Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Mineralogical Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Dec 2007
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Sep 2007
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Jun 2007
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Mar 2007
Selecting the target year
Metallic Mineralogical Characteristics of Forged Iron Axe from the Wood-framed Tomb at the Hwangseongdong, Gyeongju, Korea
Kim, Jeong-Hun ; Yi, Ki-Wook ; Lee, Chan-Hee ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 231~245
The forged iron axe of the middle 3rd Century found in the No. 2 wood-framed tomb from the Hwangseongdong site, Gyeongju is rectangular on the plane level. The iron axe shines in met-allic luster, which is light grey with pale creamy tint. The result of X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the axe consists of magnetite and geothite, which can explain why the composition and texture of the original ore has been kept intact. There are fine-grained quartz, calcite, mica, magnetite, amphibole, unknown tungsten minerals, pyroxene and olivine inside the axe. Those must be the impurities that they failed to remove in the thermal treatment process. Generally, the iron axe consists mainly of pearlite texture coexisting ferrite and cementite, and show high carbon contents with homogeneous distribution. It can be interpreted the axe was carburized after the material was made to resemble pure iron. The decarbonization work didn't go well along the process marks. Crude ores of the iron axe are possible utilized by magnetite from the Ulsan mine on the basis of the occurrences and inclusions. It's estimated that the original ore was bloom produced in low-temperature reduction and formed around in
, which is eutetic temperature.
Effect of Heat Treatment and Acid Leaching of Siliceous Mudstone on the Purity of Silica Precursors
Cho, Kuk ; Chang, Han-Kwon ; Kil, Dae-Sup ; Suh, Yong-Jae ; Park, Jin-Ho ; Jang, Hee-Dong ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 247~253
The effect of heat treatment and acid leaching of siliceous mudstone on the purity of silica precursors, such as sodium silicate and silicic acid, was studied. As well as the temperatures for the heat treatment of siliceous mudstone, the concentrations of hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid were varied to achieve the highest content of silicon in the precursors while minimizing energy and chemical consumption. It was found that the optimum conditions were achieved at the heat treatment temperature of
and hydrochloric acid of 1.56 M. The relative concentrations of silicon in the synthesized sodium silicate and silicic acid were as high as 99.2 and 99.5%, respectively.
Nanosized Calcite in the Chinese Loess
Jeong, Gi-Young ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 255~260
The loess on the Chinese loess plateau is not only the accumulation of Asian dust but also the source materials of Hwangsa. The eolian carbonates of the loess were dissolved and reprecipitated to form secondary pedogenic carbonates by the post-depositional weathering during the interglacial time. Mineralogical analysis shows that the secondary calcites are composed mostly of a nanosized fibrous calcite with rather constant width (
) and highly variable length. The nano calcite is the major authigenic mineral, which occurs as the fine-grained matrix of the loess and paleosol. The nano calcite was recently reported in the Hwangsa, where it was originated from the source regions of Chinese loess plateau.
Compression Study of Goethite at Room Temperature
Kim, Y.H. ; Hwang, G.C. ; Do, J.K. ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 261~266
A natural FeOOH-goethite was compressed up to 9.5 GPa at room temperature using a DIA-type large volume apparatus with synchrotron radiation. Energy dispersive x-ray diffraction method was employed to measure its compressibility and NaCl was used for high pressure determinations. Bulk modulus was determined to be 131.1 (
) GPa by the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state with
fixed to 4. The present result is not in accord with the previous measurements, which vary from 111 to 147.9 GPa.
Acid Treatment of Melting Slag and Its Hydrothermal Reaction
Lee, Sung-Ki ; Jang, Young-Nam ; Chae, Soo-Chun ; Ryu, Kyoung-Won ; Bae, In-Kook ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 267~275
Melting slag generated from municipal-incinerator ash contains lots of impurities which have adverse effects on zeolite synthesis. These impurities are detrimental to zeolite synthesis, and the yield and purity of zeolite was decreased. And thus its performance is lowered. In melting slag, there are lots of components such as
, FeO and CaO. To remove these impurities, we treated the melting slag with hydrochloric acid at initial pH 1, 3, 5, and 7. After the treatment, the
ratios increased, but the
and MgO ratios decreased. We reacted these treated slag in a NaOH solution under hydrothermal conditions at
. The hydrothermal products from the slag and the slag treated at pH 7 and pH 5 were determined to be tobermorite, whereas those at pH 3 and pH 1, Na-P1 and Na-X zoelite respectively. CaO was found to inhibit the synthesis of zeolite.
