Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Geotechical Society
Editor in Chief :
Seong Wan Park
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 12 - Dec 2009
Volume 25, Issue 11 - Nov 2009
Volume 25, Issue 10 - Oct 2009
Volume 25, Issue 9 - Sep 2009
Volume 25, Issue 8 - Aug 2009
Volume 25, Issue 7 - Jul 2009
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Jun 2009
Volume 25, Issue 5 - May 2009
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Apr 2009
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Feb 2009
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Jan 2009
Selecting the target year
Uplift Capacity Estimation of Bond-type Rock Anchors Based on Full Scale Field Tests
Kim, Dae-Hong ; Oh, Gi-Dae ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 25, issue 10, 2009, Pages 5~15
This paper presents the results of full-scale uplift load tests performed on 24 passive anchors grouted to various lengths at Okchun and Changnyong site. Rock anchors were installed over a wide range of rock types and qualities with a fixed anchored depth of 1~6 m. The majority of installations used D51 mm high grade steel rebar to induce rock failure prior to rod failure. However, a few installations included the use of D32 mm rebar at relatively deeper anchored depth so as to induce rod failure. In many tests, rock failure was reached and the ultimate loads were recorded along with observations of the shape and extent of the failure surface. In addition to field tests, laboratory pullout tests were conducted to determine bond strength and bond stress-shear slip relation at the tendon/grout interface when a corrosion protection sheath is installed in the cement-based grout. The test results show that the ultimate tendon-grout bond strength is measured from 18~25% of unconfined compressive strength of grout. One of the important results from these tests is that the measured strains along the corrosion protection sheath were so small that practically the reduction of bond strength by the presence of sheath would be negligible.
Fracture Behaviors of Jointed Rock Model Containing an Opening Under Biaxial Compression Condition
SaGong, Myung ; Yoo, Jea-Ho ; Park, Du-Hee ; Lee, J.S. ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 25, issue 10, 2009, Pages 17~30
Underground construction such as tunneling can induce damages on the surrounding rock mass, due to the stress concentration of in situ stresses and excessive energy input during construction sequence, such as blasting. The developed damage on the rock mass can have substantial influence on the mechanical and hydraulic behaviors of the rock masses around a tunnel. In this study, investigation on the generation of damage around an opening in a jointed rock model under biaxial compression condition was conducted. The joint dip angles employed are 30, 45, and 60 degrees to the horizontal, and the synthetic rock mass was made using early strength cement and water. From the biaxial compression test, initiation and propagation of tensile cracks at norm to the joint angle were found. The propagated tensile cracks eventually developed rock blocks, which were dislodged from the rock mass. Furthermore, the propagation process of the tensile cracks varies with joint angle: lower joint angle model shows more stable and progressive tensile crack propagation. The development of the tensile crack can be explained under the hypothesis that the rock segment encompassed by the joint set is subjected to the developing moment, which can be induced by the geometric irregularity around the opening in the rock model. The experiment results were simulated by using discrete element method PFC 2D. From the simulation, as has been observed from the test, a rock mass with lower joint angle produces wider damage region and rock block by tensile cracks. In addition, a rock model with lower joint angle shows progressive tensile cracks generation around the opening from the investigation of the interacted tensile cracks.
Temperature Compensation on the Cone Tip Resistance by Using FBG Temperature Transducer
Kim, Rae-Hyun ; Lee, Jong-Sub ; An, Shin-Whan ; Lee, Woo-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 25, issue 10, 2009, Pages 31~40
As the measurement of strain-gage type cone penetrometer is influenced by the temperature change during penetration, the temperature is a factor producing an error of the cone tip resistance. In this study, the 0.5 mm diameter temperature transducer and 7 mm diameter micro cone penetrometer are manufactured by using FBG sensors to evaluate the effect of temperature on the cone tip resistance. Design concepts include the cone configuration, sensor installation and the temperature compensation process. The test shows that the tip resistance measured by strain gauge is affected by the temperature change. The error of the tip resistance increases with an increase in temperature change, while the temperature effect on the tip resistance of FBG cone is effectively compensated by using FBG temperature transducer. Temperature compensated tip resistance of the strain gauge cone shows the good matched profile with FBG cone which performs real-time temperature compensation during penetration. This study demonstrates that the temperature compensation by using FBG sensor is an effective method to produce the more reliable cone tip resistance.
