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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Mycology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Mycology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Dec 1998
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Sep 1998
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jun 1998
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Mar 1998
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Zoophthora phalloides Batko (Zygomycetes: Entomophthoraceae), a Fungal Parasite of the Aphid Dactynotus species in Korea
Yoon, Cheol-Sik ; Sung, Gi-Ho ; Lee, Seung-Hwan ; Yun, Tae-Yu ; Lee, Jeang-Oon ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 26, issue 4, 1998, Pages 413~415
An entomophthoraceous fungus, Zoophthora phalloides, was found in populations of the aphid Dactynotus species, at National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, and Jeonnam Provincial RDA during June, 1998. Occurrence of the fungus and aphid has never been recorded in Korea. Microscopic observations of this fungus are described, and illustrated. The fungus has sausage-shaped primary conidia with
in length, and two types of secondary conidiophores. Our specimens exhibit closer relationship with the North American isolates than with the European isolates on the basis of conidial length described by other study.
Chemical Control of Fusarium Wilt of Pigeonpea
Singh, Rajesh ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 26, issue 4, 1998, Pages 416~423
The fungicidal effects of four commercial fungicides, two herbicides and two insecticides have been examined on Fusarium udum, causing wilt disease of pigeonpea in vitro and in vivo. The fungicides Bavistin and MeMc inhibited the growth of the test pathogen completely at 8 and 30 ppm. The herbicide Butachlore inhibited the growth of the test pathogen up to 80.4%. The insecticides, Ekalux and Thiodane partially inhibited the radial growth at 1000 ppm. In unsterilized and sterilized soil MeMc was most effective in controlling the disease in comparison to Bavistin and Ekalux. Maximum rhizosphere fungal population was recorded in MeMc amended soil and minimum in case of Bavistin.
Taxonomic Studies on Cercospora and Allied Genera in Korea (III)
Kim, Jeong-Dong ; Shin, Hyeon-Dong ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 26, issue 4, 1998, Pages 424~436
This paper is a third contribution towards taxonomic studies on Cercospora and allied genera, and contains ten species of Korean cercosporoid fungi; viz. Cercospora achyranthis, C. canescens, C. fukushiana, C. polygonacea, Cercosporella virgaureae, Pseudocercospora fukuokaensis, P. puerariicola, Ramularia cynarae, R. inaequalis, and R. rubella. Morphological characteristics of taxonomic value are described and drawn for these species to contribute towards a mycological monograph of Korean cercosporoid fungi.
Taxonomic Studies on Cercospora and Allied Genera in Korea (IV)
Kim, Jeong-Dong ; Shin, Hyeon-Dong ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 26, issue 4, 1998, Pages 437~449
This paper is a fourth contribution towards taxonomic studies on Cercospora and allied genera, and contains ten species of Korean cercosporoid fungi; viz. Cercospora capsici, C. cardaminae, C. nasturtii, Phacellium episphaerium, Pseudocercospora chengtuensis, P. diospyrimorrisianae, Pseudocercosporella capsellae, Ramularia armoraciae, R. lamii var. lamii, and R. pratensis var. pratensis. Morphological characteristics of taxonomic value are described and drawn for these species to contribute towards a mycological monograph of Korean cercosporoid fungi.
Construction of a Pure Cryparin-null Mutant for the Promoter Analysis of Cryparin Gene
Kim, Myoung-Ju ; Yang, Moon-Sik ; Kim, Dae-Hyuk ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 26, issue 4, 1998, Pages 450~457
The cryparin of Cryphonectria parasitica belongs to a cell wall associated fungal hydrophobin. The cryparin, though it is encoded by a single copy gene, is known for the high expression during the liquid culture of C. parasitica, and it turns out that 22% of total mRNA was transcribed for cryparin at 48hr after the liquid culture. In addition, it is also known as one of down-regulated fungal proteins by the presence of double stranded RNA virus, Cryphonectria hypovirus 1. In previous studies (Kim et al., 1999), we have constructed a cryparin-null mutant by replacing the cryparin gene with hygromycin B resistance gene due to site directed homologous recombination. In order for the promoter analysis of cryparin which seems to be very strong as well as mycoviral specific, it is preferable to have a strain with only a target promoter replaced and a discernable target site for incoming vectors. However, the cryparin-null mutant revealed the presence of an additional copy of transforming vector except the one which replaced the cryparin gene. In addition, the cryparin-null mutant did not contain any markers for targeted integration of incoming vectors. This prompts us to design an experiment to obtain a strain for promoter analysis of cryparin gene. A different mating type strain EP6(Mata,
) was mated with the cryparin-null mutant
::hph) to make the progenies with only a single replacement vector and
characteristic remained. Nutritional assay as well as Southern blot analysis revealed that the progeny,
Crp194-a6, was the methionine auxotroph with a single replacing vector in genome. Northern blot analysis and PAGE showed that there was no cryparin produced in this bred strain either.
