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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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Journal DOI :
Korea Institute for Structural Maintenance Inspection
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 5 - Sep 2016
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Jul 2016
Volume 20, Issue 3 - May 2016
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Mar 2016
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
Selecting the target year
Development of Statistical/Probabilistic-Based Adaptive Thresholding Algorithm for Monitoring the Safety of the Structure
Kim, Tae-Heon ; Park, Ki-Tae ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 20, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2016.20.4.001
Recently, buildings tend to be large size, complex shape and functional. As the size of buildings is becoming massive, the need for structural health monitoring(SHM) technique is ever-increasing. Various SHM techniques have been studied for buildings which have different dynamic characteristics and are influenced by various external loads. Generally, the visual inspection and non-destructive test for an accessible point of structures are performed by experts. But nowadays, the system is required which is online measurement and detect risk elements automatically without blind spots on structures. In this study, in order to consider the response of non-linear structures, proposed a signal feature extraction and the adaptive threshold setting algorithm utilized to determine the abnormal behavior by using statistical methods such as control chart, root mean square deviation, generalized extremely distribution. And the performance of that was validated by using the acceleration response of structures during earthquakes measuring system of forced vibration tests and actual operation.
Mechanical and Thermal Characteristics of Cement-Based Composite for Solar Thermal Energy Storage System
Yang, In-Hwan ; Kim, Kyoung-Chul ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 20, issue 4, 2016, Pages 9~18
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2016.20.4.009
The thermal and mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced cement-based composite for solar thermal energy storage were investigated in this paper. The effect of the addition of different cement-based materials to Ordinary Portland cement on the thermal and mechanical characteristics of fiber-reinforced composite was investigated. Experiments were performed to measure mechanical properties including compressive strength before and after thermal cycling and split tensile strength, and to measure thermal properties including thermal conductivity and specific heat. Test results showed that the residual compressive strength of mixtures with OPC and slag was greatest among cement-based composite. Thermal conductivity of mixtures including graphite was greater than that of any other mixtures, indicating favor of graphite for improving thermal transfer in terms of charging and discharging in thermal energy storage system. The addition of CSA or zirconium increased specific heat of fiber-reinforced cement-based composite. Test results of this study could be actually used for the design of thermal energy storage system in concentrating solar power plants.
Evaluation on Expectation of Deflection of Floor Damping Materials Subjected to Long-Term Load
Kim, Jung-Min ; Hong, Yoon-Ki ; Kim, Jin-Koo ; Lee, Jung-Yoon ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 20, issue 4, 2016, Pages 19~26
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2016.20.4.019
Floor damping materials used in floating floor system to diminish the floor noise have been made with low density and dynamic stiffness. Owing to this low density and dynamic stiffness, the deflection in these materials under long-term loading and cracking of the floor finishing mortar in the floating floor system may occur. This paper presents the results of long-term loading effects on the deflection of different types of floor damping materials. The experimental program involved the long-term loading tests for 490 days loading period on sixteen specimens. Specimens were classified as DM1(Damping Materials) to DM8, depending upon the four main parameters; types, bottom shapes and densities of floor damping materials and amount of loading. Results indicated that the long-term deflection of all specimens of damping materials remained unchanged after 200 days at all loading amounts, except the specimens made up of Polystrene, in which long-term deflection remained unchanged after 160 days at 250 N load and 100 days 500 N load. In this paper, two types of correlation expressions were shown in the deflection range prior to the range where deflection remained constant; two analyses by ISO 20392 and linear regression. In comparison of two analyses and experimental results on the difference of deflection of 16 specimens, the difference of deflection was below 0.4 mm in those analyses in case of that total deflection was below 10 mm. Restrictively, it was judged that the analysis for the deflection of specimens made up of Polystrene is more appropriate using ISO 20392.