Shattering Ratio of Manganese Nodule and Physical Properties of Powdered Manganese Nodule and Sea eottom Sediment
Choi, Hun-Soo ; Kang, Jung-Seock ; Chang, Se-Won ; Koh, Sang-Mo ; Um, In-Kwon ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 277~287
To understand the effects of the powdered manganese nodule and sea bottom sediment pumped up with nodules on the mining process, the shattering ratio of manganese nodule and their physical properties are analyzed. The self shattering ratio and crushing shattering ratio are about 27% and about 3%, respectively. Then total shattering ratio is about 30%. The initial turbidity of the powdered manganese nodule and the bottom sediment show high, i.e., about 3,100 and 1,850 respectively. But their turbidities decrease rapidly with time. After 1 hour, turbidity of the powdered manganese nodule drops to about 1,570 and that of the bottom sediment to 1,310. The turbidity of Na-bentonite changes from 820 to 730 after 1 h and to 700 after 2 h. The viscosity of powdered manganese nodule is
, and the viscosity of bottom sediment is less than 1 cP. The viscosity fo Na-bentonite is initially 37.2 and increase with time to 86.4 cP after 30 min. The high initial turbidity of powdered manganese nodule is due to dark color of the powder. The high specific gravity makes rapid precipitation and then decreases the turbidity rapidly. The bottom sediment shows high initial turbidity because of easy suspension with very fine particle size. But it cannot be hydrated and formed gel in suspension, then it is easily precipitated. However Na-bentonite is hydrated to the expended state and makes gel state, then it shows high turbidity and high viscosity. These physical properties of the powdered manganese nodule suggest that the powder of manganese nodule should not make scaling inside of lifting pipe or pump. And the bottom sediment lifted up with manganese nodule should not play the role of drilling mud shch as Na-bentonite.
Mineralogy of Beach Sand in Jaeun Island, Shinangun, Chonranamdo
Chae, Soo-Chun ; Jung, Jee-Sung ; Jang, Young-Nam ; Bae, In-Kook ; Shin, Hee-Young ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 289~302
Separation process of heavy minerals was performed with sand from Dunjang beach of Jaeundo, Shinangun, Chonnam, and the feasibility study separating heavy minerals was carried out, and their properties were studied. Samples were selected in three parts, which were upper part, middle part and lower part, with depth. Samples of heavy mineral groups separated with the spiral separator were chosen as starting materials, and they were separated with 3 times of table separation. Heavy minerals presenting in this area were ilmenite, zircon, rutile, anatase, monazite, and xenotime. In the results of 3 times of table separation, minor content of quartz, orthoclase, albite and muscovite were existed as gangue minerals. Accordingly, we concluded that additional specific gravity separation was needed. In the results of separation of heavy minerals by hand picking, it was confirmed that heavy minerals had various genesis because of their various roundness and color.
Mineralogical and Physico-chemical Properties of Sludge Produced During Artificial Sand Processing
Yoo, Jang-Han ; Kim, Yong-Ug ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 303~311
The consumption of artificially crushed sands exceeds more than 30 percent of the domestic sand supply in South Korea, and its rate is still increasing. For the manufacture of crushed sand granites and granitic gneisses are preferred, fine fractions (i.e. sludge, particles finer than 63 microns) are removed by use of flocculation agents, and its amount occupy about 15 wt%. The sludges consist of quartz, feldspars, micas, chlorite/vermiculite, kaolinites, smectites and occasionally calcite. Among the clay minerals micas are usually predominant, and
minerals, kaolinites and smectites are rather scarce. Jurassic granites usually contain more kaolinites and smectites than those of Cretaceous to Tertiary granites, probably due to longer geologic ages. On the other hand, sludge from Precambrian gneiss does not contain kaolinites and smectites. Chemical analyses for the granites and their sludges show rather clear differences in most of major chemical components. Except for
, all other components represent rather clear increase. Decrease of
content is attributed to the relative decrease of quartz in the sludges. And the
decrease is caused by a relatively stronger weathering property of albite compared to Ca plagioclase. The
content shows rather small differences throughout the whole samples. The increases of
and other major components resulted from weathering processes and most of colored components are also concentrated in the sludges. Particle size analyses reveal that the sludges are categorized as sandy loams in a sand-silt-clay triangular diagram. The sludge is now classified as industrial waste because of its impermeability, and this result was also confirmed by rather higher hydraulic conductivities. For the environmental problems, and accomplishing effective sand manufacture, more fresh rocks with little weathering products must be chosen.
