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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Geotechical Society
Editor in Chief :
Seong Wan Park
Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 9 - Dec 2004
Volume 20, Issue 8 - Oct 2004
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Sep 2004
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Aug 2004
Volume 20, Issue 5 - Jul 2004
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Jun 2004
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Apr 2004
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Mar 2004
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Feb 2004
Selecting the target year
Advective-diffusive Characteristics of Waste Landfill Liner to Inorganic Chemicals
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2004, Pages 5~11
Characteristics of advective-diffusive transport of inorganic chemicals in clayey soils as well as in two hardened barrier materials of silica and lime are analyzed from the laboratory column test and compared with those of pure diffusive column test. The results show that the average dispersion coefficients of three materials are
, respectively, and the value of clay is higher than that of hardened barrier materials. There was no significant difference between the dispersion coefficients of advective-diffusive column tests and the effective diffusion coefficients from the pure diffusive column tests, if advective velocity was lower than l0
/s. The range of dispersion coefficients of advective-diffusive column tests was narrower than that of diffusion coefficients of pure diffusion tests.
Estimation Method of Earth Pressures Acting on a Row of Piles due to Lateral Soil Movements
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2004, Pages 13~22
In case of the lateral movement accurring at soft ground where a row of piles are installed, the crown failure at external arch zone of soil arching is firstly developed, and the cap failure at wedge zone in front of piles is lastly developed. Therefore, the lateral earth pressure acting on a row of piles due to soil movement should be calculated in each condition of crown and cap failures around piles. A theoretical equation of crown failure can be proposed using a cylindrical cavity expansion theory. The theoretical equation of crown failure is mainly affected by two factors. One is related to soil properties such as internal friction angle, cohesion and horizontal pressure, and the other is related to pile factors such as diameter, installation interval. Meanwhile, the yield range of lateral earth pressure is established in the estimation of theoretical equation based on crown and cap failures around piles. The theoretical values based on crown and cap failures are compared with the experimental values. The experimental values are located in the range proposed by theoretical values. Thus, it is confirmed that the theoretical values proposed in the study are very reasonable.
A Study on the Durability Improvement by Controlling the Deterioration of Underground Concrete Structures
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2004, Pages 23~31
Normally, coating is used for protecting reinforced concrete. For this purpose, both organic and inorganic coatings are used. The advantages of inorganic coatings are lower absorption of UV, non-burning etc. On the other hand, organic coatings have the advantage of low permeability of
and water. Organic coatings provide better protection for reinforced concrete. However, organic coatings such as epoxy, urethane and acryl reduce long-term adhesive strength by the difference of their thermal expansion coefficients and elastic modules from those of concrete, and the formed coating cover of these is blistered by poor breathing. Also, when organic coatings are applied to the wet surface of concrete, they have a problem with adhesion. In this study, a new coating material for protecting concrete was hybridized with polymer and ceramics. And tests were carried out on its physical and durable characteristics, and safety characteristic on elution. All results were compared with organic coating materials and epoxies and showed that the performance of the developed coating material was not inferior to that of other organic coatings in protecting concrete. On the other hand, safety characteristic on elution was superior to epoxies which were used in this study. So, the developed coating material was considered as a suitable protecting coating material which have advantages of inorganic and organic coatings for protecting underground concrete structures, especially in contact with water.
Investigation on Tunneling and Groundwater Interaction Using a 3D Stress-pore Pressure Coupled Analysis
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2004, Pages 33~46
This paper presents the effect of groundwater on tunnel excavation. Fundamental issues in tunneling under high groundwater table are discussed and the effect of groundwater on tunnel excavation was examined using a 3D stress-pore pressure coupled finite-element analysis. Based on the results the interaction mechanism between the tunnelling and groundwater is identified for cases having different lining permeabilities. Examined items include pore pressures around lining and lining stresses. Face deformation behavior as well as ground surface movement patterns was also examined. Besides, the effect of grouting pattern was investigated. The results indicated that the effect of groundwater on tunnel excavation increases lining stresses as well as ground movements, and that the tunnel excavation and groundwater interaction can only be captured through a fully coupled analysis. Implementations of the findings from this study are discussed in great detail.
Determination of the Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity Function
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2004, Pages 47~51
An unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function and a soil-water characteristic curve are the essential constitutive factors in studying unsaturated soils. In order to obtain the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function, prediction functions, which are based on the soil-water characteristic curve, have been used because it is difficult to measure the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function directly. In this study, a parameter estimation method using the flow pump technique is introduced to determine the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function. This method provides more accurate and independent solution than previous methods for the determination of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function which is not subordinate to the soil-water characteristic curve or prediction models.