Antifungal Activity of Pseudomonas sp. DGUM 5051 Against Apple Bitter-rot Causing Fungus, Glomerella cingulata
Kim, Jung-Mi ; Lee, Min-Woong ; Han, Yeong-Hwan ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 26, issue 4, 1998, Pages 458~465
The strain DGUM 5051, an antagonistic bacterium against apple-bitter rot causing Glomerella cingulata, was isolated from soil in Kyongju. Based on the morphological and physiological characteristics, the bacterium was identified as Pseudomonas sp. and named as Pseudomonas sp. DGUM 5051. The optimal pH and temperature for cell growth were pH 6.0 and
, whereas those for antifungal activity were pH 7.0 and
, respectively. Among the complex media tested, brucella medium, brain heart infusion medium and Luria-Bertani medium were good for both cell growth and antifungal activity. The high antifungal activity was found in the mineral salts medium, in which sucrose,
were used as sources of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively.
Identification of Phellinus linteus by Comparison of Colony Shapes and Using PCR techniques
Kong, Won-Sik ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ; You, Chang-Hyun ; Kim, Young-Ho ; Kim, Kyung-Soo ; Kim, Kwang-Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 26, issue 4, 1998, Pages 466~477
Twenty-two Phellinus strains were characterized using colony morphologies and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to divide into Phellinus linteus. There were some differences in mycelial growth and colony shapes among the strains when they were grown on various media such as PDA, MCM, MEA and YM. Phellinus linteus was slowly growing, formed golden-yellow colony, and produced blue pigment on PDA media. When the regions of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) were amplified from ribosomal RNA (rRNA) coding genes of P. igniarius and P. linteus strains by means of PCR, two types of band (700 bp and 800 bp) were appeared, respectively. For the amplified intergenic region I (IGRI), P. igniarius strains showed a different band among 500, 600, 700 and 800 bp according to the strains, whereas P. linteus strains did one specific band of 700 bp. By polymorphism analysis after digesting the amplified products with 6 different restriction enzymes, a band specific to P. linteus was generated when the products for ITS region were digested with HaeIII, suggesting that the enzyme digestion could provide effective method to distinguish between P. igniarius and P. linteus. And also, the analysis of genetic relationship showed that the genetic similarities were 89% and 95% in P. igniarius and P. linteus strains, respectively. Random amplification polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis using multiple primer sets and arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) with ITS3 primer could also result in a reproducible way to identify P. linteus strains.
Taxonomic Observations of the Isolates of Rhizopus species Inhabiting at the Raw Materials for Korean Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea
Lee, Sang-Sun ; Yoon, Young-Sil ; Yu, Kee-Won ; Sung, Chang-Kun ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 26, issue 4, 1998, Pages 478~486
The isolates of Rhizopus collected from Korean traditional fermented food meju and nuruk, were compared with the well known species of Rhizopus donated. The isolates of Rhizopus were identified with the numerical analyses calculated from RAPD-DNA bands, and confirmed with the microscopic observations of morphological features on PDA. The isolates of R. oryzae purchased were segregated through the results of RAPD or the morphological features. The species of R. nigricans, known as an illegitimate species, were different from those of R. stolonife and it is estimated that they are species of Rhizopus, again. According to microscopic observations and the result of RAPD, Some isolates of R. oryzae purchased belong to R. nigricans and are completely different from R. oryzae in their growth. The isolates of R. nigricans included with several isolates of R. oryzae identified for the different phenotypes and were heterogenous. The isolate of R. oligosporus were speculated to be different from morphological features of Rhizopus, but to be similar to the species of Absidia on the apophysis of sporangium. Its sporangiophore or mycelium was observed to be dark black, but the sporangia were not in those of R. oligosporus. The isolates collected from Korean traditional nuruk showed genetic diversity, and also considered to be different tastes in Korean rice wines.
