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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Geotechical Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 12 - Dec 2007
Volume 23, Issue 11 - Nov 2007
Volume 23, Issue 10 - Oct 2007
Volume 23, Issue 9 - Sep 2007
Volume 23, Issue 8 - Aug 2007
Volume 23, Issue 7 - Jul 2007
Volume 23, Issue 6 - Jun 2007
Volume 23, Issue 5 - May 2007
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Apr 2007
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Mar 2007
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Feb 2007
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Jan 2007
Selecting the target year
Effect of Viscosity and Clogging on Grout Penetration Characteristics
Kim, Jong-Sun ; Choi, Yong-Ki ; Park, Jong-Ho ; Woo, Sang-Baik ; Lee, In-Mo ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 5~13
Many construction projects adopt grouting technology to prevent the leakage of groundwater or to improve the shear strength of the ground. Recognition as a feasible field procedure dates back to 1925. Since then, developments and field use have increased rapidly. According to improvement of grout materials, theoretical study on grout penetration characteristics is demanded. Fluid of grout always tends to flow from higher hydraulic potential to lower one and the motion of grout is also a function of formation permeability. Viscosity of pout is changed by chemical action while grout moves through pores. Due to the increment of viscosity, permeability is decreased. Permeability is also reduced by grout particle deposits to the soil aggregates. In this paper, characteristics of new cement grout material that has been developed recently are studied: injectable volume of new grout material is tested in two different grain sizes of sands; and the method to calculate injectable volume of grout Is suggested with consideration of change in viscosity and clogging phenomena. The calculated values are compared with injection test results. Viscosity of new grout material is found to increase as an exponential function of time. And lumped parameter
of new grout material to be used for assessing deposition characteristics is estimated by comparing deposit theory with injection test results considering different soil types and different injection pressures. Injection test results show that grout penetration rate is decreased by the increase of grout viscosity and clogging phenomena.
A Study on the Comparison between an Optical Fiber and a Thermal Sensor Cable for Temperature Monitoring
Kim, Jung-Yul ; Song, Yoon-Ho ; Kim, Yoo-Sung ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 15~24
Two kinds of temperature monitoring technology have been introduced in this study, which can measure coincidently temperatures at many points along a single length of cable. One is to use a thermal sensor cable comprizing of addressable thermal sensors. The other is to use an optic fiber sensor with Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) system. The differences between two technologies can be summarized as follows: A thermal sensor cable has a concept of "point sensing" that can measure temperature only at a predefined position. The accuracy and resolution of temperature measurement are up to the capability of the individual thermal sensor. On the other hand, an optic fiber sensor has a concept of "distributed sensing" because temperature is measured practically at all points along the fiber optic cable by analysing the intensity of Raman back-scattering when a laser pulse travels along the fiber. Thus, the temperature resolution depends on the measuring distance, measuring time and spatial resolution. The purpose of this study is to investigate the applicability of two different temperature monitoring techniques in technical and economical sense. To this end, diverse experiments with two techniques were performed and two techniques are applied under the same condition. Considering the results, the thermal sensor cable will be well applicable to the assessment of groundwater flow, geothermal distribution and grouting efficiency within about loom distance, and the optic fiber sensor will be suitable for long distance such as pipe line inspection, tunnel fire detection and power line monitoring etc.
A Study of the Measurement of Nonwoven Geotextile Deformation with Strain Gauges
Won, Myoung-Soo ; Kim, You-Seong ; Kim, Hyeong-Joo ; Park, Byung-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 25~32
Because of the increasing use of clayey soil as the backfill in reinfurced soil structures and embankments, nonwoven geotextiles of drain capability have been receiving much attention. However, there are few studies on the deformation behavior analysis of nonwoven geotextiles in reinforced soil structures in the site because nonwoven geotextiles which have low tensile stiffness and higher deformability than geogrids and woven geotextiles, are difficult to measure their deformation by using strain gauges. In this study, it was suggested that a new and more convenient method could measure the deformation behaviour of nonwoven geotextile using a strain gauge and examine the availability of the method by conducting laboratory tests and applying to two geosynthetics reinforced soil (GRS) walls in the site. The result of wide-width tensile test conducted under confining pressure of 70 kPa shows that the local deformation of nonwoven geotextile to be measured with strain gauges has a similar pattern to the total deformation measured with LVDT. In the GRS walls, nonwoven geotextile shows a larger deformation range than the woven geotextile and geogrid. However, the deformation patterns of these three reinforcement materials are similar. The function of strain gauges attached to nonwoven geotextile in the walls works normally for 16 months. Therefore, the method proposed in this study for measuring nonwoven geotextile deformation using a strain gauge has proved useful.