Evolution of Particle Crushing and Shear Behavior with Respect to Particle Shape Using PFC
Jo, Seon-Ah ; Cho, Gye-Chun ; Lee, Seok-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 25, issue 10, 2009, Pages 41~53
In order to analyze the influence of particle shape on evolution of particle crushing and characteristic of shear behavior of granular soil, direct shear test was simulated by using DEM (Discrete Element Method). Six particle shapes were generated by clump and cluster model built in PFC (Particle Flow Code). The results of direct shear test for six particle shapes were compared and analyzed with those for circular particle shape. The results of numerical tests showed a good agreement with those of experimental tests, thus the appropriateness of numerical modelling set in this study was proved. As for particle shape, more angular and rougher particle induced larger internal friction angle and more particle crushing than relatively round and smooth particle. When particles were crushed, crushing was concentrated on the shear band adjacent to the shear plane. Finally, it can be concluded that the numerical models suggested in this study can be used extensively for other studies concerning the shear behavior of granular soil including soil crushing.
Effects of Overburden Stress on Stability in Unsaturated Weathered Soil Slopes
Park, Seong-Wan ; Park, Jai-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 25, issue 10, 2009, Pages 55~65
It has been well known that the infiltration of rainfall causes major surfacial slope failures in Korea. However, the hydrological and mechanical behaviors in unsaturated slopes are somewhat complex. When an analysis on unsaturated slope problems is performed, soil-water characteristics curves (SWCC) are considered as major parameters to apply. Since the weathered soil slopes are layered and stressed by overburden pressures, the response of SWCCs should account for its overburden pressure. To deal with this situation, in this study, laboratory testings were conducted to evaluate the SWCC under various overburden stress. In addition, the unsaturated shear strength was estimated using SWCC. Then the performance of unsaturated weathered soil slopes was evaluated under various conditions after applying the effect of overburden pressure on SWCCs. The results demonstrated that the effect of overburden pressure on SWCC could be substantial and the proper application to analysis is very important to enhance the prediction of slope stability.
Application for Prediction of Crown Settlements Using RMR in Weathering Rock Tunnels
Kim, Young-Su ; Kim, Dae-Man ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 25, issue 10, 2009, Pages 67~76
Statistical analysis was performed using a series of data on RMR, RMR* and crown settlements collected from sites of weathering rock tunnels in Korea. The crown settlements were predicted by recurrence analysis, exponential function, and artificial neural network (ANN) using collected in-situ data. The result of the prediction fitted well compared to the measured settlement in the order of ANN, exponential function, and recurrence analysis. The range of crown settlement predicted by recurrence analysis widely scattered and promised larger settlement than the measured. Also in all method, the predicted value by RMR well matched compared to the measured settlement predicted by RMR*.
Model Tests Investigating the Ground Movements Associated with Twin Side-by-Side Tunnel Construction in Clay
Ahn, Sung-Kwon ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 25, issue 10, 2009, Pages 77~85
This paper describes the findings obtained from a research project aimed at investigating, via 1 g laboratory model tests, the ground movements caused by multiple side-by-side (sbs) tunnel construction in clay. The ground movements above a second tunnel showed different trends from those observed above a first tunnel. These trends include an increase in the overall volume loss, and a widening of the settlement troughs on the near limb of the trough accompanied by a shift of the maximum settlement towards existing tunnel. This would suggest that the use of simple predictive methods of adopting a Gaussian curve for analysing the ground settlements associated with twin (sbs) tunnel construction is not appropriate. Therefore the current paper adopts a method that modifies the Gaussian curve approach in order to improve the predictions. This paper comments on the parameter selection involved with adopting this new method to apply it to full-scale field situations, and also discusses its limitations.
