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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Geotechical Society
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 9 - Dec 2004
Volume 20, Issue 8 - Oct 2004
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Sep 2004
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Aug 2004
Volume 20, Issue 5 - Jul 2004
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Jun 2004
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Apr 2004
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Mar 2004
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Feb 2004
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Confining Effect Due to Geosynthetics Wrapping Compacted Soil Specimen
Kim, Eun Ra ; Iizuka, Atsushi ; Kim, You-Seong ; Park, Hong ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 5, 2004, Pages 5~16
This paper presents the modeling of geosynthetic-reinforced compacted soils and discusses the reinforcement effect arising from confining the dilatancy deformation of the soil by geosynthetics. A series of compressive shear tests for compacted sandy soil specimens wrapped by geosynthetics are carried out by quantitatively examining the geosynthetic-reinforcement effect, occurring from a confinement of the dilative deformation in compacted soils during shearing. In the test, the initial degree of compaction is changed for each series of sandy soil specimens so that each series has different degree of dilatancy characteristics. Herein, the axial forces working on the geosynthetics so as to prevent dilative deformation of compacted soils during shearing are measured. Furthermore, the elasto-plastic modeling of compacted soils and a rational determination procedure for input parameters needed in the elasto-plastic modeling are presented. And to describe the irreversible deformation characteristics of compacted soils during shearing, the subloading yielding surface (Hashiguchi (1989)) to the elasto-plastic modeling is introduced. Finally, the elasto-plastic finite element simulation is carried out and the geosynthetic-reinforcement effect is discussed.
Application of Flat DMT and ANN for Reliable Estimation of Undrained Shear Strength of Korean Soft Clay
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 5, 2004, Pages 17~25
The flat dilatometer test (DMT) is a geotechnical tool to estimate in-situ properties of various types of ground materials. The undrained shear strength is known to be the most reliable and useful parameter obtained by DMT. However, the existing relationships which were established for other local deposits depend on the regional geotechnical characteristics. In addition, the flat dilatometer test results have been interpreted using three intermediate indices - material index
, horizontal stress index
, and dilatometer modulus (E
) and the undrained shear strength has been estimated merely using the horizontal stress index
. In this paper, the applicability of the flat dilatometer to Korean soft clay deposit has been investigated. Then an artificial neural network was developed to evaluate the undrained shear strength by DMT and the ANN, based on the
and porewater pressure. The ANN which adopts the back-propagation algorithm was trained based on the DMT data obtained from Korean soft clay. To investigate the feasibility of ANN model, the prediction results obtained from data which were not used to train the ANN and those obtained from existing relationships were compared.
Soil-water Characteristic Curve Assessment Using a Reference State Concept
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 5, 2004, Pages 27~35
The goal of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the reference state approach in determining the generalized soil-water characteristic curve that is essential fur characterization of unsaturated soil behavior. The soil-water characteristic curves are obtained from a number of specimens of fine-grained residual soils compacted with different void ratios. Based on the experimental test results, the feasibility of using the liquid limit state as the reference state for predicting the soil-water characteristic curve is verified. Finally, through the regression analysis of experimental data using the equation of Fredlund and Xing (1994), a reliable method is proposed to predict the generalized soil-water characteristic curve of fine-grained residual soils using the liquid limit state as the reference state.
A Constitutive Model on the Behavior Under
Condition for Cohesionless Soils and Optimization Method of Parameter Evaluation Based on Genetic Algorithm
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 5, 2004, Pages 37~48
This study is focused on the constitutive model in order to represent brittleness and dilatancy for cohesionless soils. The constitutive model was based on an anisotropic hardening rule derived from generalized isotropic hardening nile, which includes an appropriate hardening equation for the overall strain behavior at small to large strains. The yield surface is a simple cylinder type in stress space and it makes the model practically useful. Hence dilatancy behavior in cohesionless soils could be modeled reasonably. A peak stress ratio was defined in order to model brittle stress-strain relationships. An optimized design methodology was proposed on the basis of real-coded genetic algorithm in order to determine parameters for the proposed model systematically. The material parameters were then determined by that algorithm. In order to verify the proposed model, triaxial tests were performed under
conditions far weathered soils. In comparison with the triaxial test results under
conditions, the proposed model could calculate appropriately the actual effective stress behavior on brittle stress-strain relationships and dilatancy.
An Experimental Study on Depositional Environments and Consolidation Properties of Shihwa Deposits
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 5, 2004, Pages 49~58
Consolidation properties of Shihwa deposits were analysed by means of depositional environments. Depositional environments including particle size distributions, sediment structures, geochemical properties, porewater chemistries and carbon age dating were analysed using undisturbed samples retrieved successively from a boring hole in the study area. Laboratory oedometer tests and anisotropic consolidated triaxial tests (CKoUC) for undisturbed samples were performed to examine the overconsolidation phenomena. Based on the results of analysis of depositional environments, it was found that the upper silt/clay mixed layer was deposited under marine condition while underlying sand and clay layers were deposited under fluvial condition. Planar laminated structures of silts and clays were dominant in marine deposits. Although there was no clear evidences that geological erosion had occurred in marine deposits, overconsolidation ratios of the upper marine samples were greater than unity Stress Paths of the upper marine samples behaved similarly to those of normally consolidated clays. Data plotted in stress state charts showed that the marine deposits were normally consolidated in geological meaning. These apparent overconsolidation of the marine deposits can be explained by the structures i.e. chemical bonding due to the difference of the rate of deposition, not by geological erosions and ground water fluctuations.
