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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 6, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 6, Issue 5 - Oct 2002
Volume 6, Issue 4 - Aug 2002
Volume 6, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 6, Issue 2 - Apr 2002
Volume 6, Issue 1 - Feb 2002
Selecting the target year
Development of Earthquake Resistant Analysis Models for Typical Roadway Bridges
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, volume 6, issue 4, 2002, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.5000/EESK.2002.6.4.001
The structural safety required in general design is to be proved with safety factors provided for structural members in elastic range. But, for the safety requirement in the earthquake resistant design, a specific ductile failure mechanism in plastic range should be verified according to the structural configuration. Therefore such verifications should be done in the preliminary design stage by comparing various design alternatives. In the main design stage only a confirmation of the ductile failure mechanism is required. In this study typical roadway bridges are selected and analysis models are presented for the preliminary and main design. For the two models, vibration periods and mode shapes are compared and the multi-mode spectrum method is applied to determine failure mechanisms. The failure mechanisms obtained with the two models are compared to check the properness of the model used for the preliminary design, which may well be used as an earthquake resistant analysis model in practice.
Predicting the Nonlinear Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Membrane Elements Subjected to Reversed Cyclic Loading
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, volume 6, issue 4, 2002, Pages 7~13
DOI : 10.5000/EESK.2002.6.4.007
The behaviors of the reinforced concrete membrane elements are expected by Navier`s three principles of the mechanics of materials. The adopted cyclic stress-strain curves of concrete consist of seven different unloading and loading stages in the compressive zone and six other stages in the tensile zone. The curves took into account the softening of concrete that was influenced by the tensile strain in the perpendicular direction of cracks. The stress-strain relationships for steel bar embedded in concrete subjected to reversed cyclic forces considered the tension stiffening effect and Baushinger effect. The predicted results of the analysis based on Navier`s principles were in good agreement with the observed shear stress-strain relationships as well as transverse and longitudinal strains.
Seismic Fragility Analysis of Multi-Modes Structures Considering Modal Contribution Factor
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, volume 6, issue 4, 2002, Pages 15~22
DOI : 10.5000/EESK.2002.6.4.015
In the course of seismic probabilistic risk assessment(SPRA), seismic fragility analysis(SFA) is utilized as a tool to evaluate the actual seismic capacity of structures. This paper introduces a methodology of SFA and its evaluation procedures, especially focusing on the basic fragility variables. A new definition of the response spectrum shape factor as one of the most critical basic variables is suggested. The new factor is expressed as a term of linear algebraic sum using the modal contribution factor. The efficiency of new response spectrum shape factor is evaluated and validated to use in practice through the case study of the nuclear power plant structures. The case study results show that the proposed method can be effectively applicable to multi-mode structures with composite modal damping.
Radar Probing of Concrete Specimens Using Frequency Domain Filtering
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, volume 6, issue 4, 2002, Pages 23~29
DOI : 10.5000/EESK.2002.6.4.023
Radar method can be effective in probing concrete structures damaged by earthquake. Data analysis is usually performed in time domain, by considering time delay of the wave due to the dielectric constant of concrete. In this study, improved data analysis has been performed using signal processing scheme of spectra analysis and filtering. Three antenna with 900MHz, 1㎓, and 1.5㎓ center frequency were used to detect a steel bar or delamination in specimens for obtaining data, Frequency spectrum was filtered in low pass, high pass, and band pass varying cutoff frequency with 1/3 octave in frequency domain. The most effective cutoff frequency for each frequency has been determined as the range for 2 octave lower to 1 octave higher and 2 octave lower to 1 octave lower. This result provided a basis in improving data analysis capability using frequency domain filtering.
Cyclic Seismic Testing of Steel Moment Connections Reinforced with Welded Straight Haunch
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, volume 6, issue 4, 2002, Pages 31~37
DOI : 10.5000/EESK.2002.6.4.031
Recently a simplified design procedure as well as load transfer model for seismic steel moment connections with welded straight haunch have been proposed by Lee and Uang. Cyclic seismic testing was conducted to verify the proposed design procedure and to develop the details that will prevent the cracking at the haunch tip, where stress concentration was the highest. All the specimens thus designed effectively pushed plastic hinging away from the haunch tip and were able to develop satisfactory plastic rotation capacity of 0.04 radian with no fracture. A sloped edge combined with drilling a hole near the haunch tip or a pair of stiffeners(partially or fully) extended from the beam web successfully prevented the crack initiation at the haunch tip. The strut action of the haunch web, which had been predicted from the previous analytical study, was also experimentally identified through the strain gage readings.
