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Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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Journal DOI :
Korea Institute for Structural Maintenance Inspection
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Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Jan 2005
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Modified Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete Column with Steel Bars
Yoon, Dong-Yong ; Song, Hyung-Soo ; Jang, Won-Seok ; Min, Chang-Shik ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 9, issue 1, 2005, Pages 101~111
In this study, it is investigated the modified modulus of elasticity of the reinforced concrete columns including the longitudinal reinforcing steels as well as the confinement effect of the core concrete due to the transverse reinforced steel through the literature reviews. Equations are derived in order to evaluate the modified modulus of elasticity for the reinforced compressive concrete including the confinement effect. The finite element analysis for the 20 story reinforced concrete building is undertaken as a case study depending on the steel ratio and modulus of elasticity, and the analysis results are discussed.
The Study on the Placements of Brace Members Using Optimum Seismic Design of Steel Frames
Kim, Ki-Wook ; Park, Moon-Ho ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 9, issue 1, 2005, Pages 111~119
This study presents continuous and discrete optimum design algorithm and computer programs for unbraced and braced steel frame structures under earthquake loads. The program, which is avaliable to perform structural analysis and optimum design, continuous and discrete, simultaneously is developed. And the program adopts various braced types, Untraced, Z-braced(V), Z-braced(inverse-V), X-braced(A), X-braced(B), X-braced(C) and K-braced, in steel structures with static loads and seismic effects. The objectives in this optimization are to minimize the total weight of steel, and design variables, based on the ultimate strength requirements of AISC-ASD specifications, the serviceability requirements and allowable story drift requirements of ATC-3-06, and various constraints. The purpose is to present proper braced type for seismic effects by comparing and analysing results of various cases.
An Experimental Study on the Structure Behavior of H & Channel-Type Lining Board
Lee, Seung-Soo ; Kim, Doo-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 9, issue 1, 2005, Pages 119~126
The objective of this paper is to investigate the lining board's capacity for the static load. The test is to inspect the possibility of retrofit and efficiency, which is required to upgrade the structure's capacity and to examine the effects of the improvements of specimen by using structural analysis, and static loading test, respectively. As the result of static loading test for measured stresses and deflections. H type lining board take sufficient load carrying capacity and high stiffness which likes ultimate load, displacement, and bending stresses of intermediate span and top, bottom flange more than 3 times channel type lining board.
A Study on the Fatigue behavior of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced High Strength Concrete
Kim, Nam-Wook ; Choi, Go-Bong ; Kim, Han-Sang ; Bae, Ju-Seong ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 9, issue 1, 2005, Pages 127~135
Recently, as the concrete structures are becoming bigger, higher, longer and more special, high strength concrete is demanded. But the fracture behavior of high strength concrete is shown more brittle than that of the normal strength concrete. Therefore, in order to improve the brittle fracture behavior and crack propagation resistance, ACI Committee363 has been recommend the use of fiber reinforced concrete which showed superior property against the crack propagation resistance. On the other hand, bridges, concrete pavements and railroads etc. have been exposed to the repetition loading at least several million times during the service life. Therefore, fatigue load is dominantly most of all, but it is very difficult to estimate the suitable fatigue strength calculated by fatigue load. In this research, in order to examine the fatigue behavior of hybrid fiber reinforced high strength concrete, the static and fatigue tests were carried out. And from these results, it was estimated the fatigue strength of hybrid fiber reinforced high strength concrete.
Measurement of Shear Modulus at Small Strains using Cone Pressuremeter Test
Yi, Chang-Tok ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 9, issue 1, 2005, Pages 135~145
Geotechnical design routinely requires that in-situ strength, stiffness of the ground be determined. In the working stress conditions, the strain level in a ground experienced by existing structures and during construction is less than about 0.1%~1%. In order to analyze the deformational behavior accurately, the in-situ testing technique which provides the reliable deformational characteristics at small strains, needs to be developed. Cone pressuremeter tests were performed on the western off-shore region of korea, and analyzed using cavity expansion theory and curve fitting technique to obtain the shear modulus at small strain level of
. The value of
ratio for the marine clay shows about 589 at the small strain. However the value of
estimated by lab tests are much smaller values ranged from 81 to 91. It is indicated that the curve fitting technique from CPM tests results can be used to obtain the shear modulus at small strain.