Prediction of Deep Excavation-induced Ground Surface Movements Using Artificial Neural Network
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2004, Pages 53~65
This paper presents the prediction of deep excavation-induced ground surface movements using artificial neural network(ANN) technique, which is of prime importance in the damage assessment of adjacent buildings. A finite element model, which can realistically replicate deep excavation-induced ground movements, was employed to perform a parametric study on deep excavations with emphasis on ground movements. The result of the finite element analysis formed a basis for the Artificial Neural Network(ANN) system development. It was shown that the developed ANN system can be effective for a first-order prediction of ground movements associated with deep-excavation.
A Case Study of Pier Scour Considering Soil Erodibility
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2004, Pages 67~74
A case study was performed to verify the applicability of existing formulae for predicting bridge scour in cases where its piers are founded in fine-grained soils. The object of study was the Kanghwa Choji Bridge area where the streambed consists of mainly clayey soil. Site investigation included: direct measurement of scour depths around piers using an ultrasonic probe; and collection of undisturbed soil samples which were later used to determine geotechnical properties and scour rate under different stream velocities. Scour depth prediction was made by employing several conventional methods and compared with the measured value. All methods, not taking soil's intrinsic property against erosion into consideration, overestimated scour depth by a factor of 3.6 to 6.5. On the other hand, the SRICOS method yielded a reasonably acceptable overestimation by a factor of 1.7.
Comparison of Short-term Mechanical Characteristics of Fine-grained Soils Treated with Lime Kiln Dust and Lime
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2004, Pages 75~83
The Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) has permitted the use of Lime Kiln Dust (LKD) as a low-cost construction material in creating a workable platform for soil modification (not for soil stabilization) since the early 1990s on selected projects. However, the enhanced strength of soils with LKD has not been accounted for in the subgrade stability calculations in the design process. This study was initiated to evaluate how the lime kiln dust is a comparable material to hydrated lime. A series of laboratory tests were performed to assess the mechanical benefits of lime kiln dust in combination with various predominant fine grained soils encountered in the State of Indiana, such as A-4, A-6 and A-7-6. In the course of this study, several tests such as the Atterberg limits, standard Proctor, unconfined compression, CBR, volume stability, and resilient modulus were performed. As a result, mixtures of fine grained soils with 5% lime or 5% LKD substantially improve unconfined compressive strength up to 60% - 400%. CBR values for treated soils are in the range of 25 to 70 while those for untreated soils range from 3 to 18. In general, significant increase in resilient moduli of the soils treated with lime and LKD was observed. This indicates that lime kiln dust may be a viable, cost effective alternative to hydrated lime in enhancing the strength of fine grained soils.
Upper Bound Limit Analysis of Bearing Capacity for Surface Foundations on Sand Overlying Clay
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2004, Pages 85~96
The ultimate bearing capacity of surface foundations on a sand layer overlying clay has been theoretically investigated. First, a review of previous studies on the bearing capacity problems for this type of foundation was performed and a discussion was presented concerning the practical application. Second, the kinematic approach of limit analysis was used to calculate the upper bound of the true ultimate bearing capacity. The kinematic solutions are upper bounds and their accuracy depends primarily on the nature of the assumed failure mechanism. This approach makes it convenient to create design charts, and it is possible to trace the influence of parameters. Third, the commercial finite element program ABAQUS was applied to obtain the ultimate bearing capacity based on the elasto-plastic theory. Results obtained from the kinematic approach were compared with those from the program ABAQUS and the limit equilibrium equations proposed by Yamaguchi, Meyerhof and Okamura et al. Finally, the validities of the results from the kinematic approach, the results from the program ABAQUS and the limit equilibrium equations were examined.
Suggestion of a Design Method for UAM
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2004, Pages 97~106
In case of tunnel construction with a shallow soil cover in cohesionless soils or highly weathered rocks, reinforcement measures are required for a tunnel stability during the tunnel construction. Recent developments show that the use of Umbrella Arch Method(UAM) as tunnel reinforcement and water cut-off in domestic projects has increased. Unfortunately, guidelines for the design and construction of UAM have not been established, only empirical designs and applications in tunnel construction have been performed so far. In this study, behaviour of the steel pipes installed on the tunnel roof was analyzed through the monitoring of bending and axial stresses of the pipes with the advance of the tunnel face. The monitoring results were used in the establishment of the loading mechanism around the pipe. This paper suggests, the guidelines used in the determination of the total length, overlapping length and lateral spacing of the reinforcing pipes obtained from the established loading mechanism.