Detections of the Mycotoxins on the Korean Traditional Home made Mejus
Lee, Sang-Sun ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 26, issue 4, 1998, Pages 487~495
and Ochratoxin A(A), were measured from the various mejus manufactured under the artificial or natural conditions by the indirect competitive ELISA; The various fungi isolated from the Korean traditional home (KTH) made meju collected were observed to produce each mycotoxin mentioned above in the toxin producing broth, but only few in the sterilized cereals of soybean under the artificial conditions. Thus, the isolated fungi were not found to produce both A and B toxins in the artificial conditions. Particularly, the any mycotoxin was not determined at the range of 0.01 to 100 ng per gm of the mejus made under the conditions of KTH widely collected in Korea. The mycotoxins produced by the meju-fermenting fungi were seemed or speculated to be degraded in KTH's mejus under the natural conditions. The species of Mucor involved in the initial stage of fermentation were discussed to be important in the fermentations of KTH mejus.
The Extracellular Enzyme Activities in Culture Broth of Tricholoma matsutake
Lee, Chang-Yun ; Hong, Oun-Pyo ; Jung, Myung-Jun ; Han, Yeong-Hwan ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 26, issue 4, 1998, Pages 496~501
The mycelia of Tricholoma matsutake DGUM 26001, 26101, 26210 and FRI 91024 were used to determine the extracellular enzyme activity in mycelia. When the filtrate of culture broth after 30-day cultivation at
was used as a crude solution of extracellular enzyme, the average specific activity of
was 6142.3 unit/mg protein. The specific activity of xylanase was comparatively high. However, little or no enzyme activities were found for
, ligninase, CMCase, chitinase, protease, and lipase.
Chemical Analysis of Acidic Proteo-heteroglycans with Anti-complementary Activity from the Hot-Water Extract of Fomitella fraxinea
Yoon, Sang-Hong ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 26, issue 4, 1998, Pages 502~510
The hot-water extract of fruiting bodies in Fomitella fraxinea had potent anti-complementary activities. After fractionation of water-soluble polysaccharides by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography, major anti-complementary activity was concentrated into the FF-AP1 among three polysaccharides (FF-NP, FF-AP1, FF-AP2). FF-AP1 was fractionated into
obtained from the adsorbed fraction and unadsorbed fraction by affinity chromatography using a ConA-sepharose 4B column, respectively.
, which exihibited the highest anti-complementary activities had an IR absorption peak of
, and a M.W. of about 15,000 (gel filtration). Anti-complementary activity of FF-AP1 decreased greatly by pronase treatment and periodate oxidation.
responsible for potent anti-complemenary activities of Fomitella fraxinea was an acidic protein-containing heteroglycan consisted of 48% glucose, 13% mannose, and 12% galactose as major component sugars, 9.6% protein, 6% uronic acids.
Pharmacological Effects of Proteoglycans Extracted from Fruiting Bodies of Fomitella fraxinea
Yoon, Sang-Hong ; Lim, Jae-Hyeon ; Kim, Yang-Seop ; Kim, Chang-Han ; Jo, Joon-Hyeong ; Hwang, Young-Soo ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 26, issue 4, 1998, Pages 511~518
Anti-complementary assay for immuno-stimulating polysaccharide screening, human tumor colony-forming assay for discovering anti-tumor drugs, and toxic assay against mouse were performed to examine pharmacological activities of polysaccharides extracted from fruiting bodies of Jang-soo mushroom (Fomitella fraxinea). Hot water
, 1% ammonium oxalate solution
, and 5% sodium hydroxide solution
were used for extraction of three polysaccharides from fruiting bodies of it. Anti-complementary activity of FF-I was more effective than the others. FF-I was further fractionated into three groups of polysaccharide by DEAE-Sephadex A25 column chromatography (FF-NP, FF-AP1, and FF-AP2). FF-AP1 showed not only the highest anti-complementary activity but also the growth-inhibitory activity against Snu-I (human stomach cancer cell) among 9 kinds of human tumor cell lines. But FF-AP2 exhibited its activity against Hep-2(larynx cancer) and KB(mouth epidermal cancer) cell lines at
although its anti-complementary activity was lower than it of FF-AP1. When FF-I was orally administrated to mice with dosage of 5000 mg/kg, no remarkable changes were observed in viewpoint of tissue-pathology.
Structure Elucidation of Minor Organic Constituents from Polyozellus multiflex
Hwang, Ji-Sook ; Ryu, Jong-Ha ; Gu, Gyo-Cheol ; Kwak, Ju-Yeon ; Kim, Sang-In ; Yoo, Ick-Dong ; Song, Kyung-Sik ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 26, issue 4, 1998, Pages 519~524
Four minor compounds were isolated from fruiting bodies of Polyozellus multiflex by consecutive chromatographic separation. Their structures were identified as ergost-4,6,8,22-tetraen-3-one, 4-methoxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one, p-anisic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid by spectral analysis. They could not inhibit prolyl endopeptidase nor acetylcholine esterase at the concentration up to 100 ppm.
