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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Home Management Association
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Journal DOI :
Korean Home Management Association
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 21, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
Practice of Everyday Life Proprieties, Dynamics of Family Systems, and Psychological Well-Being Among Married Couples
Journal of Korean Home Management Association, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 1~18
In recent years, Korean society has witnessed an increased interest in the observance of everyday life proprieties, building healthy families, and psychological well-being of family members. The main purpose of this research was to examine the relationships among the practice of everyday life proprieties, dynamics of family systems, and psychological well-being of Korean married couples. A self-report Questionnaire was used to collect data from married couples with a child over four-years-old who are currently residing in Seoul. 513 couples(1026 individuals) were used for the final data analysis. Statistical analyses were conducted using frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviations, Cronbach'α, Pearson correlation, paired t-test, factor analysis, and multiple regression. The findings of this study are as follows: First, the level of the practice of everyday life propriety was relatively high in both husbands and wives, and no significant gender difference was found in the level. Yet, there were some statistically significant differences in certain sub-dimensions. Wives showed a higher degree of performance in public decorum and social etiquette, whereas husbands exhibited a higher degree of performance in family decorum and communication manners. The family systems were highly dynamic, according to both husbands and wives, and there was no difference between husbands and wives. As for the sub-dimensions, the extent of communication was found to be higher among husbands than among wives. Psychological well-being was again relatively high for both husbands and wives, with husbands significantly higher than wives. Second, the findings indicate that the causal model did fit the data well, and that a myriad of background variables had direct and indirect impacts on psychological well-being, and these relationships were mediated by several variables in the sub-dimension of proprieties observance, family adaptability, and the degree of communication. The implication is that the practice of life propriety, an intervening variable, is crucial in improving psychological well-being of married couples. The findings of this research demonstrate that there are significant causal relationships among the practice of everyday life propriety, family systems dynamics, and psychological well-being. In addition, the observance of proprieties is shown to be a concept that can be used as an important predictor in the area of family resource management. Further research is needed to expand its focus on the practice of proprieties in the family resource management. More concrete and specialized family life education programs should be developed to help build healthy families. Lastly, the results indicate that proprieties education needs to be incorporated in family policies in order to promote the quality of family life.
Attitudes toward Genetically Modified Foods and Willingness to Purchase Them among Housewives
Journal of Korean Home Management Association, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 19~30
In this study, housewives' attitudes toward genetically modified foods (GM foods) and their willingness to purchase GM foods were examined. The findings of this study could provide useful information for consumer education and consumer policy development regarding GM foods. The specific purposes of this study were: (1) to examine consumers' attitudes toward GM foods, (2) to analyze the effect of the perception of GM foods and demographic variables on consumers' attitudes toward GM foods, and (3) to analyze the effect of the perception of GM foods and demographic variables on consumers' willingness to purchase GM foods. The questionnaire used in the survey was constructed by the author, based on existing literature. The survey was conducted with 1,100 housewives, and 723 of the completed survey forms were used in the final analysis. Frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviation, t-tests, ANOVA, Duncan-test, Pearson's Correlation, factor analysis, and discriminant analysis were employed for data analysis methods. Major findings are: (1) Consumers' attitudes toward GM foods consist of three factors, that are, attitude regarding potential danger, attitude regarding the use of GM technique on plants, and attitude regarding the use of GM technique on animals. (2) Consumers with a higher level of education tend to perceive GM food as more dangerous, whereas consumers with a lower level of education tend to accept more the use of GM technique on plants. (3) Consumers who tend not to consider GM foods as dangerous, and those who acknowledged benefits in using GM technique on plants are more willing to buy GM foods.