Determination of Optimal Accelerometer Locations for Bridges using Frequency-Domain Hankel Matrix
Kang, Sungheon ; Shin, Soobong ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 20, issue 4, 2016, Pages 27~34
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2016.20.4.027
A new algorithm for determining optimal accelerometer locations is proposed by using a frequency-domain Hankel matrix which is much simpler to construct than a time-domain Hankel matrix. The algorithm was examined through simulation studies by comparing the outcomes with those from other available methods. To compare and analyze the results from different methods, a dynamic analysis was carried out under seismic excitation and acceleration data were obtained at the selected optimal sensor locations. Vibrational amplitudes at the selected sensor locations were determined and those of all the other degrees of freedom were determined by using a spline function. MAC index of each method was calculated and compared to look at which method could determine more effective locations of accelerometers. The proposed frequency-domain Hankel matrix could determine reasonable selection of accelerometer locations compared with the others.
Experimental Study for Establishment of Long-term Monitoring System using Fiber Optical Sensor for Pipeline System for Waste Transportation
Kim, Haeng-Bae ; Song, Jae-Ho ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 20, issue 4, 2016, Pages 35~43
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2016.20.4.035
Recently, the pipeline system for waste transportation has been increasingly constructed as new solution for the waste collection and disposal system by constantly increasing domestic waste which issued as social problem. The pipeline system is constructed through long distance, so proper long-term monitoring system is necessary which available to detect the damage location for the effective maintenance. In this paper, the experimental study is carried out to evaluate the applicability of optical strain gauge sensor based on FBG for the long-term monitoring system. Three test parameters such as pressure leaking, blockage and deformation are considered as typical damages for real-scale pipeline test specimen. In order to measure flexural and volumetric strain and temperature, three FBG sensors are installed at each monitoring sections. From the test results, this study suggested effective methods of sensor installation and arrangement. Also the sensor spacing for the design of monitoring system using FBG sensor is derived by the correlation of distances from deformation between sensor responses.
Material Characteristics of Rapid Hardening Cement Paste Using Phase Change Material for Semi-rigid Pavement
Kim, Seung-Su ; Lee, Byung-Jae ; Bang, Jin-Wook ; Kim, Yun-Yong ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 20, issue 4, 2016, Pages 44~50
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2016.20.4.044
A study to apply phase change material(PCM) to rapid hardening cement paste forming semi-rigid pavement was carried out. The characteristics fresh and hardened paste were evaluated through the experiment for a total of 6 mixtures according to the cement type and the substitution of phase change material for acrylate. The fluidity by substituting phase change material for acrylate satisfied the target flow time of 10 to 13 seconds. In case of setting time, it was possible to secure the performance of rapid hardening cement by substituting phase change material, and if the substitution ratio over 60%, the initial set occurred 1 to 2 minutes faster than other mixtures. In case of compressive strength and bond strength, it showed similar strength characteristics with the plain mixture, and it satisfied both the target compressive and bonding strength of 36MPa and 2MPa. The mixture substituting phase change material showed higher resistance to chloride ion penetration than the mixture only using acrylate and the OPC level was insufficient. From the results of physical and mechanical performances of semi-rigid pavement cement paste, the phase change material substitution rate of 20% was effective in the range of this study.
Evaluation of Anti-Corrosion Performance of FRP Hybrid Bar with Notch in GGBFS Concrete
Oh, Kyeong-Seok ; Park, Ki-Tae ; Kwon, Seung-Jun ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 20, issue 4, 2016, Pages 51~58
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2016.20.4.051
Concrete structure is a construction material with durability and cost-benefit, however the corrosion in embedded steel causes a critical problem in structural safety. This paper presents an evaluation of chloride resistance and pull-off performance with various corrosion level. For the work, OPC(Ordinary Portland Cement) concrete and GGBFS(Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag) concrete are prepared with normal steel. Artificially notch induced FRP Hybrid Bar is also prepared and embedded in OPC concrete and accelerated corrosion test is performed. Through the test, FRP Hybrid Bar with notch is evaluated to have insignificant effect on pull-off capacity when corroded steel shows only 21% level of pull-off capacity. Furthermore GGBFS concrete with normal steel shows over 70% level of pull-off capacity due to reduced corrosion currency.
