameter was constructed in the layer of conglomerate by using the Raise Boring Machine (RBM). In order to estimate the net penetration rate of the RBM, which can be used in the stage of design, the in-situ test results were analysed and correlated to data from the boring log in situ and laboratory testing. Its average net penetration rate is 2.233mm/rev while its average advance rate is 0.382m/hr, which is lower than that of TBM(Tunnel Boving Machine). It turns out that the net penetration rate increases with the increase of strength characteristics in rock mass (e.g., uniaxial compression strength, tensile strength, etc.). Similarly, the net penetration rate increases linearly with the hardness of rock mass. These results are contrary to the results of the previous construction sites where the TBM was generally used in the layer of hard rock. However, the trend obtained in this study is in accordance with the findings of Barton suggesting the relationship between Q
and penetration rate in the layer of soft rock. Thus, the trend is valid in soft and/or weathered rocks.
Evaluations of Velocity Response Spectrum of Seismic Base and Response Displacement for the Seismic Design of Underground Structures
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 211~221
The response displacement method is the most frequently used method for seismic design of underground structures. This method is pseudo-static method, and the evaluations of velocity response spectrum of seismic base and response displacement of surrounding soil are the most important steps. In this study, the evaluation of velocity response spectrum of seismic base according to the Korean seismic design guide and the simple method of calculating the response displacement were studied. It was found that velocity response spectrum of seismic base can be estimated by directly integrating the ground-surface acceleration response spectrum of soil type S
, and the evaluation of the response displacement using double cosine method assuming two layers of soil profile shows the advantages in the seismic design.
Analysis of Sand Compaction Piles Under Flexible Surcharge Loading
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 223~233
Sand compaction pile (SCP) is one of the ground improvement techniques which are being used for not only accelerating consolidation but also increasing bearing capacity of loose sands or soft clay grounds. In this study, laboratory model tests and 3-D finite element analyses were performed to investigate the interaction between sand compaction piles and surrounding soft soils. Based on the results obtained, as the area replacement ratio increases, the stress concentration ratio increases at the pile point, the settlement decreases, and the relative displacement between column and soil also decreases. It is also found that numerical study is illustrated by good comparison with model test results, and the numerical analysis revealed slip effects which could not be specifically identified in the model tests.
The Characteristics of the Set-up Effect of Driven Piles
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 235~246
Since the study of Lee et al.(1994) there have been some case studies on the set-up effect of driven piles in Korea country. However, comprehensive examination on the analyses of the set-up effect with various testing data has not been carried out. In particular, the analysis of the influence of soil type and pile shape on the set-up effect has not been reported. It is necessary to analyse the test results of production piles in order to apply the set-up effect of driven piles for the field engineering. In this study some test piling and analyses were performed to give basic information to the piling design as well as the research on the set-up effect in sandy soils. The analyses on the set-up effect were performed with the monitoring data obtained from the high-strain dynamic loading tests. It was shown that the set-up effect of driven piles was not only affected by soil type but also by soil formation history It turned out that the set-up effect in sandy soils was considerable one that should not be ignored in the field, and that the bearing capacity increase of pile is mainly caused by the increase of shaft resistance. It was shown that the set-up effect of closed pile was larger than that of opened pile in clayey soils, while the set-up effect of opened pile was larger than that of closed pile in sandy soils.
A Study on the Applicability of Modified Cam-clay Model in Low Plastic Clays
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 247~256
FEM analyses which are based on modified Cam-clay theory have been generally used in such cases as analyses of stability and displacement fur embankment construction on soft clays. However, the Modified Cam Clay Model can generate some problems in anisotropic stress conditions of field because the critical state theory has been developed through many laboratory tests in isotropic conditions. Thus, the applicability on the prediction of undrained shear strength and pore water pressure which was based on the critical state theory was evaluated by triaxial tests and numerical analyses in isotropic and anisotropic conditions. Used samples often come out in domestic area, together with general low plastic clays which are showing dilatant behavior in shearing process. They were evaluated by laboratory tests and FEM based on MCCM. From the results of test and numerical analysis, the predictions of undrained strength in low plastic clays well coincided with each other in both isotropic and anisotropic conditions. However, the generation of porewater pressure was often overestimated during undrained shearing in anisotropic conditions. The results can generate the errors in the prediction of stress path of field sites during loading such as construction of embankment on soft clays because the field is subjected to anisotropic conditions during loading.
Injection Effects of Coagulant and Flocculant on Bulking Change of Dredged Soils
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 257~264
Bulking change between sediments and dredged soils occurs when dredged soils are fully disturbed by dredging process and settled down to stabilized conditions in the basin. Bulking of dredged soils are affected by chemical injection, coagulant and flocculant, to speed up settling process of the suspended solids. In this paper, bulking changes of dredged soils are investigated by experimental works regarding injection effects of the coagulant and flocculant. Dredged sediments were sampled in the lagoon located at the East Coast, and the bulking change of dredged soils is quantitatively analysed by changing the clay content and the amount of the coagulant and flocculant. The optimal amounts of the coagulant and flocculant are determined based on minimal bulking change due to coagulant and flocculant injection. From the experimental results, the bulking of dredged soils increased 1.69 times on the average and the bulking change rate slightly increased as clay content increasea due to injection of the coagulant and flocculant.