Parenting Stress Scale for Parents of School-Aged Children
Journal of Korean Home Management Association, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 31~38
This study was conducted to develop a Parenting Stress Scale that measures the day-to-day difficulties entailed in parenting for school-aged children. First, sixty seven items were collected as a baseline. Some of these items were pooled from existing parenting stress scales(Abidin, 1990; Kim & Kang, 1997), and the rest were generated based on interviews with parents of school-aged children. Secondly, Chi-Square tests were conducted and framer's V coefficients were calculated to determine the goodness-of-fit of the items. Twenty four items were selected from this step. The results of a factor analysis on these 24 items revealed two dimensions of this new Parenting Stress Scale, namely, 'school-related parenting stress' and 'general everyday life stress'. A test of construct validity also showed that this scale has adequate internal consistency.
Does Educational Theater Work with Kindergarten Children The Impacts of Educational Theater on Children's Peer Acceptance and Self-Esteem
Journal of Korean Home Management Association, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 39~48
The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of educational theater on 5-years-old children, and more specifically, to find out whether the effects of the theater on children's peer acceptance and self-esteem are different by peer social statuses, that are, popular, average, and neglected/rejected Fifty seven children participated in this study and were evaluated with the Sociometric Test (Coie & Dodge, 1983). The experimental subgroup (N=28) participated in the programmed educational theater for 9 sessions. The dependent variables were measured by the peer acceptance items of Sociometric Test as well as the Self-Perception Profile based on SPPC (Halter, 1985), and the same tests were administered twice, before and after the experiment. Covariance analyses showed significant differences between experimental and control groups, for the children in the neglected/rejected category, in peer acceptance and social acceptance dimension of self-esteem. Global self-worth among children of popular and average categories, and total self-esteem among children of average category were also improved by the theater program. These results imply that educational theater programs can be used effectively to promote young children's social adjustment.
The Structures and Functions of Social Support for Adolescents from Non-Parental Seniors and Adolescents' Self-Esteem
Journal of Korean Home Management Association, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 49~60
The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of adolescents' relationships with intimate and important people in their lives who are seniors to them. A sample of 1,220 adolescents was surveyed with a questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions on perceived support from non-parental senior figures as well as on adolescents' self-esteem. The results showed that. (a) Adolescents perceived their relatives to be more important than their teachers. (b) Male adolescents perceived support from a larger number of relatives than their female counterparts, whereas female adolescents perceived more support from their close senior figures than their male counterpart. (c) Adolescents' perception of support was different by their father's occupational status. (d) Overall, male adolescents's self-esteem was higher than female adolescents. The adolescents whose fathers held higher-status occupations had higher self-esteem than the adolescents whose fathers held lower-status occupations. (e) Male adolescents' self-esteem was affected by their GPA, father's occupational status, and the number of seniors whom they met on internet, and the amount of perceived support. Female adolescents' self-esteem was affected by father's occupational status and the amount of perceived support.
A Study on Factors that Affect Impulse Purchase on Cable TV Home-shopping
Journal of Korean Home Management Association, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 61~74
Recently, the number of consumers who buy various goods using the shopping channels on cable TV has increased. The objectives of this study are to examine the propensity of consumers to make an impulse purchase through cable TV, and to investigate the factors that influence consumers' impulse purchase. The following was found in this study: (1) The propensity of consumers to make impulse purchases on cable TV is somewhat low, Among sub-areas of impulse purchase, the propensity to make impulse purchase by suggestion is the highest. (2) Among the variables that affect consumers' impulse purchase on cable TV, the most influential variable is the psychological factor, followed by the frequency of shopping on cable TV, positive testimony from consumers who have used the product, and the amount of time spent in watching shopping channels on cable TV, in that order.
The Attitudes toward Divorce of Young Men and Women
Journal of Korean Home Management Association, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 75~85
The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes toward divorce of young men and women. The data were collected by questionnaire from 425 respondents who resided in Sunchon. Statistical methods for the data analysis were frequencies, one-way ANOVA, t-test. The data analysis revealed that the young men and women accepted divorce as an alternative to unhappy marriage and there were significant gender differences in the attitudes toward divorce. Women accepted divorce more positively as an alternative than men in every conditions. Men accepted divorce remarkably as an alternative to unfaithful debauchery of spouse, but women accepted divorce extremely well as an alternative to wrongdoing of spouse. Most of young men and women were worried about children, but not a few of them did not perceived themselves as child rearer. This results showed that divorce will be increased and perceived differently by gender. The young men and women who had lower conservative familism, who were younger, and who had higher education responded more positively about divorce.
