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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute for Structural Maintenance Inspection
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Nov 2014
Volume 18, Issue 5 - Sep 2014
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Jul 2014
Volume 18, Issue 3 - May 2014
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Mar 2014
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
Selecting the target year
A Development of Seismic Rehabilitation Method of RC Buildings Strengthened with X-Bracing Using Carbon Fiber Composite Cable
Lee, Kang-Seok ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 18, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2014.18.3.001
Improving the earthquake resistance of buildings through seismic retrofitting using steel braces can result in brittle failure at the connection between the brace and the building, as well as buckling failure of the braces. In this study, a non-compression cross-bracing system using the Carbon Fiber Composite Cable (CFCC), which consists of CFCC bracing and bolt connection was proposed to replace the conventional steel bracing. This paper presented the seismic resistance of a reinforced concrete frame strengthened using CFCC X-bracing. Cyclic loading tests were carried out, and the maximum load carrying capacity and ductility were investigated, together with hysteresis of the lateral load-drift relations. Test results revealed that the CFCC X-bracing system installed RC frames enhanced markedly the strength capacity and no buckling failure of the bracing was observed.
An Investigation of the Shear Buckling Characteristics of Sinusoidal Corrugated Steel Plates
Shon, Su-Deok ; Yoo, Mi-Na ; Lee, Seung-Jae ; Kang, Joo-Won ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 18, issue 3, 2014, Pages 10~19
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2014.18.3.010
Corrugated steel plates are made by fabricating thin steel plates to have trapezoidal or sinusoidal corrugation, and the corrugated plates are able to maintain high out-of-plane rigidity even when they are used instead of thick flat plates. Also, corrugated steel plates have almost no axial rigidity due to the accordion effect. Thus, if they are applied to the webs of plate girders, designing can be easily conducted so that the webs bear only shear stresses. However, unlike flat plates, the shear buckling of corrugated steel plates has very complex characteristics where buckling occurs due to the interaction of local and global buckling, besides local buckling and global buckling. For the investigation of the cause and characteristics of this interactive buckling, studies on sinusoidal corrugated steel plates are fewer than studies on trapezoidal corrugated steel plates. Therefore, in this study, the shear buckling characteristics of sinusoidal corrugated steel plates and the occurrence pattern of interactive buckling were investigated. For the calculation of shear buckling strength, a finite element program was used, and the analysis results were compared with the exact solution. In addition, the characteristics of buckling stress change and the change of buckling mode shape depending on corrugation thickness and shape parameter were analyzed, and by comparing these results with the results of a theoretical equation, the timing of buckling mode change was analyzed.
Evaluation of Flexural Behavior of Hollow Prestressed Concrete Pile for Continuous Pile Wall
Lee, Young-Geun ; Jang, Min-Jun ; Yoon, Soon-Jong ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 18, issue 3, 2014, Pages 20~27
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2014.18.3.020
In the construction site, various earth retaining systems are developed and applied to maintain stability of excavated area and structures. Among the methods, the underground continuous wall and the column-type diaphragm wall methods are especially used in construction site nearby buildings or roads. However, these methods have some disadvantages such as the difficulty of quality control and long curing time because these methods need to cast fresh concrete at the construction site. In addition, these methods are usually applied to the site for the temporary purpose. In this paper, we suggest precast hollow prestressed concrete pile for continuous pile wall system. To investigate the structural behavior of suggested pile, which is the main member of the suggested system, tests pertaining to the structural behavior and prestressing force applied in the pile are conducted. From the test results, it was found that the prestressing force measured is sufficient compared with the value obtained by the design equation and the cracking moment measured is 34% higher than the design value. In addition to the above, this precast hollow prestressed concrete pile has an additional safety margin that the maximum moment is 59.2% higher than the cracking moment which is one of the serviceability limits for the design of the system.