Verification of the HWAW (Harmonic Wavelet Analysis of Waves) Method Using Multi Layered Model Testing Site
Kim, Jong-Tae ; Park, Hyong-Choon ; Kim, Dong-Soo ; Bang, Eun-Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 33~46
HWAW (Harmonic Wavelet Analysis of Wave) method, which is non-destructive method using body and surface waves, has the advantages of obtaining 2D subsurface imaging because it uses a short receiver spacing to obtain the
profile of whole depth. Even though the reliability of HWAW method has already been verified by using the numerical simulation in the various layered models, it is very difficult to evaluate the reliability of HWAW in the field because the exact
values of the experimental site are unknown. In this study, a model testing site where the material properties and layer information could be controlled was constructed to verify the reliability of HWAW method. The detailed geometry of the testing site was strictly measured by surveying, and 140 vertical and horizontal geophones were established at the boundary of each layer to evaluate the dynamic material properties. Using the interval travel times between the upper and lower geophones, the body wave velocities of each layer were 2 dimensionally obtained as reference data, and comparative study using HWAW method was performed. By comparing 2D Vs profile obtained by HWAW method to the reference data, the reliability of HWAW method was verified.
Long-term Behavior of Earth Pressure on Integral Abutments
Nam, Moon-S. ; Park, Young-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 47~58
The usage of Integral abutment bridges has been increased worldwide because of reducing bridge maintenance costs and resisting seismic loads. Although these attributes make the integral abutment bridge an increasingly popular choice, back-abutment interaction issues remain unresolved. Hence, the earth pressure behavior of an integral abutment bridge having 90 m long PSC beam bridge for the first time in Korea was analyzed by conducting long term monitoring in this study. Based on this study, the results were as follows; the ratio of maximum passive movement to the abutment height (H) of 0.0027 and the maximum passive earth pressure coefficient of 4.8 were developed at 0.82H from the bottom of the abutment during summer season. During winter season, the ratio of maximum active movement to H of 0.0011 and the maximum active earth pressure coefficient of 0.7 were developed at the same location as in summer season. The new earth pressure distributions having a trapezoid type were proposed based on this study.
Evaluation of CPT-based Pile Load Capacity Factors with Cylindrical and Taper Pile
Lee, Jun-Hwan ; Paik, Kyu-Ho ; Kim, Dae-Hong ; Kim, Min-Kee ; Hwang, Sung-Wuk ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 59~68
In this study, evaluation of load capacity and CPT-load capacity parameters were performed using calibration chamber tests for different types of piles including straight-side and tapered piles. Various soil conditions were considered in the investigation, aiming at establishing design procedure for foundation of electronic transmission tower structures. Test results show that no significant difference of total load capacity from straight-side and tapered piles, while individual components of base and shaft load capacities were quite different. Based on the test results, values of CPT-load capacity correlation parameters for different pile types were analyzed for the evaluation of both base and shaft load capacities.
Prediction of Residual Settlement of Ground Improved by Vertical Drains Using the Elasto-Viscous Consolidation Model (I) - Verification of the Applicability of Theory -
Baek, Won-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 69~77
In this study, the consolidation behavior of clayey ground improved by vertical drain method was analyzed by the finite difference method based on the three-dimensional elasto-viscous consolidation theory, which can express the behavior of the secondary consolidation without considering the distinction of the normally consolidated and overconsolidated states. And the applicability of the elasto-viscous consolidation theory was discussed by comparing with the test results obtained from the model test of ground improved by vertical drain system. From these results, it is found that the amount of the settlement when the excess pore water pressure almost dissipated in the clay ground with vertical drains became smaller than that of the one-dimensional condition, and then the amount and rate of the residual settlement at secondary consolidation process became larger than those of the one-dimensional condition. finally, the effect of soil parameter on behavior of consolidation process was investigated by the results of a series of numerical analysis for the normalized and overconsoldiated states.