Influence of Changing Coefficient of Consolidation and Layered Condition on Consolidation Behavior
Jeon, Je-Sung ; Koo, Ja-Kap ; Lee, Song ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 9, issue 1, 2005, Pages 147~157
In this study, consolidation analysis methods reflecting various ground condition and changing coefficient of consolidation with consolidation process are presented. Research activities include development of numerical program consists of two parts considering vertical drainage only and both drainage condition with vertical and radial direction. Also, interface equation of adjacent two layers and function for changing coefficient of consolidation are added to developed program. This paper presents the results from a detailed consolidation analyses, which explores consolidation process with time in varying layered system and changing coefficient of consolidation
Study on Analysis of Skew Grillage Girder Bridges by Transfer Matrix Method
Kim, Yong-Hee ; Lee, Yoon-Young ; Kim, Kwang-Ho ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 9, issue 1, 2005, Pages 159~170
The grid structure is parallel main girders intersected with crossgirder. It distribute the loads to adjoining main girder through the crossgirder when a girder is subjected to a load. grillage girder bridge has high load-carrying capacity, it can save materials and become more economical type of bridge. In this paper, the grillage girder bridge analysis program developed by using the transfer matrix method deals with following problems: the comparision with Leonhardt, Szabo, FEM yang and jung in the analysis of grillage girder bridges, quality of straight and curved bridges with skew angle, forces of straight and curved bridges according to skew angle and bending stiffness/torsional stiffness ratio.
Seismic Performance of a Knee-Braced Moment Resisting Frame
Choi, Hyun-Hoon ; Kim, Jin-Koo ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 9, issue 1, 2005, Pages 171~180
In this study the seismic performance of a three-story knee-braced moment-resisting frame (KBMRF), which is typically employed to support pipelines for oil or gas, was investigated. Nonlinear static pushover analyses were performed first to observe the force-displacement relationship of KBMRF under increasing seismic load. The results show that, when the maximum inter-story drift reached 1.5% of the story height, the main structural members, such as beams and columns, still remained elastic. Then nonlinear dynamic time-history analyses were carried out using eight earthquake ground motion time-histories scaled to at the design spectrum of UBC-97. It turned out that the maximum inter-story drift was smaller than the drift limit of 1.5 % of the structure height, and that the columns remained elastic. Based on these analytical results, it can be concluded that the seismic performance of the structure satisfies all the requirements regulated in the seismic code.
Shrinkage Properties of High Performance Concrete with Shrinkage Reducing Agent
Koh, Kyung-Taek ; Kim, Do-Gyeum ; Han, Cheon-Goo ; Lee, Jang-Hwa ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 9, issue 1, 2005, Pages 181~188
Generally, high performance concrete has characteristics such as low water-cementitous material ratio, lots of unit binder powder, thus the drying shrinkage and autogenous shrinkage are tend to be increased. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the glyclos based shrinkage reducing agent on the drying shrinkage and autogenous shrinkage of high performance concrete with 30% of water-cemetitious material ratio as a study to develop the technology to reduce the concrete shrinkage. Test results show that the drying and autogenous shrinkage of high performance concrete are reduced by about 20~35% at the mixing ratio of shrinkage reducing agent of 0.5%, and 1.0%, compared with plain concrete. Therefore, it analyze that the using of shrinkage reducing agent is effective to reduce the drying shrinkage and autogenous shrinkage of high performance concrete.
The Response of the Structure with the Damage Curve
Lee, Sang-Ho ; Song, Hyun-Seop ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 9, issue 1, 2005, Pages 189~196
The effects of the impulse and the magnitude of the impulsive loads to the responses of the structure are analyzed with the safety criteria established with the peak load and impulse ratio. It is shown for the loadings with short duration that the impulse is dominant factor for the damage of the structures due to the inertial effect. On the other hand the magnitude of the load is dominant factor for the load with long duration due to the duration time long enough for the loads to overcome the inertia force. It is also shown that the peak particle velocity and the peak particle acceleration of the foundation have the same influences as the impulse and the magnitude of the loads do to the structures.