The Effect of Lattice Topology on Benzyl Alcohol Adsorption on Kaolinite Surfaces: Quantum Chemical Calculations of Mulliken Charges and Magnetic Shielding Tensor
Lee, Bum-Han ; Lee, Sung-Keun ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 313~325
In order to have better insights into adsorption of organic molecules on kaolinite surfaces, we performed quantum chemical calculations of interaction between three different model clusters of kaolinite siloxane surfaces and benzyl alcohol, with emphasis on the effect of size and lattice topology of the cluster on the variation of electron density and magnetic shielding tensor. Model cluster 1 is an ideal silicate tetrahedral surface that consists of 7 hexagonal rings, and model cluster 2 is composed of 7 ditrigonal siloxane rings with crystallographically distinct basal oxygen atoms in the cluster, and finally model cluster 3 has both tetrahedral and octahedral layers. The Mulliken charge analysis shows that siloxane surface of model cluster 3 undergoes the largest electron density transfer after the benzyl alcohol adsorption and that of model cluster 1 is apparently larger than that of model cluster 2. The difference of Mulliken charges of basal oxygen atoms before and after the adsorption is positively correlated with hydrogen bond strength. NMR chemical shielding tensor calculation of clusters without benryl alcohol shows that three different basal oxygen atoms (O3, O4, and O5) in model cluster 2 have the isotropic magnetic shielding tensor as
, respectively. After the adsorption, the difference of isotropic chemical shift varies from 1 to 5.5 ppm fer model cluster 1 and 2 while model cluster 2 apparently shows larger changes in isotropic chemical shift. The chemical shift of oxygen atoms is also positively correlated with electron density transfer. The current results show that the adsorption of benzyl alcohol on the kaolinite siloxane surfaces can largely be dominated by a weak hydrogen bonding and electrostatic force (charge-charge interaction) and demonstrate the importance of the cluster site and the lattice topology of surfaces on the adsorption behavior of the organic molecules on clay surfaces.
Phosphate Adsorption of Youngdong Illite, Korea
Cho, Hyen-Goo ; Park, Ok-Hee ; Moon, Dong-Hyuk ; Do, Jin-Young ; Kim, Soo-Oh ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 327~337
Mineral compositions were determined using quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis on the three kinds of Youngdong illite consisting of white, yellow and refined yellow samples. Mean particle size and their size distribution patterns were measured by laser particle size analyzer. The characteristics of phosphate adsorption on illite were studied through batch adsorption experiments. The white illite has less illite content, but is finer than that of yellow. The refined yellow illite has more illite content and finer particle size compared with those of raw yellow illite. The adsorption rate of phosphate generally increases when the mass of illite increases, whereas adsorption quantity decreases with ascending pH. The phosphate adsorption usually increases with ascending illite content or descending particle size. Although the white illite has lower illite content than the yellow, the former has higher phosphate adsorption quantity than the latter. This can be ascribed to the fine particle size, high interlayer charge, and low substitution in tetrahedral site of white illite. The adsorption isotherms of white illite are well fitted with the Langmuir equation, however those of yellow one are better with Freundlich equation.