An Ecological Systemic Approach on the Wife Abuse
Journal of Korean Home Management Association, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 87~101
The purposes of this study were to analyze causes of wife abuse through married couples as the research subject. The study employed ecological perspective to the study of wife abuse as an multiple dimensional and integrated paradigm combined with isolated theories of other research. The subjects were 369 married couples who live in Gwangju area. Data were analyzed with Cronbach'α, factor analysis, basic statistics, paired-t test, 1-test, ANOVA, Duncan's test, correlation analysis, stepwise multiple regression analysis. and hierarchical regression analysis using the SPSS 10.0 for windows. The major findings were as follows; 1. The psychological abuse score, physical abuse score, and sexual abuse score were lower than median without exception. Hut prevalence rates of wife abuse were considerably serious; 91.9% psychological abuse, 44.4% physical abuse, and 53.7% sexual abuse. 2. The results of the hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the marital conflict had the strongest impact on wife abuse. And the attitude toward wife abuse of husband, hostility of husband, exposure experience of domestic violence during a growth period of husband, perception toward social violence of husband, exposure experience of domestic violence during a growth period of wife, drinking problem of husband, and interpersonal relationships stress of husband had influenced on wife abuse. These variables accounted for 49.5% of variance of wife abuse behaviors. As the result of the study, it concludes that the ecological systemic approach on the cause of wife abuse is useful as a theoretical instrument. Suggestions and implications are made for further research and practical application.
A Mother-Child Relationship Improvement Program for Poor Female-Headed Families
Journal of Korean Home Management Association, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 103~115
This study develops and evaluates a mother-child relationship improvement program for poor female-headed families. The program consists of seven sessions including various physical and educational activities. The goals of this program are (1) enhancing emotional support, health, and physical intimacy among the female heads of households and their children, (2) understanding each other's wants and personalities, and (3) facilitating the communication skills and increasing knowledge on adolescent sexual development. Four mothers of poor female-headed families and four adolescent children of them were participated in the program. The result of the program evaluation shows that this program had positive effects on improving mother-child relationship and their Interaction.
Elderly Users' Satisfaction with Services and Residential Environment of the Senior Citizen Centers in Mid-sized and Small Cities
Lee, In-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Home Management Association, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 117~130
This study was conducted to examine elderly users' satisfaction with welfare services and the environments of the senior citizen centers in mid-sized and small cities in Korea. Three hundred and two elderly users were surveyed for this study. Age and gender differences in the level of satisfaction were found. The male elderly users and older users were more satisfied with the education programs than the female and younger users. The elderly people who reside in single-family residences were more satisfied with the educational programs and part-time job opportunities offered at the center than the elderly users who were living in apartment buildings. This could be explained by the fact that dwellers of single housing had more freedom and more room for self-regulation in scheduling their program participation, whereas the apartment building residents had rarely experienced social exchanges with their neighbors. There were significant differences in satisfaction with the environments of the centers by gender, marital status, age, level of education, religion, and housing type. The group differences were explained by the abundance of community activities that are centered around younger and female participants. Based on these findings, it is suggested that more specialized educational and social programs should be developed for the younger users in their early 60s, that co-ed religious activities and hobby programs should be expanded, and that the home-visiting welfare staff should regularly provide the elderly users the information on programs and activities.