Antifungal Activities of Cinnamaldehyde Derivatives
Bang, Kyu-Ho ; Min, Byung-Sun ; Lee, Young-Ha ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 26, issue 4, 1998, Pages 525~530
Antifungal activities of cinnamaldehyde derivatives against various fungi were investigated using paper disc diffusion method. Among the derivatives tested,
was stronger than cinnamaldehyde in antifungal activity and was effective in inhibiting the growth of the representative fungi of dermatomycosis with minimum inhibitory concentration of
. A comparison of antifungal activity of cinnamaldehyde derivatives revealed that antifungal action of cinnamaldehyde might be related to a basic structure of acrolein.
Forest Green Mold Disease Caused by Trichoderma pseudokoningii in Winter Mushroom, Flammulina velutipes
Choi, In-Young ; Lee, Wang-Hyu ; Choi, Joung-Sik ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 26, issue 4, 1998, Pages 531~537
Forest green mold incidence rate, extent of damage according to the inoculation periods, and its cultural characteristics were observed in the automatic cultural system of the winter mushroom, Flammulina velutipes. The incidence rate of the forest green mold was 7.7% in early cultivation stage and slowly increased to 14.9% in harvest stage. When the forest green mold was inoculated at cultural period, the rate was recorded at 100%, but the extent of the damage increased up to 40% (+++). There was also 100% incidence rate at early pinheading time, whereas the yield of mushroom decreased to ++
. The rate of forest green mold was greatly decreased to 34.4% at 10 days after pinheading, and its damage extent was also below 10%. A pathogen to infect the winter mushroom was identified as Trichoderma pseudokoningii. It's optimum temperature for mycelial growth is
, and it grew 2.6 times faster than that of F. velutipes. The mycelial color of T. pseudokoningii was pale yellow or olivaceous in shades on PDA medium. Phialospore was one celled, and ellipsodal or obovoid, smooth walled, and measured
. It aggregated in small heads at the tips of the phialides. The phialides were
and were of bowling pin type, solitary and alternate or more irregularly disposed at the conidiophore apex, T. pseudokoningii depressed the F. velutipes growth at the crossing cultivation when they were simultaneously. FV 4-1 (F. velutipes) cultivar was less depressed by T. pseudokoningii, but had a lower cross growth rate than the other four cultivars.
Higher Fungi of Cheju-do(1) - Unrecorded mushrooms -
Lee, Jeong-Bae ; Oh, Duck-Chul ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 26, issue 4, 1998, Pages 538~550
The mushrooms of this study were collected mainly on Mt. Halla on Cheju-do from April of 1995 to October of 1997. A total of 292 species from 127 genera were identified. Among them, 103 species from 41 genera of the Basidiomycota and 88 species from 13 genera of the Ascomycota were recorded for the first time on Cheju-do. Five species were recorded for the first time in Korea. They are: Typhula phacorriza, Cordyceps crinalis, Cordyceps cochlidiicola, Cordyceps longissima and Cordyceps prolifica.
Effects of Antiseptics on the Protein Change of Plasma Membrane in various Fungal Cells
Lee, Hak-Mi ; Lee, Chong-Sam ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 26, issue 4, 1998, Pages 551~561
Plasma membrane from the fungal cells (Aspergillus phoenicis, Rhizopus acidus, Candida albicans) treated with sodium benzoate (S.B), potassium sorbate (P.S) and calcium propionate (C.P) during the cultivation were separated. The contents and patterns of plasma membrane proteins compared with those of the control. The growth of A. phoenicis was decreased by the average 64.0% in the S.B treatment. That of R. acidus was inhibited by the average 69.0% in the P.S treatment. Also, That of C. albicans was showed the deminution of the average 59.5% in the S.B treatment. The contents of protein involved in the plasma membrane of the each fungal cells were inhibited the average 41.0%, 41.7% and 59.5% in the S.B treatment, respectively. In case of A. phoenicis, the changes in the protein pattern involved in the plasma membraneshowed the aspect similar to the control on the 1st day and 2nd day of cultivation in the treatment group, but
band almost disappeared in the 5th day of cultivation, and
band was uncleared through the cultivation. In S.B treatment group R. acidus was showed the loss of
band from the middle stage of cultivation and P.S, and C.P treatment group were started the loss at the early stage and completely lost at the 36 hours of cultivation. In C. albicans,
band were started the loss at the early stage to compare with the control and
band were dimmed at the 96 hours of cultivation. Especially, the C.P treatment group were perfectly lost at the 96 hours of cultivation.