State-of-the-Art Research and Experimental Assessment on Fire-Resistance Properties of High Strength Concrete
Kim, Woo-Suk ; Kang, Thomas H.K. ; Kim, Wha-Jung ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 18, issue 3, 2014, Pages 28~39
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2014.18.3.028
This paper reviews past literatures relevant to fire-resistance properties of high strength concrete and investigates spalling mechanism of high strength concrete in fire. First, literatures were reviewed on spalling occurrence and fire-resistance methods. Second, a chemical change of concrete components in an elevated temperature was presented. Finally, the mechanism of the spalling occurrence and spalling resistance were examined in terms of hybrid fiber content. The focus of the experimental study as part of this research is to investigate the effects of fire on the variation of thermal properties of high strength concrete, which tends to be used in super tall buildings. This experimental study was devised to investigate the fire-resistance performance of high strength concrete containing hybrid fibers. A total of 48 test specimens were exposed to high temperature ranging from
, including room temperature (
). Test results provide valuable information regarding fire-resistance properties of strength concrete with 100 MPa or greater.
Improvement and Evaluation of Seismic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Exterior Beam-Column Joints using Embedded CFRP Rods and CFRP Sheets
Ha, Gee-Joo ; Kang, Hyun-Wook ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 18, issue 3, 2014, Pages 40~48
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2014.18.3.040
In this study, experimental research was carried out to evaluate and improve the seismic performance of reinforced concrete beam-column joint regions using strengthening materials (embedded CFRP rod and CFRP sheet) in existing reinforced concrete building. Therefore it was constructed and tested six specimens retrofitting the beam-column joint regions using such retrofitting materials. Specimens, designed by retrofitting the beam-column joint regions of existing reinforced concrete building, were showed the stable failure mode and increase of load-carrying capacity due to the effect of crack control at the times of initial loading and confinement of retrofitting materials during testing. Specimens RBCJ-SRC2, designed by the retrofitting of CFRP Rod and CFRP Sheet in reinforecd beam-column joint regions were increased its maximum load carrying capacity by 1.97 times and its energy dissipation capacity by 2.08 times in comparison with standard specimen RBCJ for a displacement ductility of 4 and 7. Also, specimens RBCJ-SRC2 were increased its maximum load carrying capacity by 1.09~1.11 times in comparison with specimen RBCJ-SR series. And Specimens RBCJ-CS, RBCJ-SR series, RBCJ-SRC2 were increased its energy dissipation capacity by 1.10~2.30 times in comparison with standard specimen RBCJ for a displacement ductility of 5, 6.
Design Equation Suggestion through Parametric Study of Laterally Restrained Concrete Decks with Steel Strap
Kim, Cheol-Hwan ; Yi, Seong-Tae ; Jo, Byung-Wan ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 18, issue 3, 2014, Pages 49~57
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2014.18.3.049
A deterioration of typical reinforced concrete (RC) bridge deck is due to the use of calcium chloride, cracks and water penetration inside of the deck slab with steel reinforcement. In order to eliminate the defects of RC decks in terms of material, therefore, the steel-strapped deck system is studied and developed by maximizing the arching effect while the girders are restrained using straps in lateral direction to the bridge. This parametric study was performed to analyze the structural characteristics of steel-strapped deck, and to identify the factors of the thickness, span length and lateral restraint stiffness of deck slab considering the concrete non-linearity. Finally, a design equation, which is adequate to South Korea, is suggested.
Failure Behavior of Octagonal Flared RC Columns Using Oblong Hoops
Ko, Seong-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 18, issue 3, 2014, Pages 58~68
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2014.18.3.058
Transverse steel bars are used in the plastic hinge zone of columns to insure adequate confinement, prevention of longitudinal bar buckling and ductile behavior. Fabrication and placement of rectangular hoops and cross-ties in columns are difficult to construct and require larger amount of transverse steels. In this paper, to solve these problems, the new lateral confinement method using oblong hoop is proposed for the transverse confinement of columns of the oblong cross-section and flared column. The experimental study for octagonal oblong cross-section was carried out by the flared columns test in strong axis. The lateral confinement method using proposed oblong hoop detail showed satisfactory performance of lateral confinement. Therefore it can be the alternative for oblong cross-section and flared column with improved workability and cost-efficiency.