A Study on Vibratory Behavior of Steel Sheet Pile Installed in Sand Ground
Lee, Seung-Hyun ; Lee, Jong-Ku ; Yoo, Wan-Kyu ; Kim, Byoung-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 79~90
Behaviors of instrumented steel sheet piles which are installed in sand ground by vibratory hammer were investigated. Especially, stresses acting on the pile during vibratory driving, efficiency factor which reflects differences between theoretical driving force and actually delivered acting force, justifiability of rigidity of steel sheet pile, dynamic resistance characteristics of soil and penetration characteristics of sheet pile were analysed. According to the field test results it is justifiable that steel sheet pile behaves as a rigid body during vibratory driving. And it can be seen that maximum stress acting on sheet pile section is far less than tensile strength of the material. Value of the maximum section force at sheet pile head was 72% of that estimated from theoretical equation. Magnitudes of displacement amplitudes computed from displacement-time history curve corresponding to four penetration depths were in the range of 16
75% of that specified by manufacturer.
Effect of Fine Content on the Monotonic Shear Behavior of Sand-Clay Mixtures
Kim, Uk-Gie ; Masayuki, Hyodo ; Beak, Won-Jin ; Ahn, Tae-Bong ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 91~100
In most design codes, soils are classified as either sand or clay, and appropriate design equations are used to represent their behavior. For example, the behavior of sandy soils is expressed in terms of the relative density, whereas consistency limits are often used for clays. However, sand-clay mixtures, which are typically referred to as intermediate soils, cannot be easily categorized as either sand or clay and therefore a unified interpretation of how the soil will behave at the transition point, i.e., from sandy behavior when fines are low to clay behavior for high fines content, is necessary. In this study, active natural clays are mixed with sand, and the fines content varied in order to produce different structures, ranging from one state where only sand particles form the soil structure to another where the matrix of fines make-up the structure. While paying attention to the granular void ratio in order to clarify the shear properties of sand-clay mixtures with increasing fines content monotonic, shear tests were performed on isotropically, and anisotropically consolidated specimens. From the test results, it was observed that the monotonic shear strength of sand-clay mixtures is dependent on the granular void ratio.
Engineering Characteristics of Stabilized Bed Sediment
Kim, Jin-Man ; Kim, Kyung-Min ; Choi, Bong-Hyuck ; Kim, Hak-Sam ; Han, Sang-Hyun ; Lee, Dae-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 101~112
This paper presents the results of an investigation on the ways of utilizing bed sediment as levee materials by laboratory tests. A series of laboratory tests were performed to asses the improved engineering characteristics of bed sediment using admixture cement and weathered granite soils. In this study, several tests such as the grain size analysis test, direct shear test, permeability test, unconfined compression test were peformed. The results of the analyses indicated that the treated bed sediment with cement and weathered granite soils can have the adaptability to the fill material for levee.
Numerical Analysis on Drained and Undrained Pullout Capacity in Reinforced Soil
Lee, Hong-Sung ; Son, Moo-Rak ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 113~123
In order to ensure the stability of reinforced structures backfilled with low permeability soil, it is very important to determine the change in undrained pullout capacity compared to drained pullout capacity prior to design. In this research, a series of numerical analyses on laboratory pullout tests have been performed on different materials (clean sand, 5, 10, and 15% silty sand), different overburden pressures (30, 100 and 200 kPa), and different drainage conditions (drained and undrained) in order to compare drained pullout capacity with undrained pullout capacity. The results of numerical analysis also have been compared with the results of the laboratory pullout tests. The analysis results show that both drained and undrained pullout capacity are influenced by silt contents and increase with increase of friction angle of the soil and overburden pressure. In undrained condition, the effective stresses acting on the reinforcement decrease as excessive pore pressures are generated, resulting in decrease in pullout capacity; 57% for 30 kPa, and 70% for 100 and 200 kPa. These results show a good agreement with the results of the laboratory pullout tests performed under the same condition.
Probabilistic Analysis and Design of the Spacing of Prefabricated Vertical Drains Considering Uncertainties in Geotechnical Property
Kim, Bang-Sig ; Kim, Byung-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 125~132
The oedometer, radial CRS and Rowe cell tests, composite discharge capacity tests and smear effect tests are carried out to estimate the parameters for the reliability-based design of vertical drain method. Also the sensitivity analysis, the probabilistic and deterministic solutions of radial consolidation theory are presented. The result of probabilistic analysis was compared to that of deterministic analysis using the tested and estimated parameters. The results indicated that the drain spacing in the deterministic method is larger than that in the probabilistic method because the former does not consider the uncertainties in the geotechnical property. The divergence of two methods is dependent on the probability of achieving target degree of consolidation by a given time and the coefficient of variation (COV) of the coefficient of horizontal consolidation (
Construction of Efficient Downhole Seismic Testing System by the Round Robin Test
Bang, Eun-Seok ; Kim, Ki-Seog ; Kim, Dong-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 133~147
Downhole seismic method is very economic and easy of operation because it uses only one borehole and simple surface source to obtain the shear wave velocity (
) profile of a site. Even though it is widely used by the site investigation companies, universities and institutes, however, the
profile determined by downhole seismic method has often low reliability due to employment of wrong combinations of field losing equipment and interpretation method and deficiency of experience. Round robin test was performed and testing equipment and procedure were compared. Adequate downhole seismic testing equipment was constructed based on the comparison and verification study of the round robin test. The data acquisition and software interpretation were also developed for automation and quick test in field. Finally, the effectiveness and applicability were verified through the field test by using the constructed testing system.