Effects of Soil Environment on Symbiotic Activities of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi(AMF) in the Coastal Reclaimed Lands
Koh, Sung-Duk ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 26, issue 4, 1998, Pages 562~573
The symbiotic activities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) by analyzing spore density, symbiosis intensity and vertical distribution of AMF spores, phytomasses of higher plants such as Calamagrostis epigeios, Imperata cylindrica, Artemisia scoparia, Aster tripolium and Sonchus brachyotus, and physico-chemical properties of soil were determined in the rhizospheres of higher plants in abandoned two coastal reclaimed lands, which were constructed in 12 and 30 years ago, respectively. Vertical distribution of the AMF spores in the rhizospheres of higher plants was restricted within 20 cm depth from soil surface, which would be closely related with vertical distribution of root system, water table and soil aeration. Of vertical distribution of soil properties, W.C., A-P and K concentrations were increased as soil depth was lowered. In the coastal reclaimed lands, symbiotic activities of the AMF such as spore density and symbiotic intensity, were conspicuously stimulated by the increase of soil pH value, organic matter and total nitrogen concentrations, but inhibited by the increase of moisture, available phosphorus and sodium concentrations in the rhizosphere soil. Phosphorus absorption by higher plants growing in the reclaimed lands increased by the rise of symbiotic activities of AMF. Since symbiotic activities of AMF were stimulated with decreasing soil phosphorus concentrations, higher plants associated with AMF absorbed a large amount of phosphorus from the soil is low phosphorus concentrations.
Pholiota adiposa and its Related Species Collected from the Wild Forestry
Lee, Sang-Sun ; Kim, Mi-Hye ; Chang, Hu-Bong ; Shin, Chun-Sik ; Lee, Min-Woong ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 26, issue 4, 1998, Pages 574~582
Five basidiocarps of Pholiota species have been collected from the areas of BubJu Temple for last two years, and identified to those of P. adiposa or Pholiota species. The taxonomy of these basidiocarps with the morphological aspects was compared with the analysis obtained from the polymorphisms of PCR-RAPD bands made after reacted with the random primers. The polymorphic variations were observed within the species of the basidiocarps, but not between genomic DNA's of the mycelia obtained and the basidiocarps. Several different bands made from the primers (28 and 36) in PCR-RAPD reactions were identified within the genus of Pholiota and speculated to be specific for the individual basidiocarp of P. adiposa collected. The primers employed here were considered to be very useful for distinguishing the individual isolates or basidiocarps collected from the fields. Also, the basidiospores were obtained from the sporeprints of the above basidiocarps as a simple agar and confirmed with observations of clamp connection under microscopes. The matings of them indicated the 'tetrapolar' type, being different from the 'bipolar' type reported by Japanese basidiocarps of P. adiposa or P. nameko. Based on our work, the edible fungi collected were speculated to be a new breeding resource for those of Pholiota commercialized in Japan.
Purification and Characterization of Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Armillariella mellea
Kim, Jun-Ho ; Kim, Yang-Sun ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 26, issue 4, 1998, Pages 583~588
A fibrinolytic enzyme has been isolated from the edible honey mushroom, Armillariella mellea and purified. The apparent molecular mass of purified enzyme was estimated to be 19800Da by SDS polyacryl amide gel electrophoresis and 19900Da by gel filtration, indicating that it was a monomer. The enzyme was optimal at pH 7, suggesting that the purified enzyme was a neutral proteinase. It shows the maximum fibrinolytic activity at
, is completely inactivated above
, and still indicates 40% of activity at
. The fibrinolytic activity has been decreased by the addition of EDTA. Fifteen amino acid sequence was determined by protein sequencing techniques.
The Screening of Fibrinolytic Activities of Extracts from Mushrooms in Mt. Chiak
Kim, Jun-Ho ; Lee, Ho-Yong ; Yoo, Kwan-Hee ; Kim, Yang-Sun ; Seok, Soon-Ja ; Kim, Yang-Sup ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 26, issue 4, 1998, Pages 589~593
Extracts from 65 species of mushrooms in mount Chiak were screened for their fibrinolytic activities. Extracts from Armillariella mellea, Calocybe sp., Lepista nuda and Trichaptum abietinum showed to have almost twice of activity of plasmin 1.5 U/ml, 193%, 213%, 198%, and 193% respectively. Collybia maculata showed 98% of activity, and Coprinus comatus and Lepiota sp. 56% and 58% activities, respectively. Other two, Agrocybe sp. and Stropharia rugosoannulata were less than 10% of activities.