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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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Journal DOI :
Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 6 - Dec 2006
Volume 10, Issue 5 - Oct 2006
Volume 10, Issue 4 - Aug 2006
Volume 10, Issue 3 - Jun 2006
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Apr 2006
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Feb 2006
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Seismic Fragility Analysis of a Cable-stayed Bridge with Energy Dissipation Devices
Park, Won-Suk ; Kim, Dong-Seok ; Choi, Hyun-Sok ; Koh, Hyun-Moo ;
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2006, Pages 1~11
DOI : 10.5000/EESK.2006.10.3.001
This paper presents a seismic fragility analysis method for a cable-stayed bridge with energy dissipation devices. Model uncertainties represented by random variables include input ground motions, characteristics of energy dissipation devices and the stiffness of cable-stayed bridge. Using linear regression, we established demand models for the fragility analysis from the relationship between maximum responses and the intensity of input ground motions. For capacity models, we considered the moment and shear force of the main tower, longitudinal displacement of the girder, deviation of the stay cables tension and the local buckling of the main steel tower as the limit states for cable-stayed bridge. As a numerical example, fragility analysis results for the 2nd Jindo bridge are presented. The effect of energy dissipation devices is also briefly discussed.
Seismic Reliability Assessment of the Korean 345 kV Electric Power Network considering Parallel Operation of Transformers
Park, Won-Suk ; Park, Young-Jun ; Cho, Ho-Hyun ; Koh, Hyun-Moo ;
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2006, Pages 13~20
DOI : 10.5000/EESK.2006.10.3.013
Substations in electric power transmission network systems (EPTS) operate using several transformers in parallel to increase the efficiency in terms of stability of energy supply. We present a seismic reliability assessment method of EPTS considering the parallel operation of transformers. Two methods for damage state model are compared in this paper: bi-state and multi-damage model. Simulation results showed that both models yielded similar network reliability indices and the reliability indices of the demand nodes using hi-state model exhibited higher damage probability. Particularly, the corresponding EENS (Expected Energy Not Supplied) index was significantly larger than that of the multi-damage state.
Seismic Performance Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Columns using Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis
Kim, Tae-Hoon ; Shin, Hyun-Mock ;
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2006, Pages 21~33
DOI : 10.5000/EESK.2006.10.3.021
The purpose of this study is to assess the seismic performance of reinforced concrete bridge columns using nonlinear finite element analysis. The accuracy and objectivity of the assessment process may be enhanced by the use of sophisticated nonlinear finite element analysis program. A computer program, named RCAHEST (Reinforced Concrete Analysis in Higher Evaluation System Technology), for the analysis of reinforced concrete structures was used. Damage index aims to provide a means of quantifying numerically the damage in reinforced concrete bridge columns sustained under earthquake loading. The proposed numerical method for the seismic performance assessment of reinforced concrete bridge columns is verified by comparison with reliable experimental results.
Simulation of 1993 East Sea Tsunami by Parallel FEM Model
Hong, Sung-Jin ; Choi, Byung-Ho ; Pelinovsky, Efim ;
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2006, Pages 35~45
DOI : 10.5000/EESK.2006.10.3.035
The simulation of tsunami using detailed bathymetry and topography is required to establish the countermeasure of disaster mitigation and the tsunami hazard map. In this study, a simulation of the 1993 tsunami event in the East Sea using parallel finite element model, which is possible to simulate with suitable accuracy by the Beowulf parallel computation method, is performed to produce detailed features of coastal inundation. Results of simulation are compared with measured data. The evolution of statistic distribution of tsunami heights is studied numerically and the distribution functions of tsunami heights show a tendency to the log-normal curve along coastal area.