Variables that Affect Selective Optimization with Compensation (SOC) for Successful Aging Among Middle-Class Elderly
Journal of Korean Home Management Association, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 131~144
Selective Optimization with Compensation (SOC), a concept defined by Baltes and Baltes, is known to predict successful aging. This study was conducted to find out which factors affect Korean elderly people SOC The data for this study were obtained from a survey conducted between March and May 2001, on a sample of middle-class male and female participants over 60 years old. Two hundred and fifty four completed questionnaires were used for final analyses. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Duncan test, Pearson correlations, multiple regressions, multiple response frequencies and sequential threshold methods were used to analyze the data. In order to measure successful aging, the Selective Optimization with Compensation Scale developed by Baltes, Baltes, Freud, and Lang (1996) was used. The SOC scale consists of four subscales, Elective Selection, Loss-based Selection, Optimization, and Compensation. The major findings are summarized in the following. First, the level of SOC by various socio-demographic variables was examined. It tuned out that health status is the most important variable in predicting SOC. Also important was satisfaction with family life. Second, significant correlations were found between SOC and duration of the marriage (negative), practicing a religion, health, and economic stability (all positive). Third, religion and health status affected SOC, but health was a stronger predictor Those who practiced a religion and were healthy had a higher score in SOC as a whole. Fourth, the participants were divided into three groups by their SOC score, and their idea.; of successful aging were compared. The top- and middle-score groups considered satisfaction with family life to be more important, whereas the bottom-score group regarded the social status as more important.
In Search of a Definition of Successful Aging: A Review of Literature
Journal of Korean Home Management Association, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 145~154
As the life-expectancy is ever-increasing, and the proportion of the elderly population is growing steadily in every society of the world, it is ever more important to establish what factors allow certain elderly people to age successfully and remain relatively independent while others grow old less successfully and require extensive intervention. However, there is no consensus yet as to what successful aging means. Researchers have defined successful aging in a variety of ways. This study attempted to define the concept of successful aging and to clarify some dimensions of it through literature review. Previous approaches of studying successful aging and related themes were examined. Early perspectives including activity, disengagement, and continuity theories, Selective Optimization with Compensation (SOC) model by Baltes and Baltes, three different conceptions of successful aging, that is, psychological well-being, physical health, and wisdom, and MacArthur research on successful aging have been reviewed for this study. The definition derived from the review is: Keeping up continuous developmental processes to achieve wisdom or ego-integrity, without suffering any major disabilities in either physical or mental functioning, while maintaining psychological well-being and employing SOC strategies, and participating in positive relationships with significant others. The dimensions of successful aging are 1) personal resources, including physical health, cognitive competences, self esteem, and social support 2) adaptation process of SOC, and 3) psychological aspects, including psychological well-being and wisdom.
A Study of Urban Housewives Financial Stress, Coping Strategies and Their Economic Well-Being
Journal of Korean Home Management Association, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 155~173
The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding about urban housewives' stress in family financial management, their coping strategies, and their sense of economic well-being, which will eventually provide some baseline data for policy development. The findings of this study are summarized in the following. First, the mean score of the level of financial management-related stress among urban housewives was 2.61 when the maximum level was set at 5. In order to overcome the stress from financial management, housewives utilized various strategies, such as purchasing management, financial planning, financial information gathering, getting a loan, and delaying payments. The average level of economic well-being among urban housewives was 2.82 when the maximum level was 5. Second, among socio-demographic factors, the family's monthly income and the husband's job satisfaction were the two most significant factors that affected the level of financial management stress among housewives. Third, there was a difference in employing coping strategies according to the level of stress. The group with a higher level of financial stress employed more coping strategies than the group with, a lower level of stress. Fourth, there were differences in the level of economic well-being, depending on the types of coping strategies employed. Fifth, the results from regression analyses, which were conducted to determine the relative explanatory power of different independent variable groups including subjective factors, financial management stress, and coping strategies, showed that socio-demographic and objective economic factors significantly affected economic well-being.
A Comparison of Dual Residence Couple's and Single Residence Couple's Child-rearing.
