Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Geotechical Society
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 9 - Dec 2004
Volume 20, Issue 8 - Oct 2004
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Sep 2004
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Aug 2004
Volume 20, Issue 5 - Jul 2004
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Jun 2004
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Apr 2004
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Mar 2004
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Feb 2004
Selecting the target year
An Experimental Investigation of Boussinesq's Theoretical Value of Vertical Stress Increment in Sandy Soil Mass Caused by Surface Strip Loading
Lim Jong-Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 9, 2004, Pages 5~15
It is worthwhile to verify the vertical stress distribution in soil mass for rigorous design of foundation. A series of laboratory model tests were performed to investigate the Boussinesq's theory on vertical stress increment in sandy soil mass caused by surface loading. The test results were also compared with Boussinesq's theoretical values. The Boussinesq's theoretical values were always smaller than test results under the footing regardless of depth. Outside of the footing the values were larger than the measured stress at the depth of just footing width. The theory and the test showed similar results when the depth reached two and three times the footing width. The vertical stress decreased as the applied load increased. These trends were confirmed to be valid for the considered range of the relative density of sand and/or the width of footing. More accurate values can be acquired by correcting the theoretical values using these results when Boussinesq's theory is used.
Shear Strength and Compressibility of Oyster Shell-Sand Mixtures for Sand Compaction Pile
Yoon Gil-Lim ; Yoon Yeo-Won ; Chae Kwang-Seok ; Kim Jae-Kwon ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 9, 2004, Pages 17~23
Strength and deformation characteristics of oyster shell-sand mixtures were investigated to utilize waste oyster shell being treated as a waste material. Standard penetration test (SPT) is a common method to obtain in-situ strength in sand. However, in case of oyster shell-sand mixtures, there was no information between SPT N-value and internal friction angle of mixture soils. In this paper SPT experiments from several large scaled model chamber tests and large scaled direct shear tests were carried out with varying unit weight of oyster shell-sand mixtures. Appropriate correlations were in tile study observed among N-value, unit weight and internal friction angle, which make it possible to estimate in-situ strength from SPT and the coefficient of volume compressibility from the confined compression tests to compute the settlement of oyster shell-sand mixtures.
Phase Changes of Soil-Cement Mixture Using Fall Cone and Heat of Hydration
Kim Jae-Hyung ; Won Jeong-Yun ; Kim Sung-Pil ; Chang Pyoung-Wuck ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 9, 2004, Pages 25~32
Some amount of cements can be added into the soil with high water content to improve the engineering properties. In such a case, it is difficult to predict and figure out the phase changes of the soil-cement mixture which is closely associated with workability of the soil-cement mixture. Changes in heat of hydration and hardness of the cement pastes are known to provide the useful information about the phase changes of the soil-cement mixtures. In this study, heat of hydration and cone penetration depth were measured from the specimens of cement paste and 3 soil-cement mixtures. From the experimental results, it was found that the phase changes of the soil-cement mixtures are the same as those of cement paste, and that shear strength of the mixtures abruptly increases when the heat of hydration is minimum. Initial setting time of the mixtures coincides with the state when fall cone penetration depth was 1.0 mm and it is defined as plastic limit of the mixtures. Initial setting time of the mixtures is retarded as soil/cement ratio is increased. Measurements of heat of hydration and fall cone apparatus could be the useful tools to predict the phase changes of tile soil-cement mixtures.
Normalization of Cone Resistance in Granular Soil
Na Yung-Mook ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 9, 2004, Pages 33~45
Sandfill at reclaimed sites is usually formed by more than one placement method. Reclaimed sandfill often shows highly variable profiles and the cone penetration test is most commonly used for site characterization. Correlations between cone resistance and geotechnical parameters for sand are influenced by in-situ stress level and it is important to incorporate stress level effect. In this study, cone penetration tests were performed at several elevations from the top of a 10m high surcharge, which was later removed step by step. In order to establish more reliable correlations between cone resistance and geotechnical parameters for sand, different ways of normalizing cone resistance by the corresponding in-situ vertical stress were investigated.