Seismic Performance and Retrofit of Reinforced Concrete Two-Column Piers Subjected to Bi-directional Cyclic Loadings
Chung, Young-Soo ; Park, Chang-Kyu ; Lee, Ho-Yul ;
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2006, Pages 47~55
DOI : 10.5000/EESK.2006.10.3.047
Seismic performance and retrofit of reinforced concrete (RC) two-column piers widely used at roadway bridges in Korea was experimentally evaluated. Ten two-column piers that were 400 mm in diameter and 2,000 mm in height were constructed. These piers were subjected to hi-directional cyclic loadings under a constant axial load of
. Test parameters were the confinement steel ratio, loading pattern, lap splice of longitudinal reinforcing bars, and retrofitting method. Specimens with lap-spliced longitudinal bars were retrofitted with steel jacket, pre-stressing steel wire, and steel band. Test result showed that while the specimens subjected to bi-directional lateral cyclic loadings which consisted of two main amplitudes in the transverse axis and two sub amplitudes in longitudinal axis, referred to as a T-series cyclic loadings, exhibited plastic hinges both at the top and bottom parts of the column, the specimens subjected to bi-directional lateral cyclic loadings in an opposite way, referred to as a L-series cyclic loadings, exhibited a plastic hinge only at the bottom of the column. The displacement ductility of the specimen under the T-series loadings was bigger than that of the specimen under the L-series loadings. Specimen retrofitted with pre-stressing steel wires exhibited poor ductility due to the upward shift of the plastic hinge region because of over-reinforcement, but specimens retrofitted with steel jacket and steel band showed the required displacement ductility. Steel band can be an effective retrofitting scheme to improve the seimsic performance of RC bridge piers, considering its practical construction.
Overstrength and Response Modification Factor in Low Seismicity Regions
Lee, Dong-Guen ; Cho, So-Hoon ; Ko, Hyun ; Kim, Tae-Jin ;
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2006, Pages 57~64
DOI : 10.5000/EESK.2006.10.3.057
Seismic design codes are mainly based on the research results for the inelastic response of structures in high seismicity regions. Since wind loads and gravity loads may govern the design in low seismicity regions in many cases, structures subjected to design seismic loads will have larger overstrength compared to those of high seismicity regions. Therefore, it is necessary to verify if the response modification factor based on high seismicity would be adequate for the design of structures in low seismicity regions. In this study, the adequacy of the response modification factor was verified based on the ductility and overstrength of building structures estimated from the result of nonlinear static analysis. Framed structures are designed for the seismic zones 1, 2A, 4 in UBC-97 representing the low, moderated and high seismicity regions and the overstrength factors and ductility demands of the example structures are investigated. When the same response modification factor was used in the design, inelastic response of structures in low seismicity regions turned out to be much smaller than that in high seismicity regions because of the larger overstrength of structures in low seismicity regions. Demands of plastic rotation in connections and ductility in members were much lower in the low seismicity regions compared to those of the high seismicity regions when the structures are designed with the same response modification factor.
Modal Combination Method for Prediction of Story Earthquake Load Profiles
Eom, Tae-Sung ; Lee, Hye-Lin ; Park, Hong-Gun ;
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2006, Pages 65~75
DOI : 10.5000/EESK.2006.10.3.065
Nonlinear pushover analysis is used to evaluate the earthquake response of building structures. To accurately predict the inelastic response of a structure, the prescribed story load profile should be able to describe the earthquake force profile which actually occurs during the time-history response of the structure. In the present study, a new modal combination method was developed to predict the earthquake load profiles of building structures. In the proposed method, multiple story load profiles are predicted by combining the modal spectrum responses multiplied by the modal combination factors. Parametric studies were performed far moment-resisting frames and walls. Based on the results. the modal combination factors were determined according to the hierarchy of each mode affecting the dynamic responses of structures. The proposed modal combination method was applied to prototype buildings with and without vertical irregularity. The results showed that the proposed method predicts the actual story load profiles which occur during the time-history responses of the structures.