Characteristics of Calcium Leaching Resistance for Concrete Mixed with Mineral Admixture
Choi, So-Yeong ; Choi, Yoon-Suk ; Yang, Eun-Ik ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 20, issue 4, 2016, Pages 59~67
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2016.20.4.059
Concrete is a very useful construction material for the sealing disposal of hazardous substances. In general, mass concrete is applied to these structures. And, the mineral admixtures are recommended for the long term performance. Calcium leaching could be happened due to the contact with pure water in underground structures. Thus, it is needed to evaluate the resistance of calcium leaching for concrete mixed with mineral admixtures. From the test results, the mineral admixtures are effective to the improvement of long term compressive strength and chloride diffusion coefficient in concrete members. When calcium leaching is happened, however, the reduction of compressive strength and chloride penetration resistance is severe than OPC case, the micro pore distribution is adversely affected. Consequently, when the mineral admixtures are applied to underground structures which is exposed to calcium leaching environment, it is desirable to reduce water-to-binder ratio, to expose after the sufficient pozolanic reaction, and to use BFS than FA.
Definition, End-of-life Criterion and Prediction of Service Life for Bridge Maintenance
Jeong, Yo-Seok ; Kim, Woo-Seok ; Lee, Il-Keun ; Lee, Jae-Ha ; Kim, Jin-Kwang ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 20, issue 4, 2016, Pages 68~76
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2016.20.4.068
The present study proposes the definition of service life and the end-of-life criterion for bridge maintenance. Bridges begin to deteriorate as soon as they are put into service. Effective bridge maintenance requires sound understanding of the deterioration mechanism as well as the expected service life. In order to determine the expected service life of a bridge for effective bridge maintenance, it is necessary to have a clear definition of service life and end-of-life. However, service life can be viewed from several perspectives based on literature review. The end of a bridge's life can be also defined by more than one perspective or performance measure. This study presents definition of service life which can be used for bridge maintenance and the end-of life criterion using the performance measure such as a damage score. The regression model can predict an average service life of bridges using the proposed end-of-life criterion.
Development of the Corrosion Deterioration Inspection Tool for Transmission Tower Members
Woo, Sang-Kyun ; Youn, Byong-Don ; Kim, Ki-Jung ; Chu, In-Yeop ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 20, issue 4, 2016, Pages 77~83
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2016.20.4.077
Recently, interests for maintenance of transmission tower are increasing to extend life of structures and reduce maintenance cost. However, existing classical diagnosis method of corrosion deteriorated degree on the transmission tower steel members, visual inspection, has a problem that error often due to difference of inspector's individual knowledge and experience. In order to solve the problem, this study carried out to develop the corrosion deterioration inspection tool for transmission tower steel members. This tool is composed of camera equipment and computer-aided diagnosis system. We standardized the photographing method by camera equipment to obtain suitable pictures for image processing. Diagnosis system was designed to evaluate automatically degree of corrosion deterioration for member of transmission tower on the basis of the RGB color image processing techniques. It is anticipated that developed the corrosion deterioration inspection tool will be very helpful in decision of optimal maintenance time for transmission tower corrosion.
A Study on the Integrity Assessment of Bare Concrete Bridge Deck based on the Attenuation of Radar Signals
Rhee, Ji-Young ; Choi, Jae-Jin ; Kim, Hong-Sam ; Park, Ko-Eun ; Choi, Myeong-Jin ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 20, issue 4, 2016, Pages 84~93
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2016.20.4.084
The signal characteristic of radar wave on concrete decks is determined by the attenuation of the radar due to the conversion of EM(Electromagnetic) energy to thermal energy through electrical conduction, dielectric relaxation, scattering, and geometric spreading. In this study, it is found that the attenuation of radar signal received on top rebars in bare deck concrete with 2 way travel time shows a general decreasing linear trend because of its same relative permittivity and conductivity. The radar signal after depth-normalization, can then be interpreted as being principally influenced by the content of chlorides penetrating cover concrete, which caused corrosion of rebars in bridge decks.