A Comparative Study on Soil-reinforcing Effect by Waste Tires and Geocell
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 5, 2004, Pages 59~66
This study compared the reinforcing effect of sand by Geocell to those of newly devised Tirecell
made by waste tires, tire mat by sidewalls of tires. Plate loading tests in a large chamber were conducted for different reinforcing materials at the same conditions of relative density, embedded depth of sand. The combination of Tirecell and sidewall gives the highest increase of bearing capacity and reduction of settlement. The Geocell with the same height of Tirecell gives similar reinforcement effect to the tire mat made by sidewalls.
Evaluation of Minimum Depth Criterion and Reinforcement Effect of the Soil Cover in a Long-span Soil-steel Bridge
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 5, 2004, Pages 67~78
Soil-steel bridges are made of flexible corrugated steel plates buried in the well-compacted granular soil. One kind of possible collapses of these structures could be initiated by shear or tension failure in the soil cover subjected to vehicle loads. Current design codes provide the requirements for the minimum depth of the soil cover to avoid problems associated with soil cover failures. However, these requirements were developed for short span (less than 7.7 m) structures which are made of unstiffened plates of standard corrugation (150
50 m). Numerical analyses were carried out to investigate the behavior of long span soil steel bridges according to thickness of the soil cover. The span of structures were up to 20 m and deep corrugated plates (381
140 m) were used. The analysis showed that the minimum cover depth of 1.5 m could be sufficient to prevent the soil cover failure in the structures with a span exceeding 10 m. Additional analyses were performed to verify the reinforcement effect of the concrete relieving slab which can be a special feature to reduce the live-load effects. Analyses revealed that the bending moment of the conduit wall with a relieving slab was less than 20% of that without a relieving slab in a case of shallow soil cover conditions.
Experiments on Interfacial Properties Between Ground and Shotcrete Lining
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 5, 2004, Pages 79~86
Interfacial properties between rock mass and shotcrete play a significant role in the transmission of loads from the ground to shotcrete. These properties have a major effect on the behaviours of rock mass and shotcrete. They, however, have merely been considered in most of numerical analyses, and little care has been taken in identifying them. This paper aimed to identify interfacial properties including cohesion, tension, friction angle, shear stiffness, and normal stiffness, through direct shear tests as well as interface normal compression tests for shotcrete/rock cores obtained from a tunnel sidewall. Mechanical properties such as compressive strength and elastic modulus were also measured to compare them with the time-dependent variation of interfacial properties. Based on the experiments, interfacial properties between rock and shotcrete showed a significant time-dependent variation similar to those of its mechanical properties. In addition, the time-dependent behaviours of interfacial properties could be well regressed through exponential and logarithmic functions of time.
Application and its Reinforcing Effect of Soil Nailed-drilled Shafts
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 5, 2004, Pages 87~98
In this study reinforcing effect of soil nailed-drilled shafts subjected to axial and lateral loads was evaluated. Special attention was given to the reinforcing effects of soil nails placed from the drilled shafts to surrounding weathered- and soft-rocks based on model tests, numerical analyses and field tests. The model tests and numerical analyses are conducted to analyze the reinforcing effect of various conditions of number, inclination, position and length. The results of 1/40 scale model tests and numerical analyses show that as the number of reinforcing level increases, the incremental effect of reinforcement tends to increase, whereas the reinforcing effect on relative position is negligible. In addition there is a reinforcing effect as the inclination angle increase up to 30 degrees. Based on the results of tensile load tests, soil nailed-drilled shaft has a considerably smaller settlement to reach the ultimate level compared with the result of un-reinforced drilled shafts. For compression tests, there is a reinforcing effect of about 200% measured.
Micromechanical Analysis on Anisotropic Elastic Deformation of Granular Soils
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 5, 2004, Pages 99~107
Anisotropic characteristics of deformation are important to understand the particular behavior in the pre-failure state of soils. Recent experiments show that cross-anisotropic moduli of granular soils can be expressed by functions of normal stresses in the corresponding directions, which is closely linked to micromechanical characteristics of particles. Granular soils are composed of a number of particles so that the force-displacement relationship at each contact point governs the macroscopic stress-strain relationship. Therefore, the micromechanical approach in which the deformation of granular soils is regarded as a mutual interaction between particle contacts is one of the best ways to investigate the anisotropic elastic deformation of soils. In this study, a numerical program based on the theory of micromechanics is developed. Generalized contact model for the irregular contact surface of soil particles is adopted to represent the force-displacement relationship in each contact point far the realistic prediction of anisotropic moduli. To evaluate the model parameters, a set of analytical solutions of anisotropic elastic moduli is derived in the isotropic stress condition. A detailed procedure to determine the model parameters is proposed with emphasis on the practical applicability of micromechanical program to analyze the elastic behavior of the granular soils.