An Evolution of Nonlinear Dynamic Response of an Unreinforced Masonry Structure
Kim, Nam-Hee ;
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2006, Pages 77~84
DOI : 10.5000/EESK.2006.10.3.077
Unlike homogeneous material structure, the behavior of masonry structure is not perfectly elastic even in the range of small deformations because it is a non-homogeneous and anisotropic composite structural material, consisting of masonry units, mortar, and grout. This paper proposes a simplified way of investigating the evolution of the deformation and damage of the structure subjected to a series of successive ground motions with varying shaking. Especially, the most simple but useful algorithm of Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) has been adopted to investigate the evolution of the deformation and damage of the structure tested on the shaking table. Moreover, the development of a hi-linear curve for an equivalent SDOF system which is obtained by exploiting the frequency and stiffness relationship was discussed. Finally, some important findings related to inelastic properties of the URM are summarized.
Optimal Design of Linear Viscous Damping System for Vibration Control of Adjacent Building Structures
Park, Kwan-Soon ; Ok, Seung-Yong ; Koh, Hyun-Moo ;
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2006, Pages 85~100
DOI : 10.5000/EESK.2006.10.3.085
This paper proposes an optimal design method of linear viscous dampers for the seismic performance of two adjacent structures with different heights. Accordingly, connection method using diagonal bracing between two floors and connection method between two structures are considered, and the effectiveness of the latter method is confirmed through the comparison of the frequency response functions with respect to damping capacity. Moreover, optimal damping to minimize the response of the adjacent structures in the frequency domain is found. The sensitivity of natural frequency and modal damping according to the damper capacity at each floor is obtained for the optimally designed system. From the sensitivity analysis, the modal damping is evaluated to be very sensitive to the damper installed at higher floor. Therefore, sensitivity-based damping distribution method is proposed. Diagonal bracing connection method, uniform distribution method and sensitivity-based distribution method are compared to each other in terms of seismic performance. The comparative results demonstrate that the proposed method is an effective seismic design method for the adjacent structures.
Modeling of Near Fault Ground Motion due to Moderate Magnitude Earthquakes in Stable Continental Regions
Kim, Jung-Han ; Kim, Jae-Kwan ;
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2006, Pages 101~111
DOI : 10.5000/EESK.2006.10.3.101
This paper proposes a method for modeling new fault ground motion due to moderate size earthquakes in Stable Continental Regions (SCRs) for the first time. The near fault ground motion is characterized by a single long period velocity pulse of large amplitude. In order to model the velocity pulse, its period and peak amplitude need be determined in terms of earthquake magnitude and distance from the causative fault. Because there have been observed very few new fault ground motions, it is difficult to derive the model directly from the recorded data in SCRs. Instead an indirect approach is adopted in this work. The two parameters, the period and peak amplitude of the velocity pulse, are known to be functions of the rise time and the slip velocity. For Western United States (WUS) that belongs active tectonic regions, there art empirical formulas for these functions. The relations of rise time and slip velocity on the magnitude in SCRs are derived by comparing related data between Western United States and Central-Eastern United States that belongs to SCRs. From these relations, the functions of these pulse parameters for NFGM in SCRs can be expressed in terms of earthquake magnitude and distance. A time history of near fault ground motion of moderate magnitude earthquake in stable continental regions is synthesized by superposing the velocity pulse on the for field ground motion that is generated by stochastic method. As an demonstrative application, the response of a single degree of freedom elasto-plastic system is studied.
The Mechanism of Load Resistance and Deformability of Reinforced Concrete Coupling Beams
Hong, Sung-Gul ; Jang, Sang-Ki ;
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2006, Pages 113~123
DOI : 10.5000/EESK.2006.10.3.113
An experimental investigation on the behavior of reinforced concrete coupling beams is presented. The test variables are the span-to-depth ratio, the ratio of flexural reinforcements and the ratio of shear rebars. The distribution of arch action and truss action which compose the mechanism of shear resistance is discussed. The increase of plastic deformation after yielding transforms the shear transfer by arch action into by truss action. This study proposes the deformation model for reinforced concrete coupling beams considering the bond slip of flexural reinforcement. The strain distribution model of shear reinforcements and flexural reinforcements based on test results is presented. The yielding of flexural reinforcements determines yielding states and the ultimate states of reinforced concrete coupling beam are defined as the ultimate compressive strain of struts and the degradation of compressive strength due to principal tensile strain of struts. The flexural-shear failure mechanism determines the ultimate state of RC coupling beams. It is expected that this model can be applied to displacement-based design methods.
