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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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Journal DOI :
The Mineralogical Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
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Relationship between Physicochemical Properties, Heavy Metal Contents and Magnetic Susceptibility of Soils
Chon, Chul-Min ; Park, Jeong-Sik ; Kim, Jae-Gon ; Lee, Youn-Soo ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 23, issue 4, 2010, Pages 281~295
This paper deals with magnetic susceptibility, mineralogy, soil properties (pH, EC, CEC, loss on ignition), iron and manganese oxides, the content and partitioning of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), and their mutual relationship in the soil samples of an unpolluted, abandoned mine area, and industrial complex area. The various minerals derived from weathered bedrock were identified by X-ray diffraction in the unpolluted soil samples, except for the magnetic minerals. XRD analysis also revealed the existence of hematite and magnetite related to mine tailings and waste rocks in the abandoned mine area samples. The industrial complex area samples had carbonate minerals, such as calcite and dolomite, that might be due to anthropogenic deposition. The sum of the reducible, oxidizable, and residual fractions was over 80% for the abandoned mine area samples and over 50% for the industrial complex area samples using the sequential extraction method. The industrial complex area samples had a relatively high carbonate fraction that was associated with carbonate minerals. The content of aqua regia-extractable Fe, Mn, As, and Zn had a high positive correlation with the content of the dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB)-extractable method related to Fe/Mn oxide phases. The 54% and 58% of aqua regia-extractable Fe and As content, respectively, acted together with the concentrations of the DCB-extractable phases. Magnetic susceptibility values of total samples ranged from 0.005 to
. The samples including iron oxide minerals, such as hematite and magnetite, had a high magnetic susceptibility. The magnetic susceptibility showed a significant correlation with the heavy metals, Cd (r=0.544, p<0.05), Cr (r=0.714, p<0.01), Ni (r=0.645, p<0.05), Pb (r=0.703, p<0.01), and Zn (r=0.496, p<0.01), as well as Fe (r=0.608, p<0.01) and Mn (r=0.615, p<0.01). The aqua regia-extractable Fe and Mn content had a significant positive correlation with Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn. However, the DCB-extractable Fe and Mn content had a significant positive correlation with As and Ni, indicating that the heavy metals were associated with Fe and Mn oxide minerals.
Particle-Size Distribution Dependent upon Crushing Mechanism and Crushing Circuit
Choi, Do-Young ; Kim, Wan-Tae ; Kim, Sang-Bae ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 23, issue 4, 2010, Pages 297~303
We report the particle-size distribution and comminution charactersitics of dolomite depending upon crushing equipment (hammer crusher and roll crusher) and crushing circuit (open and closed). The quantity of fine particles (< 100 mesh) produced by hammer crusher was 34 wt.% which is about three times that by roll crusher. The quantity of 14~25 mesh size fraction by roll crusher was 20 wt.% higher than that produced by hammer crusher. 80 wt.% of the crushing products by hammer crushing was under 35 mesh in size, while the particles produced by roll crushing were relatively coarse. The particle size of both the hammer and roll crushers decreased by employing closed crusing circuit in comparison to open circuit. Products of required particle-size were obtained effectively depending on appropriate crushing equipment and crushing circuit.
Mineralogy of Cu-Co Ores from Democratic Republic of Congo
Cho, Hyen-Goo ; Seo, Hye-Min ; Kim, Soon-Oh ; Kim, Young-Ho ; Kim, Sang-Bae ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 23, issue 4, 2010, Pages 305~313
Mineralogical characteristics of Cu-Co ores from the Central African Copperbelt in the Democratic Repblic of Congo are studied using powder X-ray diffractometer, general area detector X-ray diffractometer, and electron proble microanalyzer. Black ores are mainly composed of heterogenite (cobalt oxide/hydroxide mineral) and malachite (copper carbonate mineral), whereas green ores are only composed of malachite. Heterogenite shows very bright white color under the reflected microscope, and belongs to 3R polytype, because it has d-spacings at
. Since NiO and
content of heterogenite are lower than those of 3R polytype from other localities, it cannot completely exclude the presence of 2H polytype in heterogenite from this study. Malachite is light grey color under the reflected microscope with approximate chemical formula of
. Heterogenite and malachite were probably formed at the supergene emichment stage, the last mineralization stage in the Central African Copperbelt. Cobalt seems to be much more emiched in the black supergene (oxy)hydroxide ore than those in the primary sulfide ore.