Evaluation on the Deformation Capacity of Multipurpose Floor Level Joint System
Seo, Soo-Yeon ; Choi, Yun-Cheul ; Kang, In-Seok ; Lee, Li-Hyung ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 9, issue 1, 2005, Pages 197~204
Multipurpose Floor Level Joint(MFLJ) is a new construction technology system which was developed in domestic. By using this system, it is possible not only to absorb the deformation at expansion joint due to shrinkages of concrete but also to make ease the floor leveling during the concrete casting at floor. The system consists of two elements, supporting devices and rails. Their structural capacities were verified through several experimental programs, such as compressive strength test of support and bending test of rail. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the deformation absorbing capacity of the floor level joint. An experimental work was carried out to simulate the deformation condition at the joint and the test result was analyzed and evaluated. In addition, FEM analysis for expansion joint of typical building was also performed to predict the real behavior of MFLJ. The test results showed that MFLJ has sufficient deformation capacity required to act as expansion joint.
An Experimental Study on the Stirrup Effectiveness in Reinforced Concrete Beams
Lee, Young-Jae ; Lee, Yoon-Young ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 9, issue 1, 2005, Pages 205~215
The main objective of this study is to investigate the behavior of NSC and HSC beams with stirrups. Main variables were the concrete compressive strength and amount of vertical stirrups. A total of 24 beams was tested; 4 beams without web reinforcement and 20 beams with web reinforcement in the form of vertical stirrups. Main variables were 2 different compressive strengths of concrete of 26.9MPa and 63.5MPa, 5 different spacing of stirrups of 200, 150, 120, 100 and 90mm. Therefore, the results were compared with the strengths predicted by the equations of ACI code 318-99 and other researchers. The shear reinforcement ratio, where the test beams were failed simultaneously under flexure and shear, were
for NSC beams and
for HSC beams, respectively. The ACI code equation was found to be very conservative for shear design.
Evaluation on Performance of Surface Protectors for Protecting Reinforced Concrete Structures
An, Young-Ki ; Jang, Suk-Hwan ; Chung, Young-Jun ; Nam, Yong-Hyuk ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 9, issue 1, 2005, Pages 217~223
This study is on the evaluation of three kinds of surface protectors for protecting reinforced concrete against corrosion of reinforcing steel by chloride attack and carbonation. In this study, the test has been carried out on the performance of specimens applied with surface protectors for anti-corrosion and anti-carbonation. The result showed that specimens applied with the three kinds of surface protectors, were excellent in resistance to the corrosion of reinforcing steel and carbonation. Especially the specimen applied with finish coating in conjunction with hydrophobic primer showed great reduction in the corrosion of reinforcing steel and carbonation.
The Behavior of Tension Splices Fastened with Bolted Connections
Choi, Byong-Jeong ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 9, issue 1, 2005, Pages 225~232
The paper presented results of the strength distributions and tension failure behaviors of splices subjected to tension forces. The bolting patterns in the tension splices are regular and staggered patterns in the research. The finite element analyses were carried out to examine the experimental results and evaluated the stress distribution patterns. The yield stresses, maximum tension stresses, stress distribution ratios, and effective net areas were analyzed through the tension experiments.
Bond Behavior of Thin-Walled Rectangular Profiled Steel Sheet Concrete Short Columns
Yun, Hyun-Do ; Park, Wan-Shin ; Han, Byung-Chan ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 9, issue 1, 2005, Pages 233~241
The paper is presented experimental study results on bond stress between profiled steel and concrete in Profiled SPC(Profiled Steel Plate Concrete) rectangular steel tubes through an experimental program in which 13 pull-out specimens were tested. Advantages and class of composite members and current problems of construction work are noted, past research of PSSC is described. An experimental study is described and evaluated. The bond capacity is interrelated with slip at the steel concrete interface. The factors influencing the mechanism of bond stress transfer were the cross section shape, length/diameter, diameter/thickness and environmental parameters (temperature, moisture). The results of experimental program indicated that the force transfer could be characterized into two regions The first region was governed by bond with no relative slip between the profiled steel and concrete. The second region occurs after the chemical debonding. Bond stress transfer in this region was governed by frictional resistance between profiled steel and concrete and cross section shapes. The important factors influencing the magnitude of frictional resistance are the profiled steel shapes, length/diameter and environmental parameters. (temperature, moisture)
Method of Repair Design by Analysis of Damage Mechanism of Elevated Aquaduct
Lee, Soo-Gon ; Byun, Hang-Yong ; Song, Chang-Young ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 9, issue 1, 2005, Pages 243~250
In elevated irrigation aquaducts, one can observe a common damage pattern. That is, cracks, and crushing of concrete are usually repeated at a certain interval even if no faults are found in the design and construction of the structures. To investigate the causes of this damage, longitudinal deformations of several aquaducts have been measured. The analysis of the measured data suggests that the damages are mainly caused by cumulative repetition of extension and contraction due to temperature changes.