Vibration Reduction Effect and Structural Behavior Analysis for Column Member Reinforced with Vibration Non-transmissible Material
Kim, Jin-Ho ; Yi, Na-Hyun ; Hur, Jin-Ho ; Kim, Hee-Kyu ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 20, issue 4, 2016, Pages 94~103
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2016.20.4.094
For elevated railway station on which track is connected with superstructure of station, structural vibration level and structure-borne-noise level has exceeded the reference level due to structural characteristics which transmits vibration directly. Therefore, existing elevated railway station is in need of economical and effective vibration reduction method which enable train service without interruption. In this study, structural vibration non-transmissible system which is applied to vibroisolating material for column member is developed to reduce vibration. That system is cut covering material of the column section using water-jet method and is installed with vibroisolating material on cut section. To verify vibration reduction effect and structural performance for structural vibration non-transmissible system, impact hammer test and cyclic lateral load test are performed for 1/4 scale test specimens. It is observed that natural period which means vibration response characteristics is shifted, and damping ratio is increased about 15~30% which means that system is effective to reduce structural vibration through vibration test. Also load-displacement relation and stiffness change rate of the columns are examined, and it is shown that ductility and energy dissipation capacity is increased. From test results, it is found that vibration non-transmissible system which is applied to column member enable to maintains structural function.
Image Processing of GPR Detection Data
Lee, Hyun-Ho ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 20, issue 4, 2016, Pages 104~110
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2016.20.4.104
To get the empirical data of GPR detection and to develop the image prosessing program of GPR detection data, GPR detection were proceed by the underground pipes and cavities buried in the Chamber. In the case of non pavement and asphalt pavement, water filled cavity that was buried in 0.7m depth was able to detection. But in the case of 1.0 m and 1.3 m buring depth, water filled cavity was not able to detection. In the case of non-reinforced and reinforced concrete pavement, it was difficult to detect the cavity caused by signal interference. GPRiPP programs was developed for image processing of the GPR detection data. The major processing algorithm were background removal, stacking and gain function. With proper image processing of gain function and background removal in GPRiPP program, it was showed that similar results can be obtained with conventional image processing program.
An Empirical Estimation Procedure of Concrete Compressive Strength Based on the In-Situ Nondestructive Tests Result of the Existing Bridges
Oh, Hong-Seob ; Oh, Kwang-Chin ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 20, issue 4, 2016, Pages 111~119
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2016.20.4.111
Rebound hammer test, SonReb method and concrete core test are most useful testing methods for estimate the concrete compressive strength of deteriorated concrete structures. But the accuracy of the NDE results on the existing structures could be reduced by the effects of the uncertainty of nondestructive test methods, material effects by aging and carbonation, and mechanical damage by drilling of core. In this study, empirical procedure for verifying the in-situ compressive strength of concrete is suggested through the probabilistic analysis on the 268 data of rebound and ultra-pulse velocity and core strengths obtained from 106 bridges. To enhance the accuracy of predicted concrete strength, the coefficients of core strength, and surface hardness caused by ageing or carbonation was adopted. From the results, the proposed equation by KISTEC and the estimation procedures proposed by authors is reliable than previously suggested equation and correction coefficient.
An Empirical Study for Cost Saving Effect Analysis When Using Seismic Reinforcing Bar
Lee, Jong-Sik ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 20, issue 4, 2016, Pages 120~127
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2016.20.4.120
Due to the enlargement and high-rise of reinforced concrete structure, the application of high functional material is required. However, high-strength bar is recently introduced to the country and the material is insufficient to measure the variation of quantity of rebar quantitatively when using high-strength bar. For these reasons, this study is to provide useful data in cost decision making when applying high-strength bar at a stage of architectural project planning. For residence-commerce complex buildings, we set up six types of conditions such as in case of using only rebar, in case of using only high-strength bar, in case of using rebar mixed with high-strength bar and so on. With the standard of study model 1 that applies only SD400 regardless of rebar diameter, the analyzed result of rebar variation and the cost change of construction in other study model is as follows. When the rebar amount and cost in study model I was 100%, each ratio was 88.3% and 90.5% in study model II, 80.2% and 83.4% in study model III, 91.9% and 93.5% in study model IV, 88.9% and 87.7% in study model V and 82.4% and 85.5% in study model VI. Therefore, in case of rebar amount and construction cost, study model III was evaluated as the best that was applied only SD600.