An Assessment of Utilization of the Pungchon Limestone in Paper Industry
Lee, Na-Kyong ; Noh, Jin-Hwan ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 339~349
For various types of the Pungchon limestone, diverse mineral characters of the limestone including their size and morphology are investigated by using of ELS and SEM to examine the possibility of application as fillers to paper industry. Also, the measurement of zeta potential and the evaluation of coagulation properties in calcite suspension was made for fine powders of the limestone to examine the applicability and efficiency in wet-papermaking process. Fine powder of the Pungchon lime-stone, largely controlled by original mineral characters of ore in mineralogical aspects, exhibits some-what different trend in particle morphology according to ore types, and thereby, the size distribution, zeta potential and coagulation properties also become different. The examined whiteness, brightness, opacity and sheet strength in hand sheet also show remarkable differences according to ore types. These are seemed to be basically due to the results of combined effects of whiteness, site distribution, refractive index, and morphology of the limestone powder on the properties of hand sheet. Considering the investigated results, all types of the Pungchon limestone appear to be sufficiently applicable to paper industry. Especially, the mega-crystalline calcite type is evaluated to be overall suitable for the purpose of paper industry due to the higher values in whiteness and brightness. In addition the fine powder of micro-crystalline calcite type is assessed particularly to have a good quality in sheet strength by virtue of irregular particle shape.
Crystal Structure Analysis of
by X-ray and Neutron Diffraction
Kim, Shin-Ae ; Kim, Seong-Hoon ; So, Ji-Yong ; Lee, Jeong-Soo ; Lee, Chana-Hee ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 351~356
The crystal structure of
was analyzed by X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. The crystal is a deuterated
and one of the ferroelectric materials with hydrogen atoms. The crystal is orthorhombic at room temperature,
, with lattice parameters of
and Z=4. Neutron intensity data were collected on the Four-Circle diffractometer (FCD) at HANARO in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and X-ray date were given by Prof. Y. Noda of Tohoku University Japan. The structure was refined by full-matrix least-square to final R value of 0.070 for 1450 observed reflections by X-ray diffraction and to final R=0.049 for 745 observed reflections by neutron diffraction. With X-ray data we obtained only one hydrogen atomic position. However, not only all atomic positions of four hydrogen atoms at
but also the occupation factors of D and H were refined with neutron data. From this results we obtained the average chemical structure of this sample,
Microbial Leaching of Iron from Shinyemi Magnetite Ore
Roh, Yul ; Oh, Jong-Min ; Suh, Yong-Jae ; Jang, Hee-Dong ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 357~366
Microorganisms participate in a variety of geochemical processes such as weathering and formation of minerals, leaching of precious metals from minerals, and cycling of organic matter The objective of this study was to investigate biogeochemical processes of iron leaching from magnetite ore by iron-reducing bacteria isolated from intertidal flat sediments, southwestern part of Korea. Microbial iron leaching experiments were performed using magnetite ore, Shinyemi magnetite ore, in well-defined media with and without bacteria at room temperature for a month. Water soluble Fe and Mn during the leaching experiments were determined by ICP analysis of bioleached samples, and the resulting precipitated solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The extent of iron leaching from magnetite in the aerobic conditions (Fe = 15 mg/L and Mn = 3.41 mg/L) was lower than that in the anaerobic environments (Fe = 32.8 mg/L and Mn = 5.23 mg/L). The medium pH typically decreased from 8.3 to 7.2 during a month incubation. The Eh of the initial medium decreased from +144.9 mV to -331.7 mV in aerobic environments and from -2.3 mV to -494.6 mV in anaerobic environments upon incubation with the metal reducing microorganisms. The decrease in pH is due to glucose fermentation producing organic acids and
. The ability of bacteria to leach soluble iron from crystalline magnetite could have significant implications for biogeochemical processes in sediments where Fe(III) in magnetite represents the largest pool of electron acceptor as well as to use as a novel biotechnology for leaching precious and heavy metals from raw materials.
] Spectroscopy and Crystal Chemistry of Aenigmatite,
Choi, Jin-Beom ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 367~376
, is a common constituent of sodium-rich alkaline igneous rocks and is classified a an open-branched single-chain silicate.
spectroscopy of three natural aenigmatite specimens were done and the detailed crystal chemistry was obtained. Fitting of
spectra led to the resolution of nine peaks. They consist of three doublets of
and one merged peak at low velocity matching to two small peaks at high velocity which were assigned to
, respectively. Using the peak area for
peaks, analytical data were recalculated. Precise assignment of
ions in tetrahderal and octahedral sites revealed detailed crystal chemistry of aenigmatite. The existence of significant amounts of
has preference over
for the tetrahedral sites. Crystal chemistry of aenigmatite (AEN1) yields the formula of