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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Mycology
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The Korean Society of Mycology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Dec 2008
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Jun 2008
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A Checklist of Decay Fungi Associated with Oak Trees in Korea
Lee, Jin-Sung ; Jung, Hack-Sung ; Lim, Young-Woon ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 101~115
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2008.36.2.101
Six species of oak are commonly found in Korean forests growing together with evergreen pines. Korean oak forests have recently been attacked by ambrosial fungi of the genus Raffaelea and by many other fungal species that are vectored by the beetle Platypus koryoensis. We investigated a full list of the diverse decay fungi as a first step to better understand the association between these fungi and oak trees, as well as considering effective management methods for oak forests in Korea. Through examination of specimens deposited in the Seoul National University Fungus Collection (SFC) and the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), 523 decay fungi (104 species) associated with oak trees were identified and a full list is provided.
Effects of Successive Organic Wastes Treatment on Fungal Flora in Agricultural Upland Lysimeter
Lee, Kang-Hyo ; Weon, Hang-Yeon ; Seok, Soon-Ja ; Jang, Kab-Yeul ; Kwon, Soon-Ik ; Kim, Seung-Hwan ; Kim, Wan-Gyu ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 116~122
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2008.36.2.116
Fungal floras were investigated for the lysimeter soil treated with municipal sewage sludge (MSS), pig manure compost (PMC), industrial sewage sludge (ISS), leather processing sludge (LS), and alcohol fermentation processing sludge (FS). Fungal populations were higher in the FS, ISS, LS, or MSS-treated soil than in the chemical fertilizer-treated soil. Isolated fungi from the sewage sludge were identified as Penicillium spp., Gliocladium spp., Acremonium spp., Trichoderma spp., Aspergillus spp., Blastomyces spp., and Phoma spp.
Mycological Characteristics of Ophiostoma quercus, a Sap-staining Fungus Isolated from Japanese Black Pine in Korea
Hyun, Min-Woo ; Suh, Dong-Yeon ; Yun, Yeo-Hong ; Kim, Seong-Hwan ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 123~129
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2008.36.2.123
One of the sapstain fungal species isolated from the stained sapwood of a Japanese black pine in Korea was characterized. The fungal species is tolerant to cycloheximide and has Petosum-like synnema and Sporothrix type synanamorph which are found in the anamorphs of the Ophiostoma piceae complex group. But the species could not form perithecia on MEA. Based on cultural and morphological properties and analysis of the
-tubulin gene sequence, the fungal species was identified as Ophiostoma quercus. Here, we report mycological characteristics of the anamorphic stage of Ophiostoma quercus isolated in Korea.
Differentiation Among Commercial Strains of Pleurotus spp. Based on DNA Fingerprinting Using Universal Rice Primer (URP)
Seo, Kyoung-In ; Jang, Kab-Yeul ; Yoo, Young-Bok ; Park, Soon-Young ; Kim, Kwang-Ho ; Kong, Won-Sik ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 130~137
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2008.36.2.130
To distinct the commercial strains in Pleurotus spp., 81 strains in eight Pleurotus species were used. DNA fingerprinting using URP-PCR was conducted to determine the phylogenetic relationships among Pleurotus strains. DNA profiles of Pleurotus species obtained by twelve URP primers were analyzed for genetic similarity by NTSYS program. We could divide strains into ten clusters, in which three of them belong to P. ostreatus and the others to the different species, respectively. At the 76% similarity level, 70 P. ostreatus strains were distinguished into three clusters. Cluster I contained 35 strains and some of them showed almost 100% similarity, one strain closely related to Weonhyeong and six strains closely related to Wangheukpyeong. In cluster II, twenty-one out of 23 strains showed 100% to Suhan. Cluster III contained twelve strains, including six strains closely related to Chunchu-2. The results suggested that there are many same strains with different names in mushroom spawn market.