Durability Analysis of Underground Structure based on Limit State Function Considering Carbonation
Choo, Jin-Ho ; Lee, Tae-Jong ; Yoon, Tae-Gook ; Lee, Sang-Chul ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 18, issue 3, 2014, Pages 69~75
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2014.18.3.069
The priority of repair areas are chosen with the probability distribution of 0.3mm wide crack and carbonation induced corrosion. Data is analyzed and evaluated based on the 28 section of Precise Inspection for Safety and Diagnosis (PISD) in seoul. As the crack is distributed in log-normal, the carbonation and cover are in normal distribution. To have rational in repair sections among 503 sheets of underground structure, it is adopted the reliability index as well as the environment factors: strength, sonic speed,
concentration, corrosion, and content of chloride.
Capacity Evaluation of High Strength SFRC Beams according to Shear Span to Depth Ratio
Lee, Hyun-Ho ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 18, issue 3, 2014, Pages 76~83
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2014.18.3.076
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the shear strengthening effect of steel fiber in high strength SFRC beams. For this purpose, 13th specimens are prepared and structural tests are performed. Testing variables are shear span to depth ratio, steel fiber volume fraction, shear strengthening ratio in 60 MPa SFRC concrete. From the reviewing of previous researches and analyzing of material and member test results, shear span to depth ratio 2.5 and steel fiber volume fraction 1.0% can be having a maximum strengthening effect in steel fiber. Proposed shear strength estimation equation, which is considering steel fiber strengthening and shear span to depth ratio effect, underestimate the shear capacity of high strength SFRC beams. Therefore a detailed research on strength characteristics of high strength SFRC beams are needed.
Tension Estimation of External Tendons in PC Bridges Using Vibration Measurement Method
Park, Sung Woo ; Jung, Ha Tae ; Jung, Soo Hyung ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 18, issue 3, 2014, Pages 84~92
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2014.18.3.084
In this study, vibrational tendon tension measurement methods are applied to estimate tension of external tendons used in segmental post-tensioned bridges. The acceleration of various length type of tendons is measured and natural frequencies are obtained using FFT (Fast Fourier Transform). The obtained natural frequencies are within 1% error regardless of sensor direction and location. On the basis of natural frequency of tendon, estimation of the tendon tension is performed by using many types of solutions such as string theory equation, multi mode estimation, practical formula estimation and stiff string with clamped-clamped boundary conditions. The results are compared with each other and have shown that the flexural stiffness is not negligible in tendons of this type causing the vibration mode to be inharmonically related. The results have shown that the method using stiff string equation with clamped-clamped boundary conditions is more accurate than the other methods. Application example of in-service bridges has shown that force distribution effects from friction at deviation blocks can be effectively detected.
Evaluation of Tension of Stay Cable using MBM (Measurement-based Model)
Nam, Sang-Jin ; Yhim, Sung-Soon ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 18, issue 3, 2014, Pages 93~100
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2014.18.3.093
This study presents the recomposition of MBM (measurement-based model) using natural frequencies and modes from the usually measured data, and the evaluation of cable tension in service from the analysis results upon MBM of existing CSB (cable stayed bridge). The cable tension is shown to be different according to the position attached to cable and loading type. The measured cable tensions are not different distinctly according to position attached cable under dead and live loads, but larger than those under design loads. The distribution of cable tension calculated upon the MBM is similar to those of measured tension although the former is more than those of cable tension upon the design model. Considering to long-term behaviors of cable, therefore, the design of cable in CSB needs to apply the analysis results on MBM. For this purpose, future study needs lots of measured data and MBM is used to analyze the long-term behavior of cable in CSB.
Damage Detection of Shear Building Structures Using Dynamic Response
Yoo, Suk-Hyeong ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 18, issue 3, 2014, Pages 101~107
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2014.18.3.101
Damage location and extent of structure could be detected by the inverse analysis on dynamic response properties such as frequencies and mode shapes. The dynamic response of building structures has many noise and affected by nonstructural members and, above all, the behavior of building structure is more complex than civil structure and this makes the damage detection difficult. In recent researches the damage is detected by the indirect index such as sensitivity or assumed values. However, for the more reasonable damage detection, it needs to use the damage index directly induced from dynamic equation. The purpose of this study is to provide the damage detection method on shear building structures by the damage index directly induced from dynamic equation. The provided damage index could be estimated from measured mode shape of undamaged structure and frequency difference between undamaged and damaged structure. The damage detection method is applied to numerical analysis model such as MATLAB and MIDAS GENw for the verification. The damage index at damaged story represents (-) sign and 15 times than other undamaged sories.