Side Friction of Deep Foundation for Transmission Tower in Rock
Kim, Dae-Hong ; Lee, Dae-Soo ; Chun, Byung-Sik ; Kim, Byung-Hong ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 149~160
Six prototype field tests (five 1/8 and one 1/2 scale tests) have been conducted in order to determine the uplift resistance of deep foundation for transmission line structures. Test sites, located in the city of Eumseng in Choongbuk province, are classified as gneiss. These test results reveal failures not along the foundation-rock interface but either along the damaged surrounding rock mass caused by excavation or along the pre-existing rock joint. Test results also show the uplift resistance which is 20
30% higher than the current design strength of side friction. In addition to fold tests, four concrete core samples between the liner plate and the surrounding rock mass have been obtained from the existing transmission foundations to study the effect of the liner plate which is installed prior to placing concrete. The compressive strength of these concrete core samples shows 63
72% of the strength at the time of foundation construction. Side frictional resistance based on such less compacted concrete reaches satisfying uplift design strength.
Estimation of Pile Ultimate Lateral Load Capacity in Sand Considering Lateral Stress Effect
Lee, Jun-Hwan ; Paik, Kyu-Ho ; Kim, Dae-Hong ; Hwang, Sung-Wuk ; Kim, Min-Kee ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 161~167
In this study, ultimate lateral load capacity of piles is analyzed with consideration of lateral stress effect. Based on results obtained in this study, a method for the estimation of ultimate lateral load capacity is proposed. This makes it possible to more realistically estimate the ultimate lateral load capacity under various stress states caused by in-situ soil condition and pile installation process. Calibration chamber test results with various soil conditions were used in the analysis. From the test results, it was found that effect of the lateral stress was greater than that of the vertical stress on the ultimate lateral load capacity of piles. It was also found that, as the relative density increases, displacements required to reach the ultimate state increases, showing relative displacements of around 14% and 18-25% for
: 55% and 86%, respectively. Based on results obtained in this study, a methodology for the estimation of ultimate lateral load capacity of piles using correction factors was proposed. Results from proposed method matched well measured results.
The Behavior of Rammed Aggregate Piers (RAP) in Soft Ground (I)
Bae, Kyung-Tae ; Lee, Chong-Kyu ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 169~183
Numerical analysis was performed to investigate the behavior of rammed aggregate piers (RAP) in soft ground with various interface conditions, area replacement ratio, aspect ratio and surcharge loads of pile and soil. And field modulus load test was carried out to predict the input parameters. Field prototype (unit cell) tests are in progress to compare the result of numerical analysis. Also a modified load transfer equation of RAP on soft foundation was proposed. According to the results, the behavior of RAP depended on such as interface conditions, settlement characteristics (free strain) and stress concentration ratio. On the other hand, maximun stress concentration ratio increased as area replacement ratio and aspect ratio increased, and it was remarkably affected by surcharge loads.
Assessment of Tunnel Collapse Load by Closed-Form Analytical Solution and Finite Element Analysis
Lee, Yong-Joo ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 185~197
Limit analysis of upper and lower bound solutions has been well developed to provide the stability numbers for shallow tunnels in cohesive soil (
material), cohesive-frictional soil (c'-
' material) and cohesionless soil (
'material). However, an extension of these methods to relatively deep circular tunnels in the cohesionless soil has been explored rarely to date. For this reason, the closed-form analytical solutions including lower bound solution based on the stress discontinuity concept and upper bound solution based on the kinematically admissible failure mechanism were proposed for assessing tunnel collapse load in this study. Consequently, the tunnel collapse load from those solutions was compared with both the finite element analysis and the previous analytical bound solutions and shown to be in good agreement with the FE results, in particular with the FE soil elements located on the horizontal tunnel axis.