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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Korean Journal of Mycology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Mycology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Dec 1997
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Sep 1997
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Jun 1997
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Mar 1997
Selecting the target year
Distribution and Taxonomy of Entomopathogenic Fungal Species from Korea
Sung, Jae-Mo ; Lee, Hyun-Kyung ; Choi, Young-Sang ; Kim, Yong-Yuk ; Kim, Sang-Hee ; Sung, Gi-Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 25, issue 4, 1997, Pages 239~252
Thirty three entomopathogenic species belonging to twelve genus were collected throughout 16 collecting sites from 1990 to 1996. Among those collected species, 14 unrecorded species such as Cordyceps bifusispora, C. martialis, C. oxycephala, C. paludosa, C. pentatomi, C. rosea, C. ryogamiensis, Shimizuomyces paradoxa, Akanthomyces aculeatus, Polycephalomyces ramosus, Tilachlidiopsis nigra were added to Korean entomopathogenic species through this study. In nature, occurrence of Cordyceps nutans, C. sphecocephala and Paecilomyces tenuipes were from early June to late September. On the other hand, C. militaris, C. kyushuensis and C. pruinosa were mainly found from mid July to mid August when relative humidity are increased. Nine species of the genus Cordyceps including C. bifusispora and four deuteromycetous species were isolated. As a result of cultural test using six Cordyceps species, anamorph of C. militaris, C. kyushuensis were proved as Verticillium sp. C. pruinosa as Acremonium sp., C. sphecocephala as Hymenostilbe sp. and C. scarabaeicola as Beauveria sp., respectively.
A Preliminary Screening of 46 Korean Basidiomycetes Including Hebeloma crustulineforme for Their Hemolytic Activities
Yang, Hee-Jung ; Chung, Soo-Hyun ; Kim, Jin-Hyang ; Chung, Kyeong-Soo ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 25, issue 4, 1997, Pages 253~256
To elucidate the hemolytic toxicities of Korean basidiomycetes, the cold-water extracts of 46 wild mushrooms were tested for hemolytic activity on mouse erythrocytes. Twelve species including Amanita esculenta, A. griseofarinosa, A. longistriata, A. melleiceps, A. phalloides, A. rubescence, A. spissacea, A. vaginata, Hebeloma crustuliniforme, Lepiota cygnea, Macrolepiota procera, and Oudemansiella platyphylla showed strong hemolytic activities. Of these, A. griseofarinosa and H. crustuliniforme showed no decrease in their hemolytic activity even after five minutes' boiling.
Isolation and Mycelial Cultivation Submerged of Phellinus sp.
Kang, Tae-Su ; Lee, Dong-Gi ; Lee, Shin-Young ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 25, issue 4, 1997, Pages 257~267
Fruit bodies similar to the Phellinus sp. residing on the mulberry were collected at Yang-yang in Kang-won-do province and one strain of Phellinus sp. was isolated from the fruit bodies. For mass production of the isolated mycelia in a submerged culture, the culture conditions, medium composition, and the effect of various culture systems on the mycelial growth, were investigated. The morphological characteristics of the fruit body were as follows: covered with blackish to black and rough, lower surface with yellowish-brown to dull-brown and smooth, 5-7 cm thick and hard woody. Also, the pure cultured mycelia showed yellowish-brown color, capability of purplish-brown pigment production on the PDA plate media, no-formation of clamp-connection, much binding branch, and enzyme activities such as laccase, tyrosinase and peroxidase. Therefore, pure cultured strain was identified to be Phellinus sp. In the flask culture, the optimum culture conditions for the mycelial production were obtained after cultivation of 8 days at inoculum level of 5%(v/v), media volume of 70 mL, 150 rpm, initial pH 6, and temperature of
. Optimum medium composition from the response surface analysis were determined to be glucose 12.12 g/L, sucrose 12.12 g/L, yeast extract 11.15 g/L, malt extract 11.15 g/L,
0.855 g/L and
0.855 g/L. The production of the mycelia after 4 and 8 days of cultivation was 1.95 and 9.89 g/L, respectively. The maximum specific growth rate and productivity were
and 1.25 g/L/day, respectively. Among the three different culture systems for the growth of mycelia, the maximum mycelial dry weight of 7.5 g/L was obtained after cultivation of 4 days in the air-lift fermentor under aeration rate of 2.5 vvm. The maximum specific growth rate and productivity were
and 1.9 g/L/day, respectively, which were about 1.7 and 4.2 times higher than those of flask culture.