Model Tests on the Behavior of Geogrid Reinforced Soil Walls with Vertical Spacing of Reinforcement Layers
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 5, 2004, Pages 109~116
The model tests are conducted to assess the behavior characteristics of geogrid reinforced soil walls according to different surcharge pressures and reinforcement spacings. The models are built in the box having dimension, 100cm tall, 140cm long, and 100cm wide. The reinforcement used is geogrid(tensile strength 2.26t/m). Decomposed ganite soil(SM) is used as a backfill material. The strain gauges and LVDTs are Installed to obtain the strain in the reinforcements and the displacements of the wall face. From the results, it can be concluded that the more the reinforcement tensile strength increases, the more the wall displacements and the geogrid strains decreases. The maximum wall displacements and geogrid strains of the model walls occur due to the uniform surcharge pressure at the 0.7H from the bottom of the wall. The horizontal displacements of the wall face nonlinearly increase with the increase of surcharge pressures, and this nonlinear behavior is significantly presented for larger surcharge due to the nonlinear tensile strength-strain relationship of the reinforcements.
Bearing Capacity Evaluation of the Drilled Shaft Using Small Scale Model Test
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 5, 2004, Pages 117~126
Recently, the top ＆ down method with drilled shafts as a foundation of high rise building is often adopted for the purpose of construction period reduction and construction cost effectiveness. It is common to omit the loading test as a quality assurance on account of the high capacity of drilled shafts for the top ＆ down method. It seems that the capacity of drilled shaft in recent top ＆ down method is beyond that of conventional loading test method. However, the quality assurance for the drilled shaft as foundation of high rise building becomes much more important since the drilled shaft should bear much higher working load. A small scale test pile can be an alternative as a quality assurance for the drilled shaft with hish capacities. Through a case study, this paper gives an idea for solving the limitation of the conventional loading test method for the quality assurance of drilled shaft with high capacities. In particular, this paper analyzed the scale effect for a small drilled shaft installed into bedrock, which could be used for an alternative.
An Experimental Study on the Bearing Capacity and Failure Behavior of Composite Ground Reinforced by RAP Method
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 5, 2004, Pages 127~134
Rammed Aggregate Pier (RAP) has extensive applicability as for a foundation of structures. In this study, bearing capacity of the reinforced ground by RAP and the failure behavior of RAP are investigated through experiments. RAPs with diameters of 45, 60, 70 mm were installed in sand, of which relative densities are 60, 70, 90%. Then, two columns of pressure gauges, near the RAPs and one diameter off from the center of piers, are installed 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 cm from the surface of the ground. The test results show that maximum lateral earth pressure is observed near 5∼10 cm (1.0∼2.0D) from the surface, which indicates the occurrence of bulging failure type. In addition, deformation of RAP in radial direction increases with lower relative density of the ground. Furthermore, lateral stress distribution decreases with depth.
A Study on the Measurement of End Bearing Capacity for Large Diameter Drilled Shaft Constructed in Fault Zone Using the Static Bi-directional End Leading Test
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 5, 2004, Pages 135~143
In the land section of marine bridge construction site, to confirm the end bearing of large diameter drilled shaft constructed in the fault zone which was discovered unexpectedly, the hi-directional end loading tests were performed. The objectives of this study are to confirm the end bearing of the pile constructed in fault zone and the increasing effect of end bearing after grouting the base ground beneath the pile toe. After grouting the pile base ground, the settlement of pile base decreased considerably and the pile base resistance increased more than twice.
A New Detailed Assessment for Liquefaction Potential Based on the Liquefaction Driving Effect of the Real Earthquake Motion
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 5, 2004, Pages 145~159
The conventional method for assessment of liquefaction potential proposed by Seed and Idriss has been widely used in most countries because of simplicity of tests. Even though various data such as stress, strain, stress path, and excess pore water pressure can be obtained from the dynamic test, especially, two simple experimental data such as the maximum deviatoric stress and the number of cycles at liquefaction have been used in the conventional assessment. In this study, a new detailed assessment for liquefaction potential to reflect both characteristics of real earthquake motion and dynamic soil resistance is proposed and verified. In the assessment, the safety factor of the liquefaction potential at a given depth of a site can be obtained by the ratio of a resistible cumulative plastic shear strain determined through the performance of the conventional cyclic test and a driving cumulative plastic shear strain calculated from the shear strain time history through the ground response analysis. The last point to cumulate the driving plastic shear strain to initiate soil liquefaction is important for this assessment. From the result of cyclic triaxial test using real earthquake motions, it was concluded that liquefaction under the impact-type earthquake loads would initiate as soon as a peak loading signal was reached. The driving cumulative plastic shear strain, therefore, can be determined by adding all plastic shear strains obtained from the ground response analysis up to the peak point. Through the verification of the proposed assessment, it can be concluded that the proposed assessment for liquefaction potential can be a progressive method to reflect both characteristics of the unique soil resistance and earthquake parameters such as peak earthquake signal, significant duration time, earthquake loading type, and magnitude.