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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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Journal DOI :
The Mineralogical Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Dec 1997
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Jun 1997
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Health Effects of Mineral Dusts
Hayashi, Hisato ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 1, 1997, Pages 1~17
Pneumoconiosis is the result of the long-continued inhalation of dusts and it depends on the interaction between the man and the cloud to which he is exposed. The health effects of dusts, especially silica dust exposure have been since Egyptians had constructed the pyramids in ancient times. Subsequently, many works, including miners, milers, quarry workers, sandblasters, tunnel drivers, are occupationally exposed to mineral dusts. These workers may develop pneumoconiosis and in some instances, malignant neoplasms, particularly lung cancer, as a result of such exposures.Both quantity and quality of mineral dusts in the lungs show significant correlation with the degree of damage from pneumoconiosis. So mineralogical techniques require in pathological studies and in estimation of the airborne dusts in working places.Mineralogy has played an important role in both branches of the protective procedure. This lecture presents the knowledge on lung dust, cytotoxicity and fibrogenetic activity of minerals and control procedures for pneumoconiosis from pont of mineralogist.
On the Possibility of Bulk Large Diamond Single Crystal Synthesis with Hydrothermal Process
Andrzej M. Szymanski ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 1, 1997, Pages 18~32
Analysis of geological data, relating to occurrence and formation of diamonds as well as host rocks, inclined author to have different outlook on the diamond genesis and to establish a proposition on their formation at pneumatolytic-hydrothermal conditions near superficial Earth zones. Based on that theoretical foundations and experimental works, the first low-pressure and low-temperature hydrothermal diamond synthesis from water solution in pressure autoclave was executed. As a result, the natural diamond seed crystal grew bigger ad coupling of the synthetic diamond single-crystalline grains were obtained. SEM documentation proofs that parallely paragenetic crystallization of quartz and diamond, and nucleation of new octahedral diamond crystals brush take place on the seed crystal surface. Forecast of none times growth of diamond industrial application at 2000 and seventeen times at 2010 with reference to 1995, needs technology of large and pure single-crystals diamond synthesis. Growth of the stable and destressed diamond single-crystals in the pseudo-metastable diamond plot, may be realized with processes going through the long time and with participation of free radicals catalysts admixtures only. Sol-gel colloidal processes are an example of environment which form stable crystals in thermodynamically unstable conditions through a long time. Paper critically discusses a whole way of studies on the diamond synthesis, from high-pressure and high-temperature processes through chemical vapour deposition up to hydrothermal experiments.
Reaction Path Modelling on Geochemical Evolution of Groundwater and Formation of Secondary Minerals in Water-Gneiss Reaction System
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 1, 1997, Pages 33~44
The reaction path of water-gneiss in 200m borehole at the Soorichi site of Yugu Myeon, Chungnam was simulated by the EQ3NR/EQ6 program. Mineral composition of borehole core and fracture-filling minerals, and chemical composition of groundwater was published by authors. In this study, chemical evolution of groundwater and formation of secondary minerals in water-gneiss system was modelled on the basis of published results. The surface water was used as a starting solution for reaction. Input parameters for modelling such as mineral assemblage and their volume percent, chemical composition of mineral phases, water/rock ratio reactive surface area, dissolution rates of mineral phases were determined by experimental measurement and model fit. EQ6 modelling of the reaction path in water-gneiss system has been carried out by a flow-centered flow through open system which can be considered as a suitable option for fracture flow of groundwater. The modelling results show that reaction time of 133 years is required to reach equilibrium state in water-gneiss system, and evolution of present groundwater will continue to pH 9.45 and higher na ion concentration. The secondary minerals formed from equeous phase are kaolinite, smectite, saponite, muscovite, mesolite, celadonite, microcline and calcite with uincreasing time. Modeling results are comparatively well fitted to pH and chemical composition of borehole groudwater, secondary minerals identified and tritium age of groundwater. The EQ6 modelling results are dependent on reliability of input parameters: water-rock ratio, effective reaction surface area and dissolution rates of mineral phases, which are difficult parameters to be measured.
김해평야에 분포한 특이산성토 중 유황의 형태별 분포 및 Jarosite의 특성
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 1, 1997, Pages 45~49
Acid sulfate soils occur in the Gimhae plain where they have been formed from brackish alluvial sediments along the sea coast and river estuary. Acid sulfate soils suffer extremely acidity as a result of oxidation of pyrite. Total sulfur content of the soils was the highest in B horizon of Gimhae series and the lowest in A horizon of Deunggu series. The dominant fractions of sulfur in the soils were jarosite-S for Gimhae series, pyrite-S for Bongrim and Haecheog series, and organic-S for Deunggu series. The essential chemical processes of acid sulfate soils are, firstly, the formation of pyrite in waterlogged environment, and subsequently, the oxidation of this pyrite following natural or artificial drainage. Jarosite [K Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6] is a common sulfur mineral of the oxidation condition. Jarosite shows cubic particles with tetrahedral faces.
Comparison of Olivine Crystal structures by Single Crystal and Rietveld Refinement Methods
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 1, 1997, Pages 50~59
the crystal structure of pale green gem-quality olivine from Bisbee mine,Arizona, (Mg1.83Fe0.18)Si0.99O4, a=4.7608(4)
, Pbnm, Z=4 has been refined by both single-crystal and Rietveld methods to R(%) indices of 2.20 and 9.07, respectively. Comparison of site occupancies, cell dimensions, atomic coordinations, and interatomic distances/angles obtained from both methods shows that the Rietveld method produces more accurate site scattering values, cell dimension, and atomic positions than the single-crystal method. This indicates that the Rietveld method is a useful technique for the structural characterization and crystal-chemical study of powdered samples of natural minerals and synthetic materials.
Chemistry of Talc Ores in Relation to the Mineral Assemblages in the Yesan-Gongju-Cheongyang Area, Korea
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 10, issue 1, 1997, Pages 60~73
The talc of the Daeheung, Pyeongan, and Cheongdang (Shinyang) talc deposits in the Yesan-Gongju-Cheongyang area is a hydrothermal alteration product of serpentinite originated from ultramafic rocks. The mineral assemblages in alteration zones are: serpentine, serpentine-talc, talc, talc-chlorite, talc-phlogopite-chlorite, and talc-tremolite-chlorite. Chemical distributions in both the Al2O3-FeO-MgO system and the immobile elements suggest that the serpentine-talc and talc rocks are the reaction product of ultramafic rocks and silicic hydrothermal solution without addition of other granitic components, whereas chlorite-, phlogopite-, and tremolite-bearing rocks are the metasomatic alteration product of serpentinite by hydrothermal solution affected by granitic gneiss. Discontinuities in the immobile element ratios of mineral assemblages are due to changes in their mineralogy. The relative contents of Al2O3, TiO2, Zr in the talc-phlogopite-chlorite and talc-tremolite-chlorite rocks increase irregularly with increasing phlogopite, tremolite, and/or chlorite contents in contrast to other ore types. But the relative contents of Cr, Ni, and Co are uniform in all the mineral assemblages. Chemistry of each mineral assemblage formed by steatitization of serpentinite suggests that Cr, Co, Ni, MgO, and Fe2O3 are relatively immobile during the alteration, whereas SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, and K2O are highly increased. The contents of chlorite, phlogopite, and tremolite in each mineral assemblage might be controlled by addition of Al2O3, K2O, and CaO, respectively. The high contents of other elements than immobile elements in the altered rocks as compared with unaltered rocks indicate that a large amount of elements were introduced from hydrothermal solution up to about 8∼41% in total mass showing maximum value in the talc-phlogopite-chlorite rock.