A Proposal of a Model for the Generation of Weathered Residual Soils
Min Tuk-Ki ; Lee Wan-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 9, 2004, Pages 47~56
A new fragmentation model, called the GRS (the generation model of weathered residual soils) model, was proposed in this study, This model could identify the formation of a residual soil. This model is based on the phenomena that as the soil was weathered more highly, soil particles were smaller and pores were more expanded simultaneously. The possibility of fragmentation,
which was based on the fractal theory, was introduced in this model. There were some fundamental notions in the GRS model that soil particles were generated as the rock is fragmented, and the fragmentation of the rock was performed step by step. The
of the rock was not constant at each fragmentation steps. As a result of application on the GRS model, there were more residue where
were small at any particle size. There was a S-shape of PSD curve at the concave shape of
and the PSD curve goes to a gaped graded curve at the convex shape of
The shape of PSD curve was concave in the case of small
The value of
increased with the coefficient of uniformity
and the fragmentation fractal dimension
but had no relation with the coefficient of gradation
Deformation Behavior and Slope Stability Effect of Anchored Retention Walls Installed in Cut Slope
Hong Won-Pyo ; Han Jung-Geun ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 9, 2004, Pages 57~64
In order to establish the design method of anchored retention walls in cut slope, the behavior of anchored retention walls and backside ground needs to be investigated and checked in detail. In this study, the behavior of anchored retention walls was investigated by instrumentation installed in cut slope for an apartment construction site stabilized by a row of piles and anchored retention walls. When the anchor was installed at each excavating stages, the horizontal deflection of retention wall decreased, while the horizontal deformation of backside ground increased. The deflection of anchored retention wall decreased as the anchor was prestressed. The prestressed anchor farce has a great effect on the deflection of retention walls, while it has little effect on the deformation of its backside ground. The maximum horizontal deflection of anchored retention walls was developed between
of excavation depth, which are
times larger than max. horizontal deflection of anchored retention walls including rock layers with backside horizontal ground. Meanwhile, SLOPILE (ver. 3.0) program analyzes the slope stability effects for anchored retention walls. As a result of analysis on slope stability analysis, the lateral earth pressure applied at anchored retention piles could be used as the mean values of empirical lateral pressures using anchored retention wall with horizontal ground at its backside.
A Study on the Failure Behavior of Overhanging Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil Structure Considering Dilatancy Characteristics of Compacted Soil
Kim Eun-Ra ; Kang Ho-Keun ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 9, 2004, Pages 65~75
In this paper, a mechanism of the soil structure reinforced by geosynthetics is discussed. The reinforcing mechanism is interpreted as an effect arising from the reinforcement works preventing the dilative deformation (negative dilatancy) of soil under shearing. A full-scale in-situ model test was carried out in Kanazawa of Japan (1994), and in the laboratory test the strength and the characteristics of deformation conducting a constant volume shear test are examined. The parameters needed in the FEM are also applied by using the experimental data. The elasto-plastic finite element simulation is carried out, and the results are quantitatively compared with that of experiment. As a results, it is known that the theoretical predictions could explain effectively the experimental results which are obtained by a full-scale in-situ model test.
Assessment of Partial Safety Factors for Limit States Design of Foundations
Kim Bum-Joo ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 9, 2004, Pages 77~89
While limit states design (LSD) is currently the standard structural design practice, it is relatively new in the geotechnical design. Adoption of LSD far geotechnical design is an international trend. In the present study, various LSD codes from the United States, Canada, and Europe were reviewed. A simple first-order-second-moment (FOSM) reliability analysis was performed to determine theoretically the ranges of load and resistance factor values for representative loads and foundation bearing capacity, respectively. In order for foundation design to be consistent with current structural design practice, it would be desirable to use the same loads, load factors and load combinations. The values of load factor, obtained from the FOSM analysis, were found to be generally consistent with those given in the codes, whereas the values of resistance factor indicated overall lower ranges due to high values of coefficient of variation used in the analysis. Since the degree of uncertainties included in bearing capacity of foundations varies with the methods used to estimate the bearing capacity, different values of resistance factor should be used fur different methods. For the purpose, continuous efforts are needed to be made first to accurately identify and quantify the uncertainties in the methods.
Verification of Similitude Law for 1g Shaking Table Tests through Modeling of Models
Hwang Jae-Ik ; Kim Sung-Ryul ; Jang In-Sung ; Kim Myoung-Mo ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 9, 2004, Pages 91~103
A series of shaking table model tests were performed to verify the validity of similitude law, which is suggested by lai (1989) to simulate the dynamic behavior of soil-fluid-structure system for is shaking table tests. In the tests, the similitude law suggested by lai was applied to determine the length and the time scaling factors. Also, the steady state concept was used in determining the density of model backfill soil, which is a key factor in simulating the development of excess pore pressure during shaking. The similitude law was verified by checking whether three different sizes of quay walls show the identical behavior or not. The similar responses of acceleration, excess pore pressure and horizontal displacement of walls were obtained far the small and large models. However, the medium model showed larger responses than those of the small and large models because of the resonance between the frequency of input acceleration and the natural frequency of the wall system. In addition, the vertical displacement and rotational angle of the walls became larger with the increase of model size.