Development of PCR Primers for Specific Identification and Detection of Botrytis cinerea on Tomato
Song, Jeong-Young ; Lim, Jin-Ha ; Nam, Myeong-Hyeon ; Kim, Hong-Gi ; Kim, Byung-Sup ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 138~143
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2008.36.2.138
Botrytis cinerea, gray mold pathogen, causes serious losses in greenhouse tomato crop. In this study, a primer set was developed for identification and specific PCR detection of B. cinerea from tomato plants. The primer pair (BTF1/BTR1) was designed from polymorphic sequence region in pyruvate carboxylase gene (pyc) of B. cinerea. A PCR product (112 bp) was amplified on genomic DNA of 13 B. cinerea isolates from 10 different host plants, but not on those from 6 other Botrytis spp., 4 Botryotinia spp., 5 Sclerotinia spp. and 16 other genus of phytopathogenic fungi. The sensitivity limit of the primer set was 2 pg of genomic DNA of B. cinerea, approximately. The PCR assay using species-specific primer set was specifically able to detect the pathogen on naturally infected tomato plants and artificially infected plants. These results suggest that the sensitivity and specificity of this primer set can be applied in a rapid and accurate diagnosis of tomato disease caused by B. cinerea.
Artificial Inoculation of Inonotus obliquus on Betula platyphylla var. japonica
Lee, Bong-Hun ; Ka, Kang-Hyeon ; Park, Hyun ; Lee, Hye-Min ; Bak, Won-Chull ; Ryu, Sung-Ryul ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 144~147
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2008.36.2.144
Inonotus obliquus could be isolated from Betula platyphylla var. japonica with diameter in the range of 6
13 cm that artificially inoculated by the fungus. The diameter and/or inoculation point of tree did not show any significant relationships with the infection rate of the fungus. Inonotus obliquus showed rapid growth on vertical direction of the infected tree while the growth was quite low on radial direction. The isolated fungus from the infected tree did not show vegetative incompatibility with the original fungus used for inoculation. We could isolate 8 contaminants from the inoculated area; Trichoderma reesei, T. atroviride, Cryptococcus neoformans, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium sp. and 3 unknown species.
Selection of Ectomycorrhizal Isolates of Tricholoma matsutake and T. magnivelare for Inoculation on Seedlings of Pinus densiflora In Vitro
Ka, Kang-Hyeon ; Park, Hyun ; Hur, Tae-Chul ; Bak, Won-Chull ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 148~152
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2008.36.2.148
We inoculated hypal suspension of Tricholoma matsutake and T. magnivelare were examined on Pinus densiflora seedlings grown in a granite soil substrate with 1/2 PDMP (12 g/l potato dextrose broth, 1.5 g/l malt extract, and 0.5 g/l peptone) medium. Four months after inoculation, the pine seedlings were examined for infection rate, matsutake aroma, and Hartig-net formation. The roots of pine seedling formed ectomycorrhizal roots in the 9 isolates from 12 isolates of T. matsutake and T. magnivelare. However, the seedlings showed different ectomycorrhizae forming rates among the 9 isolates. While matsutake aroma was confirmed from the ectomycorrhizal seedlings, the pine seedling contaminated by bacteria or fungi did not form matsutake ectomycorrhizae with sickening smell. Thus, the aroma was chosen as a good way for the verification of mycorrhizal infection. At the early stage, the mycorrhizal roots showed unramified and branched types without root hair. They also showed thin mantle layers, Hartig-nets, and turned into black color at later stage. Among the examined strains, that of Yecheon isolated in 1995 showed the best infection rate, which indicated that we need to pay attention to the selection of isolates for better result.
Characteristics of Pinewood Nematode Trapping by Nematophagous Arthrobotrys spp.
Lee, Gak-Jung ; Koo, Chang-Duck ; Sung, Joo-Han ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 153~162
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2008.36.2.153
Pinewood nematode (PWN) trapping by nematophagous fungi, Arthrobotrys conoides, A. dactyloides and A. oligospora and the fungal growth were characterized. The three Arthrobotrys species each was inoculated into the PWN cultured on Botrytis cinera fungal colony on potato dextrose agar (PDA). The effects of temperature, pH, PWN inoculation density and nutrients on the growth of the three Arthrobotrys spp were measured. A. conoides grew fast, 13.9 mm/day while A. dactyloides grew slow, 3 mm/day. PDA medium was the best for the fungal growth at
and pH 4.5. The Arthrobotrys spp growth was stimulated by 500 nematodes inoculation but not by 1000 inoculation. A. dactyloides did not grow below pH 4.5 and at high PWN density. A. conoides and A oligospora formed trapping organs with thick constricting hyphal network only when PWN present, while A. dactyloides formed the organ with circular hyphae constitutively. A. conoides formed trapping organs faster than A. oligospora did. The nematode trapping hyphae of the fungi penetrated into PNW inside to form many tiny infection bulbs and to digest the nematode. However, A. dactyloides formed a few trapping organs but no trapping was observed. Infection rate of PWN was 95% by A. conoides, 80% by A. oligospora and 92% by the combination inoculation of A. conoides and A. oligospora. In contrast A. dactyloides increased PWN density without infecton. There was no interaction effect in any combination inoculation of the three Arthrobotrys spp. A. conoides enhanced PWN infection rate by rapid hyphal growth and early trapping, while A. oligospora did it by increasing hyphal density. In conclusion A. conoides is the most effective in both hyphal growth and infection, and thus these characteristics can be utilized as a biological control of PWN.
Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Cotton Waste Substrate According to Fermentation Conditions for Oyster Mushroom Bed Cultivation
Ha, Tai-Moon ; Yoon, Seon-Mee ; Ju, Young-Cheuol ; Sung, Jae-Mo ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 163~171
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2008.36.2.163
We have surveyed the variation of physical and chemical characteristics of aerobic and anaerobic outdoor fermentation of cotton wastes using for oyster mushroom cultivation. The inner temperature of cotton wastes fermented aerobically covered with thin cloth and setting pallet at bottom was higher than that of anaerobic fermented cotton wastes covered with P.E vinyl and the maximum temperature was
at 5th day after fermentation. pH of cotton wastes fermented aerobically was increased up to 8.9 after fermentation of
days, but that of anaerobically fermented was decreased up to 5.0. Total carbon content was decreased but total nitrogen content was increased when fermentation was in progress. Oxygen concentration of cotton wastes fermented aerobically was decreased until 6 days after fermentation but increased after 9 days of fermentation. Ammonia concentration of cotton wastes fermented aerobically and anaerobically was below 10 ppm and
respectively. In anaerobic condition the cotton wastes was contaminated with mold (
), where no contamination was found in aerobic condition during spawn running stage. Yields of mushroom grown on cotton wastes aerobically fermented for
Effect of Heavy Metals on Mycelial Growth of Color Mutants at Pleurotus ostreatus
Lee, Kang-Hyo ; Seok, Soon-Ja ; Weon, Hang-Yeon ; Kim, Seung-Hwan ; Kim, Wan-Gyu ; Sung, Jae-Mo ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 172~177
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2008.36.2.172
Mycelial growth of Pleurotus ostreatus isolates was examined on PDA media added with heavy metals to reveal effects of heavy metals on mycelial growth of the fungus. Cd and Cu strongly inhibited mycelial growth of three isolates of fungus tested. However, addition of
Pb to growing media of white color mutant of fungus resulted in increase of the fungal growth rate. Addition of 2 mM Cr to the media resulted in increase of growth rate of the white color mutant and the dark color mutant of fungus. Mycelial growth rate of the white color mutant was relatively better than the other isolates on media added with Cr, Pb, Cu, or Mn, respectly. Tolerance of the white color mutans to heavy metals was higher than that of the black color mutant. It is suggested that tolerance of the white color mutant to heavy metals was not controled by color-related substance of the fungus.
Screening of Inhibitors of Extracellular Serine Protease of Acanthamoeba castellanii from Mushroom Extracts
Lee, Seung-Eun ; Sancheti, Sandesh ; Sancheti, Shruti ; Choi, Mie-Young ; Seo, Sung-Yum ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 178~182
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2008.36.2.178
Although the number of patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis has increased dramatically since the widespread use of contact lens, it is still very hard to cure the disease. The proteases from the Acanthamoeba were reported to play important role in the pathogenesis of keratitis. In this study, the inhibitors for extracellular serine proteases of A. castellanii were screened from the extracts of 230 mushroom samples collected from various regions of Korea. The mushrooms were extracted with methanol and water (
). Filtered and concentrated extracts (0.3 mg/ml) were preincubated with proteases before addition of peptide substrate N-succinyl-ala-ala-pro-phe p-anilide. The selected extracts showing strong inhibitory effects were characterized. Although inhibition with single extract was not so high enough, the complete inhibition was achieved with combination of two extracts. The selected extract showed little effect on other serine proteases such as thrombin (human and bovine) and on general protease such as protease K.