Estimation of Dynamic Interface Friction Properties of Geosynthetics
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 265~275
In this study, shaking table tests were conducted to estimate dynamic interface properties between geosynthetics such as geomembrane, geotextile and geosynthetic clay liner. Accelerations of both shaking table and upper box, and relative displacements between geosynthetics under dynamic loading were measured. Also, the influence of normal stress, frequency of excitation and dry/wet conditions were investigated through the analyses of test results. from the test results, it was found that there is a limited acceleration below which dynamic farce can be transmitted between geosynthetics without the loss of horizontal acceleration. Dynamic interface friction angle between geosynthetics could be calculated through the limited acceleration. Relative displacements induced along geosynthetic interfaces under dynamic loading were not consistent depending on the type of interface and test conditions. The maximum slip displacements between geosynthetics are normalized and normalized slip equations were developed for each interface. By using the normalized slip equation, maximum slip displacements for the geosynthetic interface could be predicted for the given base acceleration and frequency of excitation.
Large Deformation Formulation of a Hypoelasto-plastic Constitutive Model for Soils
Oh, Se-Boong ; Lee, Seung-Hyun ; Kwon, Oh-Kyun ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 277~286
A constitutive equation was implemented in order to model the behavior in overall ranges from small to large strains, which is based on anisotropic hardening rule and total stress concept. The constitutive model was implemented in ABAQUS code in which large deformation analysis can be performed accurately and efficiently. The formulation includes (1) finite strain plasticity on the basis of Jaumann stress rate, (2) implicit stress integration and (3) consistent tangent moduli. A large deformation analysis was performed with the constitutive model using ABAQUS program. In the analysis of an actual embankment, it was found that the proposed model was formulated accurately and efficiently.
Feasibility of Artificial Neural Network Model Application for Evaluation of Undrained Shear Strength from Piezocone Measurements
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 287~298
The feasibility of using neural networks to model the complex relationship between piezocone measurements and the undrained shear strength of clays has been investigated. A three layered back propagation neural network model was developed based on actual undrained shear strengths, which were obtained from the isotrpoically and anisotrpoically consolidated triaxial compression test(CIUC and CAUC), and piezocone measurements compiled from various locations around the world. It was validated by comparing model predictions with measured values about new piezocone data, which were not previously employed during development of model. Performance of the neural network model was compared with conventional empirical method, direct correlation method, and theoretical method. It was found that the neural network model is not only capable of inferring a complex relationship between piezocone measurements and the undrained shear strength of clays but also gives a more precise and reliable undrained shear strength than theoretical and empirical approaches. Furthermore, neural network model has a possibility to be a generalized relationship between piezocone measurements and undrained shear strength over the various places and countries, while the present empirical correlations present the site specific relationship.
Frequency-Wave Number Method for the Automated Calculation of the Phase Velocities from the SASW Measurements
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 299~310
In the evaluation of the subgrade stiffness structure by the SASW method, the calculation of the phase velocities is the important task controlling the reliability of the result. The interpretation of the phase spectrum should precede the phase-velocity calculation in the current practice of the SASW method. The difficulty involved in the interpretation prohibited the SASW method from being spread over to the industry. This study proposed a new method called the frequency-wave number technique, which is based on the frequency-wave number relationship of the surface wave in the multi-layered system. The frequency-wave number technique eliminates the expertise in the interpretation of the phase spectrum, automates the phase-velocity calculation and expedites the determination of the phase-velocity dispersion curve. To verify the validity of the proposed frequency-wave number method, the transfer function determined from the numerical simulation of the SASW measurements was used fir the calculation of the automatic calculation of the phase velocities and compared with the phase velocities by WinSASW employing the phase-unwrapping method. Also, the proposed method was applied to the real SASW measurements performed at
area in GyeongGi-Do to see how the proposed method works with the real measurements.
Estimating the Coefficient of Consolidation of Marine Clay Using Piezocone Penetration Tests
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 311~320
The coefficient of consolidation of clay deposit is one of the most important properties in the design of ground improvement. The in-situ value of
is generally estimated by pore pressure dissipation using piezocone. Many researchers have suggested theoretical formula for its estimation. This study attempts to find out the validity of the existing theoretical formula in Korea and to find out the characteristics of
related to the mechanical properties of clay. Piezocone tests and laboratory tests were performed at the site of pilot project of ground improvement at Yangsan-Mulgeum, Gyeongnam. Comparison of the estimated values of
using piezocone tests results and those from laboratory consolidation tests are carried out. Results show that Torstensson(cylindrical cavity theory) and Teh & Houlsby solutions derive similar values of
from oedometer test shows values similar to the above two methods. The value from either of the above two methods[Torstensson(cylindrical) or Teh & Houlsby] is recommended to be used as