A Study on the Properties of Anticorrosive for RC Structure
Moon, Han-Young ; Shin, Dong-Gu ; Kwon, Yong-Jin ; Oh, Sang-Kun ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 9, issue 1, 2005, Pages 251~258
Up until now, most protection design has been concerned primarily with concrete's exterior protection from corrosion, its waterproof ability and its reparability. However, there are many cases in which service life of the concrete is shortened because suitability of the type of concrete surface has not been thoroughly investigated in the development process. According1y, this paper presents the development and test of the material for its reparability and its protection against corrosion in the case of wet surfaces (i.e. water supply facilities, sewage systems, and port facilities) in this country. From the test, both A type and B type are excellent for durability in watertightness, chemical resistance and abrasion. Test results of adhesive strength over
under both wet and dry conditions, curing conditions and various temperatures conditions were also achieved in field tests.
Discrete Optimum Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams using Genetic Algorithm
Hong, Ki-Nam ; Han, Sang-Hoon ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 9, issue 1, 2005, Pages 259~269
This paper describes the application of genetic algorithm for the discrete optimum design of reinforced concrete continuous beams. The objective is to minimize the total cost of reinforced concrete beams including the costs of concrete, form work, main reinforcement and stirrup. The flexural and shear strength, deflection, crack, spacing of reinforcement, concrete cover, upper-lower bounds on main reinforcement, beam width-depth ratio and anchorage for main reinforcement are considered as the constraints. The width and effective depth of beam and steel area are taken as design variables, and those are selected among the discrete design space which is composed with dimensions and steel area being used from in practice. Optimum result obtained from GA is compared with other literature to verify the validity of GA. To show the applicability and efficiency of GA, it is applied to three and five span reinforced concrete beams satisfying with the Korean standard specifications.
Dynamic Analysis of Offshore Structures Considering External Fluid-Structure Interaction
Hwang, Chul-Sung ; Paik, In-Yeol ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 9, issue 1, 2005, Pages 271~281
The effects of radiation damping is used to compensate the truncated boundary which is relatively close to the structure-fluid interface in the fluid element surrounding the submerged structures. An efficient ring element is presented to model the shell and fluid element which fully utilizes the characteristics of the axisymmetry. The computational model uses the technique which separate the meridional shape and circumferential wave mode and gets similar result with the exact solution in the eigenvalues and the earthquake analysis. The fluid-structure interaction techniques is developed in the finite element analysis of two dimensional problems using the relations between pressure, nodal unknown acceleration and added mass assuming the fluid to be invicid, incompressible and irrotational. The effectiveness and efficiency of the technique is demonstrated by analyzing the free vibration and seismic analysis using the added mass matrix considering the structural deformation effect.
Premature Failure Load of Reinforced Concrete Beams with Flexural Strengthened by Steel Plates
Kim, Haeng-Jun ; Kim, Woo ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 9, issue 1, 2005, Pages 283~292
This paper predicts premature failure load of reinforced concrete beams by epoxy-boned partially steel plates. A parametric study is conducted to estimate premature failure load of beams such as with or without stirrups, unplated length ratio, steel and reinforcement ratio, shear span to depth ratio of reinforcement beam. By results of finite element analysis, it turned out that the unplated length played a dominant role in partially plated beams but reinforcement ratio and shear span to depth ratio effected the premature failure load. The approximate expression with regard to combined design variables is compared with experimental results. It shows closely agreement.
Girder Wheel Load Distribution Factor of Skew Plate Girder Bridges
Seo, Chang-Bum ; Song, Jae-Ho ;
Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection, volume 9, issue 1, 2005, Pages 293~303
The girder wheel load distribution factors stated in the Korean Bridge Specification and AASHTO Standard Specifications do not account for the effect of skewness of plate girders, and very little research has been conducted on girder wheel load distribution factors. The purpose of the study is to propose load distribution factor formulas for skew plate girder bridges which comprise various parameters through structural analysis. To comprise the validity of finite element models used in this study analytic values are compared with the field test results. From the results it should be noted that span length is not such a dominant parameter compared with others. In view of better load distribution of interior girders, skew arranged cross beams or bracing are preferable, furthemore bracing system is more effective than cross beam system. By means of regression analysis on the basis of analytic results wheel load distribution factor formulas are proposed and compared with current codes.