A Study on Liquefaction Assessment of Moderate Earthquake Region concerning Earthquake Magnitude of Korea
Kim, Soo-Il ; Park, Keun-Bo ; Park, Seong-Yong ; Seo, Kyung-Bum ;
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2006, Pages 125~134
DOI : 10.5000/EESK.2006.10.3.125
Conventional methods for the assessment of liquefaction potential were primary for severe earthquake regions
such as North America and Japan. In Korea, an earthquake related research has started in 1997, but most contents in the guidelines were still quoted from literature reviews of North America and Japan, which are located in strong earthquake region. Those are not proper in a moderate earthquake regions including Korea. Also the equivalent uniform stress concept (Seed & Idriss, 1971) using regular sinusoidal loading which is used, in a conventional method for the assessment of liquefaction potential, can't reflect correctly the dynamic characteristics of real irregular earthquake motions. In this study, cyclic triaxial tests using irregular earthquake motions are performed with different earthquake magnitudes, relative densities, and fines contents. Assessment of liquefaction potential in moderate earthquake regions is discussed based on various laboratory test results. From the results, screening limits in seismic design were re-investigated and proposed using normalized maximum stress ratios under real irregular earthquake motions. Also from the tests using constant wedge loading and incremental wedge loading, the characteristics of liquefaction resistance of saturated sand under irregular ground motions are investigated.
Database Design for Development of the GIS-based Earthquake Damage Evaluation System of Highway Bridges
Lee, Sang-Ho ; Kim, Bong-Geun ; Jeong, Dong-Gyun ;
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2006, Pages 135~147
DOI : 10.5000/EESK.2006.10.3.135
The essential information elements for the Earthquake Damage Evaluation System (EDES) of highway bridges are defined in this study, and a database construction method, which fits the circumstances of Korea, is proposed. The information elements for the EDES of highway bridges are categorized in two groups: structure related information, location related information. The structure related information is composed of the fragility curve information which is necessary for earthquake damage evaluation of highway bridges. The data structure of road network, which represents the location related information, is defined in more detail than the existing GIS-based data structure of road network for modeling of junctions. A pilot GIS-based EDES subjected to 110 bridges on expressway in Korea is developed, and it is verified that the proposed database construction method for the EDES can be used to develop a decision making system for quick retrofitting of the seismic damages of highway bridges and road network.
Effects of PZ Strength on Cyclic Seismic Performance of RBS Steel Moment Connections
Lee, Cheol-Ho ; Kim, Jae-Hoon ;
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 3, 2006, Pages 149~158
DOI : 10.5000/EESK.2006.10.3.149
The reduced beam section (RBS) steel moment connection has performed well in past numerous tests. However there still remain several design issues that should be further examined. One such issue on RBS connection performance is the panel zone strength. Although a significant amount of test data are available, a specific recommendation for a desirable range of panel zone strength versus beam strength has yet to be proposed. In this paper, the effects of panel zone strength on the cyclic performance of RBS connection are investigated based on the available test database from comprehensive independent testing programs. A criterion for a balanced panel zone strength that assures sufficient plastic rotation capacity while reducing the amount of beam buckling is proposed. Numerical studies to supplement the test results are then presented based on the validated finite element analysis. Satisfactory numerical simulation achieved in this study also indicates that numerical analysis based on quality finite element modeling can supplement or replace, at least in part, the costly full-scale cyclic testing of steel moment connections.