Prediction of Long-term Residual Inter-laminar Shear Strength of Thermally Damaged GFRP Rebar
Kim, Min-Cheol ; Moon, Do-Young ; Kim, Sung-Do ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 18, issue 3, 2014, Pages 108~115
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2014.18.3.108
Mechanical properties of GFRP rebars significantly decrease due to high temperature as well as alkalinity of concrete. This study focuses on the long-term reduction of inter-laminar shear strength of pre-damaged GFRP rebars by high temperature. For this investigation, bare GFRP rebar specimens were exposed to
for 1hour and then immerged in alkali solution for several months and tested in shear. No thermally conditioned specimens were immerged and tested for the comparisons. In results, the reduction of thermally damaged GFRP rebars was greater than that of no thermally damaged ones. Based on the accelerated experimental test data, an polynomial equation is presented for prediction of long-term residual inter-laminar shear strength of GFRP rebars previously damaged by high temperature.
A Study on the Penetration Depth Measurement Methods of Inorganic Waterproofing Agent for Concrete
Choi, Yun-Wang ; Oh, Sung-Rok ; Park, Man-Seok ; Kim, Kyung-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 18, issue 3, 2014, Pages 116~124
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2014.18.3.116
Penetration depth of inorganic waterproofing agent is difficult to assess quantitatively because inorganic waterproofing agent for concrete is not an internal waterproof membrane. However, evaluation of penetration depth of inorganic waterproofing agent is one of the most important evaluation index to secure efficiency in a consistent penetration. Therefore, this paper was proposed penetration depth measurement method of inorganic waterproofing agent for concrete and the penetration depth of the conventional inorganic waterproofing agent have been evaluated through the proposed penetration depth measurement method. As a result of test, the measured penetration depth throught the proposed penetration depth measurement method of inorganic waterproofing agent showed that more than 90% reliability.
Evaluation of Crack Resistant Performance in Cement Mortar with Steel Fiber and CSA Expansion Admixture
Ahn, Jung-Kil ; Park, Ki-Tae ; Kwon, Seung-Jun ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 18, issue 3, 2014, Pages 125~132
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2014.18.3.125
Steel fiber is a effective composite for crack resistance and improve structural performance under tensile loading. This study presents an evaluation of crack resistance and structural performance in cement mortar with steel fiber and expansion agent through internal chemical prestressing. For this work, cement mortar samples with 10% replacement of cement binder with CSA (Calcium-Sulfo-Aluminate) expansion agent and 1% volume ratio of steel fiber are prepared. Including basic mechanical properties, initial cracking load and fracture energy are evaluated in cement mortar beam with notch. Initial cracking load and fracture energy in cement mortar with CSA and steel fiber increase by 1.75 and 1.41~1.53 times compared with those in cement mortar with steel fiber. With optimum mix design for steel fiber and CSA expansive agent, the composite with chemical prestressing can be applied to various members and effectively improve crack resistance to external loading.
Study on Stable Use of Stainless EAF Oxidizing Slag as Fine Aggregate of Concrete
Cho, Bong-Suk ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 18, issue 3, 2014, Pages 133~142
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2014.18.3.133
Recently, more focus is shift to imbalances in aggregate market supply and demand and an exhaustion of natural resources. In this situation, Electric arc furnace oxidizing slag (EAF Slag) has high application possibility as aggregate for concrete due to similar property with general aggregate. In this study, We`ve got the plan to assure the chemical stability of EAF Slag, and then experimentally tested the mechanical performance and durability for the fine aggregate used EAF Slag. On this test result, we suggest the application plan. At the result of this study, it shows that EAF slag would reduce the surface defect such as pop-out due to natural aging for the fixed hour and adjustment the grain size of EAF Slag. And mechanical performance and durability according to the replacement rate of concrete service, were revealed more than equal or equal compare to general aggregate. Hereafter, quality control must precede not to impede the beauty of concrete surface as assure the safety for aging and processing. And, to establish the environmental resource recycling system for by-products of steel, it should be made development of various application and guideline of quality control for the EAF slag aggregate. Moreover, it must be constantly studied all kind of engineering performance and durability for related to this study.