Journal of Korean Home Management Association, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 175~185
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is any difference between the dual residence couples and the single residence couples in terms of the situation of child care, development of their child and mother's parenting guilty or parenting stress. Also, this study aimed to explore the variables which influence parenting guilty and parenting stress of dual residence mothers. The 178 mothers of three to eight tear-old participated the survey. Half of them were dual residence mothers and another half were those of single residence. These two groups were matched in terms of the occupation of the mother and the age of the child. Major finding were as follows. 1) Compared with single residence couples, dual residence couples used multiple methods of child care. And they depended maternal families more than paternal ones as a care-giver. They also payed much more for the child care than single residence couples. 2) Children of the dual residence couples did not differ with those of the single residence couples in terms of cognitive and social development. 3) Dual residence mothers had more parenting guilty than those of single residence while these two groups did not differ in terms of parenting stress. 4) While dual residence mother's parenting guilty was significantly related with the amount of information provided by the paternal families, their parenting stress was significantly related with the frequencies of communicating with the husband, the mother's age, the flexibility of time in the mother's work place, the mother's orientation to the career, and the supports of the husband. In conclusion, dual residence families in Korea were not so negative as expected. Furthermore, this study suggests that the parenting difficulties of the dual residence mothers could be decreased by the change of social and economic situations and the psycho-social support of the husband.
The Psychological Costs and Rewards of Weekend Couples by the Type of Living Together
Journal of Korean Home Management Association, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 187~199
The purpose of this study was to understand the weekend couples' type of residence, and to identify the factors to determine their major living place. Specifically, this study dealt with the weekend couples' psychological costs and rewards when they live apart in weekdays. The data were collected from 33 married couples from 2002 June to July about their family life history. The major findings of this study were summarized as follows: 1) the type of living together ; husband living apart on weekdays, wife living apart on weekdays, wife and child living apart on weekdays, living multi-residence. The majority of them were the type of husband living apart on weekdays. 2) children's care and education were an important factor in a couple's decision 3) weekend couples' psychological costs were such as difficulties of children's care, very fatiguing, shortage of time, and emotional isolation. In spite of all these costs, weekend couples still maintain their separate living arrangements during the week. They felt different kind of psychological costs by the type of living together. 4) psychological rewards were professional success, self-fulfillment, plenty of time to use purposely, and weekenders' relationships to their spouses might seem better than before. Socialization of child-care and household-labor are important factors to reduce psychological costs for the all weekend couples.
A Comparative Analysis on Objective Evaluation and Subjective Perception of Household Economic Structure for Commuting and Non-Commuting Couples
Journal of Korean Home Management Association, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 201~212
This study analyzed the objective indicators of household economic structures, such as income, expenditure, and debts, as well as a subjective evaluation of economic standards, and compared the households of commuting couples (so called Weekend couples) with those of non-commuting couples. Findings of this study are as follows. First, both husbands and wives in commuter marriages had a higher level of education, were younger, had poorer health, and had shorter working hours than the couples in non-commuter marriages. Second, commuting couples had a significantly higher income than non-commuting couples. In addition, commuting couples had a greater amount of savings, had a higher cost of living, and lower debts than non-commuting couples. Third, commuting couples evaluated their status of household economy more negatively than non-commuting couples. Despite the fact that the commuting couples were more affluent in terms of the objective indicators, including income, savings, and assets, their level of health and psychological well-being were compromised. Lastly, factors determining commuter marriages were the number of years the husband has spent in his job, and the husband's level of education. The shorter the tenure of the husband's job, and the higher the level of husband's education, the more likely the couple was in a commuter marriage.
Time Use Survey of Dual-Career Commuting Couples
Journal of Korean Home Management Association, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 213~220
In this study, I analyzed dual-career commuting couples time use. Concretely, this study compared the husband with the wife on the becoming a commuter family, the living apart on weekdays. And it examined time use on weekdays and weekends by the time amount of each activities and the ratio of actor on each hour. The survey participants included 131 married people who were dual-career commuting couple and who were maintained separate residence and work place. The major findings are as follows: First, weekday separation of the dual-career commuting couples is largely due to career. This kind separation is mostly due to sociostructural labor market factor and individual factor to increasing working women. Second, 94.6%(53) of male participants were resident living apart from their family on weekdays. Third, the most wives mentioned some kind of emotional liberation such as freedom on weekdays. Finally, there was gender difference in the time spent on each activities when dual-career commuting couples are living together and they are apart. Especially the most gender difference on weekdays is household work time and leisure time.