Characteristics of Thermophilic Bacteria and Secondary Materials Attached on the Pyrrhotite, Uljin
Park, Cheon-Young ; Kim, Bong-Ju ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 23, issue 4, 2010, Pages 315~329
Characteristics of thermophilic bacteria and secondary materials on the pyrrhotite surface were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermophilic bacteria from an acid hot spring in Japan were incubated with pyrrhotite at
respectively. SEM analysis of the reacted pyrrhotite showed that indigenous rod-shaped bacteria ranging from
in size were attached to the pyrrhotite surface at these temperatures with formation of secondary materials. Extracellular polymer substances were formed on the bacterial surface. We suggest that these polymers functioned as a capsule protecting bacteria from the extreme environment. Secondary materials such as elemental sulfur, Fe-hydroxide, S-Fe and O-P-Fe compounds were found on the pyrrhotite surface.
Bioleaching of Galena by Indigenous Bacteria at Room Temperature
Park, Cheon-Young ; Kim, Soon-Oh ; Kim, Bong-Ju ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 23, issue 4, 2010, Pages 331~346
This study was carried out to leach valuable metals from galena using indigenous bacteria with no optimum pH conditions at room temperature. Even in these conditions, the rod-shaped indigenous bacteria, ranging from
, were attached to the surface of the galena. For the 19 days of the bioleaching experiment, the content of Ph, Fe, Zn ions was found to be 347, 222 and 1.7 times higher than that of the control leaching agent, respectively. Numerous hexagonal column crystals were observed on the surface of galena. Those crystals may be formed from the biooxidation of galena by the indigenous bacteria. XRD analysis showed the peaks of anglesite observed in the bioleached galena. It is expected that more valuable elements can be leached out of the galena, if the bacteria is used under optimum pH and temperature conditions in future bioleaching experiments.
Investigation on Natural Radioactivity of Environmental Samples Near the Bauxite Processing Facility
Moon, Dong-Hyeok ; Koh, Sang-Mo ; Chang, Byung-Uck ; Kim, Tong-Kwon ; Kim, Yong-Ug ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 23, issue 4, 2010, Pages 347~356
Bauxite is a main raw material for the production of alumina and aluminum hydroxide in the processing plant of KC company. It is a NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials), and its waste, red mud, is a TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials). The purpose of the geochemical and mineralogical investigations of the bedrock and soils in and around the plant, a large NORM source, was to provide basic data for measuring the radiation dose and protecting from radioactive hazards. Soils were mixtures of minerals derived from the country rock (quartz, feldspar, mica, kaolin, gibbsite, and sepiolite) and bauxite (hematite, boehmite, and calcite) of open-air storage. Average U and Th contents of the soil samples were 4.7 ppm and 23 ppm, respectively, indicating somewhat Th anomaly. The average concentrations of radionuclides are
anomaly in the red mud open-air storage. Soil external hazard indices range from 0.10 to 1.66 with an average of 0.63. Although most of the indices are below 1.0 that is a regulation value, those of 4 samples of total 41 soil samples exceed 1.0, requiring further detailed investigation.