Cultivation of Oyster Mushrooms Using the Garlic Peel as an Agricultural by-product
Lee, Sang-Sun ; Kim, Soon-Keun ; Lee, Tae-Soo ; Lee, Min-Woong ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 25, issue 4, 1997, Pages 268~275
High prices of raw materials used as media for the mushroom cultivation increased the cost of commercial production of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). In this study, garlic peels (Allium sativum f. pekinese) as an agricultural by-product were investigated to replace the saw dust for the bottle cultivation of oyster mushroom. Mycelial growth of oyster mushroom were examined by the extracts made from the sawdust, rice bran and garlic peels. The mycelial growth was very poor in the agar media containing the extracts of sawdust or garlic peels, but was good when those of the rice bran were added. In the polypropylene bottle experiment, the sawdust medium which ammended with minerals vitamin was essential for the production of the mushroom fruitbodies. The rice bran was considered to stimulate the mycelial growth, but not the development of basidiocarps. The garlic peel was not a factor to stimulate the production of mushroom fruitbodies, but a raw material ammended with the rice bran produced much amounts of mushroom. In this work, garlic peels (
v/v) added to the mixture of sawdust and rice bran (4 : 1, v/v) was considered to help the productions of mushroom fruitbodies. Based on the result, the replacement of expensive saw dust with inexpensive garlic peels was a good example to reduce production cost of the bottle cultivation of mushroom.
Pythium spp. Isolated from Turfgrasses at Golf Courses in Korea
Kim, Jin-Won ; Park, Eun-Woo ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 25, issue 4, 1997, Pages 276~290
Eleven species of Pythium were identified from 125 isolates collected from leaf blight lesions on creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), and zoysiagrasses (Zoysia japonica Steud., and Z. matrella (L.) Merr.) at 35 golf courses in Korea in
. The identified species included P. aphanidermatum, P. arrhenomanes, P. catenulatum, P. graminicola, P. myriotylum, P. oligandrum, P. periplocum, P. rostratum, P. torulosum, P. ultimum var. ultimum, and P. vanterpoolii. Mycological characteristics of sporangia, oogonia, antheridia, and oospores observed on the sucrose-asparagine bentgrass leaf culture medium were described for each species. Of the species, P. arrhenomanes, P. catenulatum, P. gmminicola, P. oligandrum, P. periplocum, P. rostratum, P. torulosum and P. vanterpoolii were reported for the first time in Korea. P. myriotylum, P. rostratum, P. torulosum and P. vanterpoolii showed characteristic colony patterns on the potato-carrot agar medium, which can be used as criteria for species identification of Pythium.
Isolation and Identification of Bipolaris coicis, Causing Leaf Blight of Job's Tears
Kim, Sung-Kee ; Kim, Ki-Woo ; Hong, Soon-Sung ; Park, Eun-Woo ; Yang, Jang-Souck ; Kim, Yun-Jeong ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 25, issue 4, 1997, Pages 291~296
Diseased leaves of Job's tears were collected at six locations in Korea to isolate and identify the pathogen causing leaf blight. Conidia were brown, fusoid, and slightly curved. They were
in size, and had mostly 4 septa which were characteristic of pseudosepta. A few conidia had slightly protruding hila, whereas most had no hilum. Conidial germ tubes were produced mostly from both polar end cells (bipolar), and progressed in semiaxial direction. When seedlings of Job's tears were inoculated with conidia, long, spindle-shaped, and brown lesions were produced on leaves, and entire leaves became blighted 15 days later. Based on the aggressiveness in pathogenicity, the isolates could be divided into two groups. Considering the mycological characteristics and pathogenicity of the fungus, the pathogen causing leaf blight of Job's tears was determined to be Bipolaris coicis (Nisikado) Shoemaker.
Enzymatic Characteristics for Xylanase Activity of Tremella fuciformis and its Symbiotic Fungi
Chang, Hyun-You ; Kim, Gwang-Po ; Hong, In-Pyo ; Kim, Han-Kyoung ; Chung, Jong-Cheon ; Sung, Jae-Mo ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 25, issue 4, 1997, Pages 297~304
Effects of cultural conditions on the production of xylanase by Tremella fuciformis, symbiotic fungi and mixed fungi were investigated. The optimum carbon source for high production of xylanase by T. fuciformis, symbiotic fungi and mixed fungi was xylose. The optimum nitrogen source for both T. fuciformis and symbiotic fungi was
, whereas mixed fungi was
. The optimum culture period for high production of xylanase was 5 days for both T. fuciformis and mixed fungi, and 6 days for symbiotic fungi, respectively. The optimum temperature for T. fuciformis and symbiotic fungi was
, and the corresponding value for mixed fungi was
. Xylanase activity was high at pH 6 for T. fuciformis and symbiotic fungi, and pH 7 for mixed fungi. Except
, metal ions in T. fuciformis inhibited the activity of xylanase, and, thermal stability of xylanase in T. fuciformis, symbiotic fungi and mixed fungi maintained 80% of activity until
. The Michaelis constant (Km) of xylan was
in T. fuciformis,
in symbiotic fungi,
in mixed fungi.