Utilization of Waste Tires as Soil Reinforcement; (1) Soil Reinforcing Effect
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2004, Pages 107~117
This paper is to investigate the reinforcing effects of newly devised Tire-cell mat made of waste tires in sand. Parametric study on number of connection bolts between Tirecells, relative density of sand, embedded depth, number of reinforced layers and width of Tirecell mat was made by using plate loading tests. It is found that the number of connection bolt was enough to maintain the given pressure. The bearing capacity ratio(BCR), which is defined as the rate of ultimate bearing capacity of reinforced soil to that of unreinforced soil, is the highest at the lowest density. And the reinforcing effect can be obtained in case of embedded depth within 1.0B, where B is loading width. Also settlement reduction is the highest at the lowest density of sand. The effect of number of Tirecell reinforced layers with 0.4B to 0.5B interval is limited to 2 layers and further reinforcing effects can not be obtained beyond 3 layers. Especially, the bearing capacity increased remarkably at 1 layer of reinforcement and the degree of increase was small from 1 layer to 2 layers of reinforcement. The effect of mat width of Tirecell was not significant because of high stiffness of Tirecell although the maximum bearing capacity was shown at the 2.0B mat width and the reinforcing effects of Tirecell, in general, was prominent compared with those of commercial Geoweb.
Utilization of Waste Tires as Soil Reinforcement; (2) Environmental Effects
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2004, Pages 119~128
Environmental impact of waste tires as gound-reinforcing material is studied. Analysis for chemical compounds and toxic effect were performed on effluents from twelve lysimeters in which waste tires were mixed with sand and three initially different environmental solutions of acidic, neutral, and basic circulated through the mixture. The test results of effluents collected from the lysimeters provided that the contaminant concentrations were lower than those of Korean drinking water standards for all the selected and tested metal elements. While iron concentration increased slightly with the exposure period, other metal concentrations decreased with the number of circulation times. From the comparison with previous investigations, the contaminant concentration decreased with the increase of tire size, i.e. increases with the increase of the exposed surface of tire metals. From the toxicity tests, no deteriorative effect was observed and it could be concluded that waste tires are not biologically hostile materials.
Deformation Characteristics of Underground Pipe with In-situ Soil CLSM
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2004, Pages 129~139
During the construction of circular underground pipe, the non-proper compaction along the pipe and the decrease of compaction efficiency have been the main problems to induce the failure of underground pipe or facility. The use of CLSM (controlled low strength materials) should be one of the possible applications to overcome those problems. In this research, the small-scaled model test and the numeric analysis using PENTAGON-3D FEM program were carried out for three different cases on the change of backfill materials, including the common sand, the soil from construction site, and the CLSM.. From the model test in the lab, it was found out that the use of CLSM as backfill materials reduced the vertical and lateral deformation of the pipe, as well as the deformation of the gound surface. The main reason for reducing the deformation would be the characteristics of the CLSM, especially self-leveling and self-hardening properties. The measured earth pressure at the surround of the corrugated pipe using the CLSM backfills was smaller than those in the other cases, and the absolute value was almost zero. Judging from the small-scaled model test and FEM analysis, the use of CLSM as backfill materials should be one of the best choices reducing failure of the underground pipes.
Applicability of Similitude Laws for 1-g Shaking Table Tests
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2004, Pages 141~150
Shaking table model tests were performed to reproduce the dynamic behavior of a gravity quay wall and a pile-supported wharf which were damaged during the Kobe earthquake in 1995. The results of the model tests were compared with field measurements and with the results of previous model tests. The displacements of the model quay wall were only one third of that of the prototype, whereas the deformation state of the model was similar to that of the prototype. The displacements of the model pile-supported wharf were about two thirds of that of the prototype and the locations of the maximum moments at the model pile were similar to the buckling locations of the prototype piles.
Determination of Horizontal Coefficient of Consolidation from the Self-boring Pressuremeter Holding Test by Considering Pore Pressure Dissipation Trend
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2004, Pages 151~159
This paper describes a systematic way of identifying the horizontal coefficient of consolidation of clayey soil by applying an optimization technique to the early part of dissipation data measured from the self-boring pressuremeter strain holding test. An analytical solution developed by Randolph ＆ Wroth (1979) was implemented in normalized form to express the build-up of excess pore pressures as a function of the rigidity index and subsequent dissipation of excess pore pressures around a pressuremeter Horizontal coefficient of consolidation was determined by minimizing the differences between theoretical and measured excess pore pressure curves over 50% degree of dissipation range using optimization technique. The effectiveness of the proposed back-analysis method was examined against the real fled performances obtained from pressuremeter strain holding tests at Gimje and Yangsan site. It is shown that the proposed back-analysis method can evaluates the rational horizontal coefficient of consolidation, which is similar to those obtained from the piezocone dissipation test. Furthermore, proposed method can evaluate appropriate coefficient of consolidation for soil under partially drained condition.