Trace Element Compositions and Optically Stimulated Luminescence Characteristics of Sedimentary Quartz
Jeon, Gi-Young ; Choi, Jeong-Heon ; Kil, Young-Woo ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 23, issue 4, 2010, Pages 357~365
Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of quartz is commonly applied to the age dating of Quaternary sediments. However, one of the issues is that some of the quartz samples are not suitable to OSL dating. Mineralogical analysis of the quartz samples with diverse OSL signals are required to strengthen the reliability and applicability of the OSL dating. We analysed the OSL signal characteristics of sedimentary quartz samples from diverse geological environments and measured their trace element contents using laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Quartz samples could be grouped into ones suitable to OSL dating and ones unsuitable on the basis of their OSL signal characteristics. The average trace element contents ranged from 73 to 260 ppm (Al), and from 61 to 248 ppm (Ti) with minor Li, Mg, Cr, Mn, and Fe contents below 40 ppm. We did not find any significant variation of trace element contents of quartz samples consistent with their OSL signal characteristics. This indicates unknown mineralogical factors causing diverse OSL characteristics which should be confirmed by further analysis of sufficient set of samples.
Geophysical Implications for Configurational Entropy and Cube Counting Fractal Dimension of Porous Networks of Geological Medium: Insights from Random Packing Simulations
Lee, Bum-Han ; Lee, Sung-Keun ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 23, issue 4, 2010, Pages 367~375
Understanding the interactions between earth materials and fluids is essential for studying the diverse geological processes in the Earth's surface and interior. In order to better understand the interactions between earth materials and fluids, we explore the effect of specific surface area and porosity on structural parameters of pore structures. We obtained 3D pore structures, using random packing simulations of porous media composed of single sized spheres with varying the particle size and porosity, and then we analyzed configurational entropy for 2D cross sections of porous media and cube counting fractal dimension for 3D porous networks. The results of the configurational entropy analysis show that the entropy length decreases from 0.8 to 0.2 with increasing specific surface area from 2.4 to
, and the maximum configurational entropy increases from 0.94 to 0.99 with increasing porosity from 0.33 to 0.46. On the basis of the strong correlation between the liquid volume fraction (i.e., porosity) and configurational entropy, we suggest that elastic properties and viscosity of mantle melts can be expressed using configurational entropy. The results of the cube counting fractal dimension analysis show that cube counting fractal dimension increases with increasing porosity at constant specific surface area, and increases from 2.65 to 2.98 with increasing specific surface area from 2.4 to
. On the basis of the strong correlation among cube counting fractal dimension, specific surface area, and porosity, we suggest that seismic wave attenuation and structural disorder in fluid-rock-melt composites can be described using cube counting fractal dimension.
Mineralogical Properties and Paragenesis of H-smectite
Noh, Jin-Hwan ; Hong, Jin-Sung ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 23, issue 4, 2010, Pages 377~393
Pumiceous tuffs occurring in the Beomgockri Group are examined applied-mineralogical characteristics and their controling factors to evaluate their potentials as the adsorption-functional mineral resources. The pumiceous tuffs are diagenetically altered to low-grade zeolitcs and bentonites in the Janggi area. Compositional specialty due to the presence of pumice fragments induces the altered tuffs to exhibit the characteristic adsorption property combined with cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, and acidic pH. Unusual lower pH in the adsorption-functional mineral substances is turned out to be originated from the presence of H-smectite having
in the interlayer site of the sheet structure. On account of disordered crystallinity resulting from the exchanged
in the interlayer site, the smectite commonly forms crenulated edges in the planar crystal form and exhibits characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns showing comparatively lower intensities of basal spacings including (001) peak than conventional Ca-smectite. Based on the interpretation of paragenetic relations and precursor of the H-smectite, a genetic model of the peculiar clay mineral was proposed. The smectite formation may be facilitated resulting from the precipitation of opal-CT at decreasing pH condition caused by the release of H+ during diagenetic alteration of pumice fragments. Because of the acidic smectite, the low-grade mineral resources from the Beomgockri Group may be applicable to the adsorption industry as the raw materials of acid clays and bed-soil.