The Artificial Cultivation of Pleurotus eryngii (I) -Investigation of Mycelial Growth Conditions-
Kim, Han-Kyoung ; Cheong, Jong-Chun ; Chang, Hyun-You ; Kim, Gwang-Po ; Cha, Dong-Yeul ; Moon, Byung-Ju ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 25, issue 4, 1997, Pages 305~310
A study was conducted to obtain optimal mycelial growth conditions of Pleurotus eryngii. Mycelial growth was best on medium Lilly, temperature
, and pH 6.0. Optimal carbon sources were
glucose and 5% dextrin. Casamino acid 0.12% in medium was good for mycelial growth as a nitrogen source.
The Artificial Cultivation of Pleurotus eryngii (II) -Morphological Characteristics of Fruit Body and Cultural Conditions-
Kim, Han-Kyoung ; Cheong, Jong-Chun ; Seok, Soon-Ja ; Kim, Gwang-Po ; Cha, Dong-Yeul ; Moon, Byung-Ju ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 25, issue 4, 1997, Pages 311~319
These studies were carried out to develop an artificial cultivation method. The diameter and thickness of pileus ranged
, respectively. The diameters of stipe were
and the lengthes were
. The spore fingerprint was white. The sizes were spore
, pileus hymenium cell
, and stipe hymenium cell
. The thirty percent mixture of rice and wheat bran into sawdust gives the high density of mycelia and the good development of fruiting structure. The optimum water contents of sawdust substrates were
in which condition the mycelium grows well and gives high density. In PP bottle cultivation, the first fruiting period was
days earlier in nonscratching samples than scratching ones, but the quantity of fruiting body was higher in scratching samples than nonscratching ones. In the case of PP bag cultivation, the first fruiting was 10 days faster, and the quantity of fruiting bodies was 30% higher in samples with 30% wheat bran than those with rice bran. The fleshiness of stipe was
times harder than that of pileus.
Physiological Diversity between Morphological Phenotypes of Botrytis cinerea
Kim, Byung-Sup ; Park, Eun-Woo ; Roh, Seong-Hwan ; Cho, Kwang-Yun ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 25, issue 4, 1997, Pages 320~329
Botrytis cinerea isolates obtained from infected plants of cucumber, tomato, and strawberry were divided into three groups (sporing, sclerotial, and mycelial types). Of which sclerotial types were the major group. There were no correlations between morphological phenotypes and responses to benzimidazole and dicarboximide fungicides. External structure of conidia of three phenotypes by scanning electron microscope was the same with verrucose surface. Mycelial type was the most virulent on fruits of eggplants. Comparative tests were carried out to examine correlations between the virulence and production of fungal enzymes such as phenol oxidases, pectin methyl esterases (PME), amylases, cellulases, ureases,
, and proteinases. There was no correlation among the phenotypes in production of phenol oxidases and
. However, there were significantly different from each other in PME, amylase, cellulase, urease, and protease activity.
Purification and Characterization of Endo-polygalacturonase Produced by Plant Pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea
Kim, Byung-Young ; Lee, Tae-Ho ; Rha, Eu-Gene ; Chung, Young-Ryun ; Lee, Chang-Won ; Kim, Jae-Won ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 25, issue 4, 1997, Pages 330~339
Botrytis cinerea T91-1 has shown to produce at least four different polygalacturonases in a liquid medium containing citrus pectin as a carbon source. One of the enzymes, its molecular weight was estimated as 37 kDa by denatured polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was purified by a series of procedures including acetone precipitation, ion exchange, heparin affinity, and reverse phase column chromatographies. By viscometric analysis, the enzyme was revealed as an endo-polygalacturonase. The enzyme activity was inhibited by divalent cations such as
. Km and Vmax for polygalacturonic acid hydrolysis were 0.33 mg/ml and 28.6 nM/min, respectively. The optimum temperature for enzymatic activity was
and the enzyme showed optimal pH values between 4.0 and 4.5. The enzyme was stable up to 12 hours in the range of pH 4 to 7 and at the temperature below
. Amino acid sequence from N-terminal up to 6 amino acids determined by Edman degradation showed little homology with polygalacturonases from fungi and plants.