Consolidation Characteristics & Consolidation Period of Dredged Soil by Considering Change of Strain and Stratum Thickness
Cheong Gyu-Hyang ; Kim Young-Nam ; Ju Jae-Woo ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 9, 2004, Pages 105~114
Consolidation characteristics have been investigated by using Rowe cell consolidation tester for dredged soil, which is more than two times as much as the liquid limit. To examine the effects of variation of water content on consolidation characteristic, tests were carried out varying the initial water content from
The results were compared with the consolidation characteristics of remolded clay. The test results showed that the hither the initial water content of dredged clay was, the more noticeable the non-linear behavior of e-log P curves occurred. The variation of the gradient was apparent to load stage 40kPa and became less apparent after load stage 80kPa on the e-log P curves. Ratio of compression index stayed within the range suggested by Mesri and variation of initial water content has hardly influenced the coefficient of consolidation. On the contrary, it was found that the magnitude of consolidation load affects the vertical coefficient of consolidation. The variation of stratum thickness during consolidation processing needs to be taken into consideration since hydraulic fill would go through a much larger scale strain than land soil when it is subject to a load. In this study, the consolidation period considering the variation of stratum thickness was analyzed and the results were compared with those of existing consolidation studies which did not consider the variation of stratum thickness. According to the results of the study, the consolidation period of the ground with a larger strain was calculated more close to observed value in case of Mikasa theory which takes the variation of stratum thickness into consideration.
Side Resistance of Rock Socketed Drilled Shafts in Consideration of the Shaft Size Effects
Sagong Myung ; Paik Kyu-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 9, 2004, Pages 115~124
According to Sagong and Paik (2003), the side resistance of rock socketed drilled shafts is affected by rock quality, types, uniaxial compressive strength, and confining stress. Their approach based upon the Hoek-Brown criterion provides reasonable predictions of the side resistance. In this study, we propose an equation to calculate the side resistance considering size effects of the shafts and investigate the influence of drilled shaft diameter on the side resistance. A new method employs the modified Hoek-Brown criterion together with an empirical size effect of rock core. From the previous field tests, 12 pile load test results were collected and compared with prediction calculated from the equation proposed in this study. In a given condition, similar results between measurement and estimate are observed. From the parametric study on the GSI, confining stress, uniaxial compressive of intact rock and pile size, it is shown that uniaxial compressive strength is the most influential parameter on the side resistance. Though pile size shows the least influence on the resistance, the size effect is apparent as rock quality increases.
Strength and Deformation Characteristics of Lightweight Foamed Soil Using In-situ Soil
Yoon Gil-Lim ; You Seung-Kyong ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 9, 2004, Pages 125~131
A series of unconfined compression tests were carried out firstly to investigate mechanical behaviors of Lightweight Foamed Soil (LWFS) which is composed of dredged soils, cement and air foam. And secondly, to compare the difference of mechanical characteristic of LWFS with previous research conclusions (Yoon & Kim,2004) by using different dredged soils sampled at Joong-Ma in Gwangyang harbor area. Based on numberous laboratory experiments, it was found that deformation coefficient
of LWFS increases with increasing cement contents but decreases with increasing initial water contents of dredged soils. Appropriate regression formula (normalizing factor scheme) which considers relationship between LWFS composing elements, initial water contents of dredged soils, cement, air foam, and uniaxial compression strength or LWFS is proposed for practical applications. Finally, it was clear that, to apply LWFS method to practical projects, certain laboratory test would be necessary to take considerations of soil locality because mechanical charac-teristics of LWFS were surely dependent upon their sampled locations and properties.
Longitudinal Arching Characteristics Around the Face of a Soil-Tunnel with Crown and Face-Reinforcement
Kwon Oh-Yeob ; Choi Yong-Ki ; Lee Sang-Duk ; Kim Young-Gun ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 9, 2004, Pages 133~144
Pre-reinforcement ahead of a tunnel face using long steel or FRP (Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic) pipes in NATM(New Austrian Tunnelling Method), known as the RPUM(Reinforced Protective Umbrella Method) or UAM (Umbrella Arch Method), is the promising method to sustain the stability of a shallow tunnel face and reduce the ground settlements. In addition, horizontal reinforcing of the face is recently emphasized to improve the stability of the face. However, the characteristics on longitudinal arching around the face have not yet been established quantitatively with the RPUM (crown-reinforcing) and/or the face horizontal reinforcing. In this study, therefore, the behavior of cohesionless soil around the face reinforced by the reinforcing member representing the RPUM and horizontal reinforcing is investigated through two-dimensional laboratory model tests. A series of tests were carried out on various conditions by changing lengths and angles of the reinforcing members. Based on the vertical pressure around the face, the characteristics of longitudinal arching have been found for the case of the non-reinforced and the reinforced.