Experimental Study on Characteristics of Low Hardness Rubber Bearing
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, volume 6, issue 4, 2002, Pages 39~49
DOI : 10.5000/EESK.2002.6.4.039
In this paper, the characteristics of RB(rubber bearing) were studied by various prototype tests on RB with low hardness rubber. The characteristics of RB were tested on displacements, repeated cycles, frequencies, vertical pressures, temperature, vertical stiffness and the capability of shear deformation. The prototype test showed that the displacement and vertical pressures were the most governing factors influencing on characteristics of RB. The effective stiffness and equivalent damping of RB showed small increment in high frequency range. After the repeated cyclic test with 50`s cycles, the effective stiffness and equivalent damping of RB were almost constant compared with those of the 1st cycles due to low hysteretic damping. The shear modulus of RB was reduced after large deformation, and this value of RB was partly recovered after 40 days. Finally, the shear failure test of RB was conducted, the prototype was failed over 490% of shear strain, and real size RB was failed over 430% of shear strain.
Hybrid Control of a Benchmark Cable-Stayed Bridge Considering Nonlinearity of a Lead Rubber Bearing
Park, Kyu-Sik ; Jung, Hyun-Jo ; Lee, In-Won ;
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, volume 6, issue 4, 2002, Pages 51~63
DOI : 10.5000/EESK.2002.6.4.051
This paper presents a hybrid control strategy for seismic protection of a benchmark cable-stayed bridge, which is provided as a testbed structure for the development of strategies for the control of cable-stayed bridges. This benchmark problem considers the cable-stayed bridge that is scheduled for completion in Cape Girardeau, Missouri, USA in 2003. Seismic considerations were strongly considered in the design of this bridge due to the location of the bridge in the New Madrid seismic zone and its critical role as a principal crossing of the Mississippi river. Based on detailed drawings of this cable-stayed bridge, a three-dimensional linearlized evaluation model has been developed to represent the complex behavior of the bridge. A set of eighteen evaluation criteria has been developed to evaluate the capabilities of each control strategy. In this study, a hybrid control system is composed of a passive control system to reduce the earthquake-induced forces in the structure and an active control system to further reduce the bridge responses, especially deck displacements. Conventional base isolation devices such as lead rubber bearings are used for the passive control design and Bouc-Wen model is used to simulate the nonlinear behavior of these devices For the active control design, ideal hydraulic actuators are used and on
/LQG control algorithm is adopted. Numerical simulation results show that the performance of the proposed hybrid control strategy is quite effective compared to that of the passive control strategy and slightly better than that of the active control strategy. The hybrid control method is also more reliable than the fully active control method due to the passive control part. Therefore, the proposed hybrid control strategy can effectively be used to seismically excited cable-stayed bridges.
The Properties of a Nonlinear Direct Spectrum Method for Estimating the Seismic Performance
Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, volume 6, issue 4, 2002, Pages 65~73
DOI : 10.5000/EESK.2002.6.4.065
It has been recognized that the damage control must become a more explicit design consideration. In an effort to develop design methods based on performance it is clear that the evaluation of the nonlinear response is required. The methods available to the design engineer today are nonlinear time history analyses, monotonic static nonlinear analyses, or equivalent static analyses with simulated nonlinear influences. Some building codes propose the capacity spectrum method based on the nonlinear static analysis(pushover analysis) to determine the earthquake-induced demand given by the structure pushover curve. These procedures are conceptually simple but iterative and time consuming with some errors. This paper presents a nonlinear direct spectrum method(NDSM) to evaluate seismic performance of structures, without iterative computations, given by the structural initial elastic period and yield strength from the pushover analysis, especially for MDF(multi degree of freedom) systems. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the accuracy and confidence of this method from a point of view of various earthquakes and unloading stiffness degradation parameters. The conclusions of this study are as follows; 1) NDSM is considered as practical method because the peak deformations of nonlinear system of MDF by NDSM are almost equal to the results of nonlinear time history analysis(NTHA) for various ground motions. 2) When the results of NDSM are compared with those of NTHA. mean of errors is the smallest in case of post-yielding stiffness factor 0.1, static force by MAD(modal adaptive distribution) and unloading stiffness degradation factor 0.2~0.3.