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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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Journal DOI :
Korean Geotechical Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 12 - Dec 2006
Volume 22, Issue 11 - Nov 2006
Volume 22, Issue 10 - Oct 2006
Volume 22, Issue 9 - Sep 2006
Volume 22, Issue 8 - Aug 2006
Volume 22, Issue 7 - Jul 2006
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Jun 2006
Volume 22, Issue 5 - May 2006
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Apr 2006
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Mar 2006
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Feb 2006
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Jan 2006
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Stress-Pore Pressure Coupled Finite Element Modeling of NATM Tunneling
Yoo, Chung-Sik ; Kim, Sun-Bin ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 22, issue 10, 2006, Pages 5~20
This paper concerns the finite element (FE) modeling approach for NATM tunneling in water bearing ground within the framework of stress-pore pressure coupled analysis. Fundamental interaction mechanism of ground and groundwater lowering was first examined and a number of influencing factors on the results of coupled FE analysis were identified. A parametric study was then conducted on the influencing factors such as soil-water characteristics, location of hydraulic boundary conditions, the way of modeling drainage flow, among others. The results indicate that the soil-water characteristics play the most important role in the tunneling-induced settlement characteristics. Based on the results, modeling guidelines were suggested for stress-pore pressure coupled finite element modeling of NATM tunneling.
Factors Affecting the Electrical Properties of Bentonite Slurry
Yoo, Dong-Ju ; Oh, Myoung-Hak ; Kim, Yong-Sung ; Park, Jun-Boum ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 22, issue 10, 2006, Pages 21~32
Factors affecting the electrical properties of bentonite slurry were identified and electric conduction mechanism in slurry was examined. Electrical conductivity of bentonite and soil-bentonite slurry linearly increases with the bentonite content. Test result indicated that the change In electrical conductivity of slurry was mainly caused by dissolved cations from bentonite particles. The relationship between electrical conductivity and bentonite content was affected by the initial electrical conductivity of slurry solution and fine content in soil-bentonite mixture. Such influences were evaluated and the calibrated relationships were suggested. Based on the suggested relationship between electrical conductivity and bentonite content, bentonite content in various bentonite and soil-bentonite slurry can be quantitatively evaluated by using electrical conductivity measurement method.
The Factors Affecting the Unconfined Compressive Strength of C.S.G Materials
Kim, Ki-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 22, issue 10, 2006, Pages 33~45
C.S.G is a material made by adding cement and water to rock-like material such as riverbed gravel or excavation muck that can be obtained easily near dam si. Recently, the use of C.S.G is gradually increasing as the construction material for dam, road, revement and so on. Commonly, the strength characteristics of C.S.G is affected by various influence factors such as grade, unit cement, age and water contents. In this study, a series of compaction test and unconfined compressive strength test were performed to investigate the relationship between a strength and influence factors such as three kinds of gradation, age, unit cement and water contents with riverbed gravel in Hwa Buk dam. The results show that strength Properties of C.S.G is variously affected by these influence factors. Especially, gradation and water contents are found to be very important factors fur determining the strength of C.S.G material. And, from the results of experimental study, the correlation equations between uncompressive strength and these factors are proposed.