Mineralogy of Secondary Phosphates and Sulfates Precipitated within the Sequence of Bat Guano Deposits in the Gossi Cave, Korea
Jun, Chang-Pyo ; Lee, Seong-Joo ; Kong, Dal-Yong ; Kang, Il-Mo ; Song, Yun-Goo ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 23, issue 4, 2010, Pages 395~402
Mineralogical characterization was performed for the mineral assemblages precipitated at the boundary between limestone bedrock and bat guano deposits in the Gossi Cave, Korea. Francoanellite, taranakite, ardealite, brushite and monetite are observed as phosphate minerals and gypsum and a small amount of barite as sulfate minerals in the guano deposits. With the increase of depth, phosphates are changed as following sequence: taranakite
monetite. This sequence indicates that the major parameters controlling the physico-chemical conditions under which these mineral assemblages were deposited are pH and relative humidity.
Local Electronic Structures of
Polymorph Crystals: Insights from O K-edge Energy-Loss Near-Edge Spectroscopy
Yi, Yoo-Soo ; Lee, Sung-Keun ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 23, issue 4, 2010, Pages 403~411
Essentials of understanding the geochemical evolution and geophysical processes in Earth's system are macroscopic properties and atomistic (and electronic) structures of Earth materials. Recent advances in quantum calculations based on the density functional theory allow us to unveil the previously unknown details of local atomic structures in diverse silicates in Earth's interior. Here, we report the O K-edge ELNES (energy-loss near-edge structure; ELNES) spectra and PLDOS (partial local density of states) for oxygen atoms in
-quartz and stishovite using the quantum calculations based on FP-LAPW (full potential linearized augmented plane wave). The calculated O K-edge ELNES spectrum of
-quartz shows a strong peak at ~538 eV due to comer-sharing oxygen linking two
tetrahedra and that for stishovite shows two distinct peaks at ~537 and ~543 eV corresponding to edge-sharing oxygen linking
octahedra. The significant differences in spectral features of O K-edge ELNES spectra suggest that the O K-edge features can be useful indicator to distinguish various oxygen sites in diverse crystal and amorphous silicates in the Earth's interior.
Occurrence of the Pb-Zn Skarn Deposits in Gukjeon Mine, Korea
Yang, Chang-Moon ; Choi, Jin-Beom ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 23, issue 4, 2010, Pages 413~428
The Gukjeon Pb-Zn mine was recognized as skarn deposits which replaced the limestone layer of the Jeongkansan Formation by intrusion of biotite granite in late Cretaceous. The Jeongkansan Formation is mainly composed of tuffaceous shale, and interlayers of sandstone, andesitic tuff, limestone, and conglomerate. The limestone layer is located in the lower part of the Jeongkansan Formation with 6~8 m in thickness and about 500 m in length. The Gukjeon deposits are divided into the Jukgang ore bodies once mined underground and the eastern ore bodies. Main ores are sphalerite and galena, in association with small amounts of chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, pyrite, and pyrrhotite, etc. Skarns mainly consist of clinopyroxenes and Ca-garnets, associated with actinolite, chlorite, axinite, and calcite, etc. The Jukgang ore bodies show symmetrical distribution of zoning outward, representing clinopyroxene (hedenbergite) zone, clinopyroxene-garnet (grossular) zone, garnet (andradite) zone, and alteration zone of hornfels.
contents in clinopyroxenes increase with decreasing sphalerite grade. Sphalerite ores are found in all zones and
contents in sphalerite increase in the same way as those in clinopyroxenes, implying that clinopyroxene and sphalerite are closely related each other. It is concluded that the Gukjeon ores occurred in the ore rich zone of high grade sphalerite with less pyrite in assoication with clinopyroxene.
Talc as an Environmentally-Friendly Pitch and Stickies Controlling Agent
Le, Su-Jeong ; An, Eung-Mo ; Kim, Byoung-Gon ; Cho, Sung-Baek ;
Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 23, issue 4, 2010, Pages 429~437