Prediction of Compulsory Replacement Depth by Empirical Method
Hong Won-Pyo ; Han Jung-Geun ; Lee Jong-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 9, 2004, Pages 145~153
Based on the previous studies proposed by many researchers about the evaluation method of replacement depth, a modified formula which incorporates the effect factors such as embanked height and load, replacement depth, cohesive force of original ground and unit weight of embankment etc, was suggested in this study. The new proposed formula was applied in the three construction sites of Kwangyang-Bay Area (Yeocheon, Youlchon, and Kwangyang) constructed by the compulsion replacement method. The application of the new method was investigated through these case studies in domestics. A modified bearing capacity parameter was estimated form the relationship of modified embankment loading and ultimate bearing capacity resulted from the site investigation, and the replacement depth was predicted by using this parameter. In addition, through the relationship analyses between each effect factors to the replacement depth in two areas, Yeocheon and Youlchon, an empirical prediction method which can evaluate the replacement depth in adjoining area was proposed. The predicted value obtained by new method is approximately similar to the measured replacement depth in Kwangyang area.
The Correlations between Mineralogy and Engineering Characteristics of Soft Clay in Sihwa Area
Kim Nak-Kyung ; Park Jong-Sik ; Joo Yong-Sun ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 9, 2004, Pages 155~166
The characteristics of soft clays are very important for the land development plan. This study is to investigate correlations between the engineering properties and the characteristics of clay minerals of the undisturbed clay samples obtained from Sihwa area. This study included X-Ray diffraction analysis, X-Ray fluorescence spectrometer analysis, scanning electron microscopy analysis and energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometer analysis. The correlations between the clay mineral properties and the laboratory and field testing results were investigated. The characteristics of soft clay in Sihwa area were compared with those in Yangsan and Kunsan area.
Evaluation of Surcharge toads Acting in Backfilled Space
Moon Chang-Yeul ; Kim Hee-Dong ; Choi Heon ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 9, 2004, Pages 167~176
Underground structures will be affected by the additional surcharge loads such as traffic load et al. Terzaghi (1956) suggested the equation on the influences of surcharge loads in vertically backfilled spaces. In field, the shapes of backfill spaces are not always formed vertically. Then the Terzagi (1956) equation is not suitable to use because of boundary condition. This study suggests equation to calculate the stress in backfilled space caused by surcharge loads when the backfilled space is sloped symmetrically. The suggested equation is verified by carbon box test and numerical analysis. The experimental results show good agreement with the suggested equation but the numerical analysis result shows a little disagreement. The differences are estimated to be caused by the fact that ground made by carbon rod has become more dense and internal frction and wall friction has increased itself as surcharge load is added but that this increase can not be considered in the numerical analysis. The suggested equation shows good agreement with Terzaghi (1956) equation in case of sloped backfill ground. According to the results, it is considered that the suggested equation can be applied not only to sloped space but also to vertical space. Further investigation using full scale experiment is needed.
Horizontal Stress Based on the Calculation of Lateral Stress Ratio in Unsymmetrical Space
Moon Chang-Yeul ; Lee Soo-Ki ; Kwon Seung-Joon ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 20, issue 9, 2004, Pages 177~189
The backfilled space carl have various shapes such as vertical or lateral symmetric, unsymmetric slope depending on field conditions. Kellogg (1993) suggested the different equations for the backfill earth pressure and the lateral stress ratio considering that the stresses are different between the symmetrically sloped backfilled space and the vertical one. Kellogg (1993) assumed the stress generated on sloped wall surface as the simple internal friction angle of backfilled soil. However, Moon (1997) suggested modified Kellogg equation assuming that stress behavior in the sloped wall will be varied according to the rotation angle of principal stress and the friction of sloped wall surface. This study has compared and investigated the horizontal stresss of unsymmetrical backfilled space numerically and experimentally obtained when Kellogg lateral stress ratio is appled to and when average lateral stress ratio considering unsymmetric backfill slop of left and right are applied to the modified Kellogg equation. It is shown that the horizontal stress on the sloped wall has good match numerically and experimentally in the modified Kellogg equation when Kellogg's lateral stress ratio in symmetric condition is applied to the unsymmetric condition. But the horizontal stress on the vertical wall shows disagreement numerically and experimentally. The horizontal stress results in good agreement numerically and experimentally when the average lateral stress ratio of left and right at unsymmetric slop as applied to the modified Kellogg equation. Therefore, it is estimated that the application of the average lateral stress ratio to the left and right wall should be considered when backfilled space formed unsymmetric conditions.