Characteristics of Distribution Ratio for Skin Friction in Group Piles
Lee, Jun-Dae ; Ahn, Byung-Chul ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 22, issue 10, 2006, Pages 47~54
H-pile can be more easily driven than pipe pile by pile driver and shows high skin friction and plugging effect. This experimental study was devoted to investigate skin friction of H group piles in granite soil under laboratory test. Pile arrangements
, pile space (2D,4D,6D), and soil density
were tested. The main results obtained from the model tests can be summarized as follows. Distribution ratio of skin friction for total load decreased by
(loose soil) as piles space ratio increases in case of
group piles. And the distribution ratio of skin friction by pile settlements under loose soil decreased by about
group piles and about
group piles respectively
Design of IGM Socketed Drilled Shafts Using Texas Cone Penetrometer Tests
Nam, Moon-S. ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 22, issue 10, 2006, Pages 55~67
Modern methods for designing IGM(Intermediate Geomaterial) socketed drilled shafts require knowledge of the compressive strength and modulus of the IGM. However, the weathered IGMs at many sites prohibit the recovery of samples of sufficient length and integrity to test cores in either unconfined or triaxial compression tests. Since rational design procedures usually require values of compressive strength, surrogate methods must be employed to estimate the compressive strength of the IGM. A surrogate method considered in this study was Texas cone penetrometer tests which were performed at several sites in North Central Texas. Correlations of Texas cone penetrometer tests and compressive strengths of cores from these formations are provided in the paper. In order to develop the relationships between Texas cone penetrations and side and base resistance of IGM socketed drilled shafts, three filed load tests were conducted in the same sites. Based on the field study and literature reviews, a design method for IGM socketed drilled shafts using Texas cone penetration test was proposed.
3-D Groundwater Flow Analysis of Excavated Ground by Reliability Method
Kim, Hong-Seok ; Park, Joon-Mo ; Jang, Yeon-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 22, issue 10, 2006, Pages 69~76
A reliability-groundwater flow analysis is performed and the influence of flow parameters on the probability of exceeding the threshold value is examined. For this study, the 3-D numerical groundwater flow program, DGU-FLOW, is developed by extending the 2-D flow program and is coupled to the first and second order reliability program. The 3-D flow program is verified by solving the examples of groundwater flow through the underground excavation and comparing the results from commercial MODFLOW program. Reliability routine of the program is also verified by comparing the probability of failure with that of Monte-Carlo Simulation. The reliability analysis of the groundwater flow showed that the probability of failure from the first and second order reliability method are quite close to that of Monte-Carlo Simulation. from the parametric study of hydraulic conductivity of soil layers, the increase of both mean and variance of hydraulic conductivity results in the increase of probability of exceeding the threshold flow quantity. The probability of failure was more sensitive to constant head located at the end of the flow domain than the other parameters.
An Investigation on the Long Term Durability of High-strength Shotcrete Using Field and Combined Deterioration Test
Ma, Sang-Joon ; Choi, Jae-Seok ; Ahn, Kyung-Chul ; Kim, Sun-Myung ; Kim, Dong-Min ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 22, issue 10, 2006, Pages 77~91
Domestic practices in shotcrete use have developed in many respects even now, but it still has issues about material, construction, quality standard and so on. In overseas, the construction using high strength shotcrete with
of compressive strength is becoming common based on the shotcrete technology of high strength and durability. However, domestic shotcrete design strength is low at around 20.6 MPa of compressive strength and a long term durability is also insufficient. In this paper, field tests using high-quality additives and accelerators were performed to obtain the improvement of shotcrete strength and EFNARC standard was used to evaluate the field test results. In addition, deterioration test combined with the freezing-thawing and carbonation was also performed in order to investigate a long-term durability of high-strength shotcrete. As a result of the field test, the promotion ratio of early strength was
in case of using alkali-free accelerators. And the compressive strength of the shotcrete using Micro-silica fume was
and flexible strength was
, so the promotion ratio of strength was
respectively. The promotion effect of strength by silica fine additives ratio of
for cement mass was much superior to the other cases. It was especially examined that using Micro-silica fume reduced deterioration due to mixed steel fiber and improved a long-term durability of shotcrete.