Development of Probabilistic Seismic Coefficients of Korea
Kwak, Dong-Yeop ; Jeong, Chang-Gyun ; Park, Du-Hee ; Lee, Hong-Sung ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 25, issue 10, 2009, Pages 87~97
The seismic site coefficients are often used with the seismic hazard maps to develop the design response spectrum at the surface. The site coefficients are most commonly developed deterministically, while the seismic hazarde maps are derived probabilistically. There is, hence, an inherent incompatibility between the two approaches. However, they are used together in the seismic design codes without a clear rational basis. To resolve the fundamental imcompatibility between the site coefficients and hazard maps, this study uses a novel probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) technique that simulates the results of a standard PSHA at a rock outcrop, but integrates the site response analysis function to capture the site amplification effects within the PSHA platform. Another important advantage of the method is its ability to model the uncertainty, variability, and randomness of the soil properties. The new PSHA was used to develop fully probabilistic site coefficients for site classes of the seismic design code and another sets of site classes proposed in Korea. Comparisons highlight the pronounced discrepancy between the site coefficients of the seismic design code and the proposed coefficients, while another set of site coefficients show differences only at selected site classes.
Evaluation of Consolidation Characteristics Considering the Mixed Gradation Ratio of Soft Ground
Park, Yeong-Mog ; Yun, Sang-Jong ; Chea, Jong-Gil ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 25, issue 10, 2009, Pages 99~110
In order to provide the design criteria, the characteristics of consolidation for soft ground improvement have been investigated using the field banking test performed by the vertical drain method at the northern container section in Busan New Port. Field test results indicated that the estimated degree of consolidation in design stage decreased by about 7% compared with the measured one. This difference is attributed to the fact that the conservative geological properties were applied with relatively high amount of maximum clay mixture ratio during the design stage. Based on this findings, another laboratory oedometer test was implemented to consider various combination of mixture ratio. It was found that the consolidation degree increased in accordance with the increase of sand/silt mixture ratio. Also, the proportion of 10%, 50%, and 40% for sand, silt, and clay, respectively, was observed as the best combination of mixture ratio to the actual measurement, which is very similar to the average grain size distribution in the banking test area. Therefore, it is suggested that the overall geological characteristics as well as the grain size distribution should be considered in design stage to improve the soft ground that contains mixture of sand, silt, and clay.
Dissolution Monitoring of Geo-Soluble Mixtures
Truong, Q. Hung ; Byun, Yong-Hoon ; Eom, Yong-Hun ; Sim, Young-Jong ; Lee, Jong-Sub ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 25, issue 10, 2009, Pages 111~122
Dissolution of some of geo-materials may yield the loss of the soil strength and the settlement of earth structures. The goal of this study is to monitor the several physical behaviors of soluble mixtures during dissolution. Sand-salt mixtures are used to monitor the meso to macro response including the settlements and shear waves. The mixtures of photoelastic and ice disks are used to monitor micro to meso behavior of soluble mixture including the void ratio, force chain, coordination number and horizontal force changes. In the sand-salt mixtures, shear waves are measured by using bender elements in conventional oedometer cells. In the photoelastic disk - ice disk mixtures, micro to meso response are measured by digital images and load cells. The shear wave velocity decreases at the initial stage of the dissolution, and then increases and approaches to asymptotic value. The larger dissoluble particle and the more random packing produces the severe horizontal fore change. After dissolution, the void increases and the coordination number decreases. This study demonstrates that the particle level behavior such as the changes of the force chain, void ratio, and coordination number affects the global behavior such as the change of the shear wave velocity and horizontal force of the system.