A Study on the Durability Improvement of Highway-Subsidiary Concrete Structure Exposed to Deicing Salt and Freeze-Thaw
Lee, Byung-Duk ; Choi, Yoon-Suk ; Kim, Young-Geun ; Choi, Jae-Seok ; Kim, Il-Sun ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 20, issue 4, 2016, Pages 128~135
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2016.20.4.128
In the current concrete structure of the highway is still the major problem most of concrete deterioration caused by the freeze-thaw and deicing salt, which is of issues that are not completely resolved. In particular, a single freezing event does not cause much harm, durability of concrete under multi-deterioration environment by repeated freeze-thaw and deicing salt is rapidly degraded and reduce its service life. In this study, the exposure environmental condition according the regional highway points were established. The damage condition and chloride content of the concrete at general and severe environmental exposure condition were also investigated. In addition, the experimental test of chloride ion permeability, scaling resistant and freeze-thaw resistance were carried out to improve the durability of the mechanical placing concrete of subsidiary structure. According to the results of this study, in observation of concrete surface condition, the concrete exposed by severe environmental condition showed broad ranges of damage with high chloride contents. Meanwhile, the water-binder(W/B) ratio and the less water content, and fly ash concrete than the specified existing mix proportion is significantly improved the durability. Also, the optimal mix proportion derived for test is satisfied the strength and air contents, water-binder ratio, and durability criteria of concrete specifications, as well as service life seems greatly improved.
A Study on Correlation Between Cyclic Drying-Wetting Accelerated Corrosion Test and Long-term Exposure Test
Park, Sang-Soon ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 20, issue 4, 2016, Pages 136~143
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2016.20.4.136
There are various method for evaluating the durability life of concrete structures due to salt damage. The best way is to perform a corrosion test for a rebar embedded in concrete specimen was exposure to marine environment. However, this method has the disadvantage that it takes a long period of time. Also, accelerated corrosion test which was complemented complements the time-consuming weakness is limited to apply because it could not reveal a correlation between long-term exposure test. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to derive a correlation coefficient between cycle drying-wetting accelerated corrosion test and long-term exposure test. Corrosion initiation time was measured in four types of concrete samples, i.e., two samples mixed with fly ash(FA) and blast furnace slag(BS), and the other two samples having two water/cement ratio(W/C = 0.6, 0.35) without admixture(OPC 60 and OPC 35). The accelerated corrosion test was carried out by two case, i.e., one is a cyclic drying-wetting method(case 1), and the other is a artificial seawater ponding test method(case 2). Whether corrosion occurs, it was measures using half-cell potential method. The results indicated that case 1 is to accelerated the corrosion of rebar about 24~36% as compared with case 2, then the corrosion of rebar embedded in concrete occurred according to the order of OPC60, FA, BS, OPC35. Correlation coefficient between accelerated corrosion test and long-term exposure test, case 1 is 4.23 to 5.42, and case 2 is 6.54 to 7.82.
Lap Details Using Headed Bars and Hooked Bars for Flexural Members with Different Depths
Lee, Kyu-Seon ; Jin, Se-Hoon ; Kim, Seung-Hun ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 20, issue 4, 2016, Pages 144~152
DOI : 10.11112/jksmi.2016.20.4.144
This paper focuses on the experimental study for investigating the performance for lap splice of hooked or headed reinforcement in beam with different depths. In the experiment, seven specimens, with its variables as the lap length of headed or hooked bar, the existence of stirrups, etc., was manufactured. Bending test was conducted. Lap strengths by test were compared with the theoretical model based on KCI2012. The result showed that the cracks at failure mode occurred along the axial direction to a headed bar. The initial stiffness and the stiffness after initial crack were similar for all specimens. For HS series specimens without stirrups, a 25% increase in lap length was increased 11.8~18.1% maximum strengths. For HH series specimens without stirrups, a increase in lap length did not affect the maximum strengths because of the pryout failure of headed bar. For HS series specimens, the theoretical lap strengths based on KCI2012 considering the B grade lap and the reduction factor for stirrup were evaluated. They are smaller than the test strengths and can ensure the safety in terms of strength capacity. For HH series specimens, the stirrups in the lap zone are needed to prevent the pryout behaviour of headed bar.