Evaluation of Lateral Flow in Soft Ground under Embankment
Hong, Won-Pyo ; Cho, Sam-Deok ; Lee, Jae-Ho ; Lee, Kwang-Wu ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 22, issue 10, 2006, Pages 93~100
The lateral soil movement in soft grounds undergoing improvement with application of vertical drains is analyzed on the basis of monitoring data at three fields, in which fifty six monitoring sites are located. Based on the investigations, the criterions are suggested to predict the lateral soil movement. In order to predict the lateral soil movement in the improved soft grounds by using the dimensionless parameter R suggested by Marche & Chapuis (1974), it is desirable that the maximum lateral displacement in the soft ground below the toe of embankment should be applied to calculate R instead of the lateral displacement at the toe of embankment. The lateral soil movement may increase rapidly, if the safety factor of slope is less than 1.4 in case of high ratio of H/B (Thickness of soft ground/Embankment width) such as 1.15 or is less than 1.2 in case of low ratio of H/B such as 0.05. Also, the graph suggested by Tschebotarioff (1973), which illustrates the relationship between the maximum height of embankments and the undrained shear strength of soft grounds, can be applied to the evaluation for the possibility of the lateral soil movement due to embankments on soft grounds.
A Study on the Vibration Protection Efficiency of EPS Wall Barrier with Centrifuge Model Tests
Lee, Kang-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 22, issue 10, 2006, Pages 101~110
In general, environment-induced vibration propagates from the center of source to the destination through ground. In fact, the mechanism of wave propagation is highly dependent on the ground conditions, and various methods to protect structures from such a ground vibration have been proposed. The method of wall barrier has been frequently used to cut off ground vibration effectively. However, the capability of wall barrier may be affected by various factors like constituent material of it. Therefore, it is important to figure out appropriate material for the wall barrier. This study is focused on the effect of EPS on the vibration protection. Centrifuge model tests were performed. Two types of models such as a cylindrical and a rectangular wall were used. For the cylindrical type of wall, installation depth was changed, while the length of the wall varied fur the rectangular type to figure out the capability of vibration protection.
Modelling of Large Triaxial Test with Rockfill Materials by Distinct Element Method
Jeon, Je-Sung ; Kim, Ki-Young ; Shin, Dong-Hoon ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 22, issue 10, 2006, Pages 111~120
In this research, numerical simulations by PFC considering discrete element method are conducted to predict experimental results of large triaxial compression test with rockfill material for dam construction. For generation of compacted assembly with specific grain size distribution and initial material porosity, the clump logic method and expansion of generated particles are adapted. To predict stress-stain behavior of large triaxial test, discrete particle modelling is applied with micro parameters which are chosen by calibration process. It is expected that distinct particle modelling method could be used as a useful tool to investigate micro and macro behavior associated with geotechnical problems and develop a numerical laboratory.
Load Carrying Capacity and Failure Mechanism of Geogrid Reinforced Stone Columns : Reduced-Scale Model Tests
Lee, Dae-Young ; Song, Ah-Ran ; Yoo, Chung-Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 22, issue 10, 2006, Pages 121~129
Stone column is one of the ground improvement systems which is being used for accelerating consolidation and increasing bearing capacity for settlement sensitive structures like load embankments, bridge abutments, oil storage tanks etc. The effects of this method are enhancement of ground bearing capacity, reduction of settlement, prevention of liquefaction and prevention of lateral ground movement. Recently, geosynthetic reinforced (encased) stone column approach has been developed to improve its load carrying capacity through increasing confinement effect. Although such a concept has successfully been applied in practice, fundamentals of the method have not been fully explored. This paper presents the results of an investigation on the bearing capacity and failure mechanism of geogrid-encased stone column by model tests. The results of the analyses indicated improved bearing capacity of the geogrid reinforced stone column method over the conventional strone column method with no encasing.
Laboratory and Numerical Simulation About the Installation Angle of Face Bolts
Seo, Kyoung-Won ; Nishimura, Kazuo ; Kim, Kwang-Yeom ; Kim, Chang-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 22, issue 10, 2006, Pages 131~138
A face bolt is normally horizontally installed. However, it often deviates from the initial horizontal position. The reinforcement effect of face bolts by its installation angle is analysed in this study. For the purpose of preventing surface subsidence and horizontal displacement of face, the face bolt should be installed as horizontally as possible, and if it deviates from the initial position, more bolts should be installed. Also, the residual face bolt left behind the face due to its installation angle has little supportive effect because it its too short and radially arranged.