Cultural Characteristics of Chromogenic and Teleomorphic Strains of Collectotricum gloeosporioides Isolated from Apple and Red pepper
Lee, Du-Hyung ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 25, issue 4, 1997, Pages 340~347
Conidia and cultural characteristics of isolates of chromogenic and teleomorphic strains of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from apple and red pepper were compared. The mycelial growth of teleomorphic strains was faster than that of chromogenic strains in potato dextrose agar and V-8 agar. The chromogenic isolates from apple and red pepper developed. white gray to gray green mycelial rings interspersed with salmon to apricot colored conidial masses in colonies on potato dextrose agar and V-8 agar and none formed on ascigerous stage in cultures. The chromogenic isolates from red pepper produced conidia, most with one apex attenuated on apple and potato dextrose agar whereas fusiform and smaller conidia were produced in V-8 agar and water agar leaf medium. The chromogenic isolates from apple produced fusiform conidia in the media tested. The teleomorphic isolates from apple and red pepper produced cylindrical conidia, most with both apices rounded, developed white gray to dark olive green in a zonate pattern with small dark spots throughout colonies and formed the ascigerous stage in cultures.
Purification and properties of an antifungal component, AF-001, from Cinnamomi Cortex
Bang, Kyu-Ho ; Lee, Young-Ha ; Min, Byung-Sun ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 25, issue 4, 1997, Pages 348~353
Ether extract of Cinnamomi Cortex showing antifungal activity was purified and characterized. The active component from the extract was identified to be trans-cinnamaldehyde, which was effective in inhibiting the growth of the representative fungi of dermatomycosis with minimum inhibitory concentration of
. The antifungal spectrum of trans-cinnamaldehyde was broader than that of commercial antifungal agent, Ketoconazole.
Development of Antibiotics in Mushroom -The Screening of Antifungal Activities in Basidiomycetes-
Min, Ji-Young ; Kim, Eun-Mi ; Min, Tae-Jin ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 25, issue 4, 1997, Pages 354~361
The antifungal activities of 153 extracts from 51 species of Korean mushroom on six phytopathogenic fungi were investigated. The powder of fruit-body of each mushroom was extracted with petroleum ether, 80% ethanol and distilled water. The water extracts of four mushrooms including Amanita virosa showed antifungal activities on Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum graminicola, Fusarium solani, Idriella bolleyie. The 80% ethanol extracts of seven mushrooms including Boletus auripes showed antibiotic activities against A. alternata, C. gramincola, Cylindrocarpon destructans, F. solani, F. oxysporum cucumerinum, and I. bolleyie. The petroleum ether extracts of six mushrooms including Amanita citrina showed antibiotic activities against A. alternata, C. destructans, and C. graminicola. The 102 extracts of 34 mushrooms including Agaricus arvensis didn't show antibiotic activities.
Classification and Genetic Variation Analysis Among Formae Speciales of Fusarium oxysporum by Using Recombinant DNA Probes
Kim, Young-Tae ; Kim, Hong-Gi ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 25, issue 4, 1997, Pages 362~368
Five formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum in Korea were examined using RFLP analysis to find the possibility for classification and analyze genetic variations. DNAs from F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, cucumerinum, fragariae, garlic and sesami were used with three recombinant probes such as pFC46, pFC52 and pFC57. Distinct differences among five formae speciales of this fungus were detected in RFLP band patterns based on southern hybridization of genomic DNA using each recombinant clone, which was a repetitive copy probe. Strains belong to four formae speciales could be very stable in genetic variation except f. sp. sesami which has more variation than the others based on the RFLP analysis. They formed their own cluster which has high similarity within the same formae specialis resulted from the UPGMA analysis for genetic relationship analysis and each cluster represented its own formae specialis. The method using three recombinant DNA probes could be a good tool for classification of formae speciales in F. oxysporum.
Composition of a New Medium for Mycelial Growth of Hericium erinaceus
Ko, Han-Gyu ; Kim, Dong-Myong ; Park, Won-Mok ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 25, issue 4, 1997, Pages 369~376
These researches were carried out for improvement of medium for mycelial growth of Hericium erinaceus isolate KU-1. It grew well at pH 4 and
. Glucose and sucrose were favorable carbon sources for mycelial growth. As nitrogen sources, ammonium acetate and arginine enhanced mycelial growth. Optimum C/N ratio was 200. Based On the results, the following recipe is suggested for synthetic medium for the mycelial growth: glucose 18.02 g, arginine 2.613 g, ammonium acetate 2.313 g,
, water 1 liter. This medium was superior for the mycelial growth to other conventional media such as Yeast malt extract agar (YMA), Park medium, Potato dextrose agar (PDA), Malt extract agar, Czapek-dox agar, Macaya-lizano medium and Yeast extract agar. This new synthetic medium is designated as Ko medium.