An Experimental Study on the Effect of Sensor Line Number on the Reactivity Characteristic of Corrosion Sensor Reactive with Chloride Ion to Immigrate into Concrete
Lee, Hyun-Seok ; Lee, Han-Seung ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 18, issue 3, 2014, Pages 143~152
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2014.18.3.143
In this study, the sensor response and sensitivity is experimented and analyzed quantitatively by the line numbers of chlorine ion reaction type corrosion sensor that is developed. The sensor response of the developed corrosion sensor is verified with properties of chlorine ion. The multilineal sensor is shown a large resistance change more than the single line sensor by damage of the sensor. And, the resistance change of sensor is as large as high concentration of NaCl aqueous solution, the sensitivity of multilineal sensor is higher than single line sensor`s, and the depth of sensor`s location is as large as the increasing of resistance change time (cycle). These results suggest that, the developed corrosion sensor could sense corrosion reaction, sensor sensitivity and change of resistance for chloride ion. Especially, It was judged that 7 line sensor was the most superior for monitoring chloride ion immigration into concrete.
A Study on the Joint Property by the Surface Treatment Method on the Jointing Method of PET Film using the High Hardness Liquid
Lee, Jong-Suk ; Kim, Young-Sam ; Shin, Hong-Chol ; Kim, Young-Geun ; Kang, Chung-Mo ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 18, issue 3, 2014, Pages 153~159
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2014.18.3.153
This research reviewed the joint and duration characteristics depending on the surface treatment condition and lap spliced length in the PET film jointing method using the high hardness liquid material. As a result, the corona discharge treatment was improved to the contact angle, joint tensile strength, and joint peel resistance compared to non-treatment. Particularly, a surface treatment E (Corona discharge + Primer + PU bond + Polyester fabric) turned out to the best, and especially when the lap spliced length is longer than 15mm, stable joint performance was secured under the long term deterioration treatment of 16 weeks. Thus, the joint is considered to be applicable as the water-proof material.
An Experimental Study on the Property of the Concrete with Glass Hollow Micro Sphere
Kim, Sang-Heon ; Kim, Se-Hwan ; Park, Young-Shin ; Jeon, Hyun-Gyu ; Seo, Chee-Ho ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 18, issue 3, 2014, Pages 160~166
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2014.18.3.160
In this research, as a measure of reducing energy lost through external wall, we used Glass Hollow Micro Sphere (HMS) to improve insulation performance to structural concrete. The following is a result of experimenting concrete using HMS. As usage of HMS, decrease in slump arose and it is judged as a need of using superplasticizer. Replacement ratio increasing more and more, amount of air showed tendency to decrease and compressive strength decreased for interfacial adhesion had not been formed. as replacement ratio and unit volume decreased. It appears that thermal conductivity decreased about 30.0~46.5 percent as compared with normal weight concrete.
Techniques for Characterizing Surface Deterioration of Epoxy Exposed to Ozone Damage
Choi, Sung-Min ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 18, issue 3, 2014, Pages 167~177
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2014.18.3.167
New technologies for water purification are continuously emerging to address global water quality problems, and one such technology involves advanced hermetic water purification facilities made by concrete that utilize ozone treatment processes. Better knowledge about surface deterioration of epoxy coating exposed to ozone treatment is needed as a foundation for development of improved methods and materials in the future. This study utilized atomic force microscopy (AFM), nanoindentation methods, and existing indirect methods such as visual observation, changes in mass, surface observation and chrominance analysis, to evaluate epoxy water-resistance and anti-corrosiveness. This study considered six different epoxy formulations to assess typical degradation characteristics of epoxy surfaces with regard to water-resistance/anti-corrosiveness. AFM and nanoindentation techniques emerged as promising direct methods with potential to provide quantitative measures of surface quality that are improvements upon existing indirect methods. The experiments also confirmed that some of the epoxy-coatings were severely iMPacted by ozone exposure, and thus the results demonstrate that concern about such deterioration is justified.