A Prediction of Engineering Properties of Ulsan Sedimentary Rocks with Schmidt Hammer Rebound Number
Min, Tuk-Ki ; Moon, Jong-Kyu ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 22, issue 10, 2006, Pages 139~150
A study has been made of the Schmidt hammer rebound test for the estimation of engineering and physical characteristics of sedimentary rocks. As there is no universal formular for the estimation of rock strength due to geological conditions, in this study only sedimentary rocks are adopted to testing. The aim of study is to make the information more meaningful and useful for engineers and contractors by providing rapid, cheap and easy method. The obtained parameters were correlated and regression equations were established among Schmidt hammer rebound number, uniaxial compressive strength, tangent Young's modulus, indirect tensile stress, water absorption and porosity of rocks with high coefficients of correlation with each other.
Analysis of Interrelationship between Undrained Static and Cyclic Shear Behavior for Nak-Dong River Sand
Kim, Dae-Man ; Kim, Byung-Tak ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 22, issue 10, 2006, Pages 151~163
This paper presents the interrelationship between undrained static and cyclic shear behavior. Laboratory works were performed through the undralned static and cyclic triaxial test using Nak-Dong River sand. And static triaxial test involved the triaxial extension test for comparison with cyclic shear behavior Cyclic triaxial test was performed with a variety of combination conditions of initial static shear stress
and cyclic stress
. In this result, the stress path of cyclic shear behavior was correspondent with static shear behavior passing the critical stress ratio (CSR) line because of the development of flow deformation. After that, a failure occurred according to failure line (FL) of static shear behavior. The stress path of cyclic shear behavior showed essentially the same with static shear behavior, although it appears a little different in test method.
The Study of Group Piles under Lateral Soil Movement in Sand by Model test
Bae, Jong-Soon ; Kim, Sung-Ho ; Kwon, Min-Jea ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 22, issue 10, 2006, Pages 165~172
This study describes a series of model tests on instrumented pile groups embedded in HAP-CHEN sand undergoing lateral movement. We tried to find the effect of group piles dependent on a number of factors, including the position of the pile in a group, the pile spacing, and the pile arrangement. The results of test are as follows. For the group piles, the bending moment profile for each pile is similar in shape to that of single pile, although the magnitude and the position of the maximum bending moment are different.
(the ratio of maximum bending moment) and
(the ratio of resistance to lateral soil movement) were found to increase with increasing pile spacing. When a pile is in a group under lateral soil movement, RM increased in the order of the middle row, front row, back row, according to the direction of lateral deformation, and the outer pile has a larger RM than the inner pile.
A Two Mobilized-Plane Model for Soil Liquefaction Analysis
Park, Sung-Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 22, issue 10, 2006, Pages 173~181
A Two Mobilized-Plane Model is proposed for monotonic and cyclic soil response including liquefaction. This model is based on two mobilized planes: a plane of maximum shear stress, which rotates, and a horizontal plane which is spatially fixed. By controlling two mobilized planes, the model can simulate the principal stress rotation effect associated with simple shear from different
states. The proposed model gives a similar skeleton behaviour for soils having the same mean stress, regardless of
conditions as observed in laboratory tests. The soil skeleton behaviour observed in cyclic drained simple shear tests, including compaction during unloading and dilation at large strain is captured in the model. Undrained monotonic and cyclic response is predicted by imposing the volumetric constraint of the water on the drained or skeleton behaviour. This constitutive model is incorporated into the dynamic coupled stress-flow finite difference program of FLAC (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua). The model was first calibrated with drained simple shear tests on Fraser River sand, and verified by comparing predicted and measured undrained behaviour of Fraser River sand using the same input parameters.