Characterization of a Fibrinolytic Serine Protease from an Edible Mushroom, Albatrellus confluens
Kim, Jun-Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 183~188
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2008.36.2.183
A fibrinolytic serine protease was purified from the fruiting bodies of an edible mushroom, Albatrellus confluens. The enzyme had a molecular mass of 30086.41 Da, as measured by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme was Glu-Thr-Val-Thr-Glu-Thr-Thr-Ala -Pro-Trp-Gly-Leu-Ser-Arg-Ile. It displayed optimal activity at
and within a pH range of
, suggesting that the enzyme is an alkaline protease. The enzyme was stable up to
. The enzyme displayed a strong substrate specificity for the synthetic peptide, N-Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe pNA. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by addition of PMSF, indicating that the enzyme is a serine protease. No inhibition was observed following addition of E-64, pepstatin, or EDTA. The activity of the purified enzyme was decreased in the presence
, and the enzyme was completely inhibited by addition of
. From these results, we propose that Albatrellus confluens could be used for biofunctional foods development and has potential therapeutic value for the treatment of vascular diseases.
Isolation and Functional Analysis of the silA Gene That Controls Sexual Development in Response to Light in Aspergillus nidulans
Han, Sang-Yong ; Ko, Jin-A ; Kim, Jong-Hak ; Han, Kyu-Yong ; Han, Kap-Hoon ; Han, Dong-Min ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 189~195
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2008.36.2.189
When a homothallic ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans is exposed to visible light, cleistothecial development is inhibited. The light response of development in A. nidulans implies the existence of delicate regulation process including reception and translocation of light signaling and determination of development. Previously, mutants that could develop cleistothecia even in the presence of relatively intensive visible light were isolated and several complementation groups were identified. A gene that was able to complement the silA98 mutation, which was responsible for preferred cleistothecia development under visible light, was isolated from AMA-NotI genomic library. The silA gene retained in the 4.3 kb recovered genomic library DNA has an open reading frame (ORF) consisted of 2,388 bp nucleotides, interrupted by 3 introns and consequently encoding 795 amino acids. The putative SilA carries a
binuclear cluster motif at N terminus and shows high amino acid sequence similarity to Aro80p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletion mutants of silA showed a strong induction of sexual development under visible light, indicating that SilA is involved in the negative regulation of sexual development in response to the light.
Rust of Lysimachia clethroides Caused by Puccinia dieteliana
Kim, Seong-Hwan ; Lee, Tae-Soo ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 196~198
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2008.36.2.196
A rust disease occurred on Lysimachia clethroides in Deogyusan National Park, Jeollabukdo. The typical symptoms of the disease appeared as small, yellowish spots on leaves at first. The spots then turned yellowish brown and powdery mass of blackish brown spores appeared on the lesions. Severely infected leaves blighted and eventually shriveled. Teliospores were yellowish brown in color, clavate or fusiform in shape and
in size, the apex rounded or obtuse, the base attenuated. Pedicels hyaline, persistence, up to
long. The causal fungus was identified as Puccinia dieteliana based on mycological characteristics and host specificity.
Occurrence of Rhizopus Soft Rot on Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Caused by Rhizopus stolonifer in Korea
Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 199~202
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2008.36.2.199
Rhizopus soft rot caused by Rhizopus stolonifer occurred on melon (Cucumis melo L.) in the box at Jinju City Wholesale Market of Agricultural Products at Gyeongnam province in Korea. The infected fruits were rapidly water-soaked, softened, black and eventually rotted. The symptoms were infected from wounds at harvest time. The colony were white to light brown, formed much sporangiospores. The optimum temperature of the fungus was
. Sporangia were globose or hemispheric, white at first and gradually to black, and
in size. Sporangiophores were
in width. Columella were hemispheric, and
in size. Sporangiospores were irregular round or oval, brownish-black and
in size. On the basis of symptom, mycological characteristics and pathogenicity to melon, the causal fungus was identified as Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrenb.) Vuill.. This is the first report of Rhizopus soft rot by R. stolonifer on melon in Korea.
Occurrence of Stem Rot of Petunia hybrida Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii
Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 203~205
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2008.36.2.203
From 2006 to 2008, the stem rot of Petunia hybrida Vilm. caused by Sclerotium rolfsii occurred sporadically at Jinju city in Gyeongsangnam-do. The typical symptom is water-soaking, brown on the stem and rotting, wilting and blighting. The infected plants were mostly died. White mycelial mats were spread over lesions, and then sclerotia were formed on stem and near soil line. The sclerotia were globoid in shape,
in size and white to brown in color. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth and sclerotia formation was at
on PDA and the hyphal width ranged from 4 to
. The typical clamp connections were observed in the hyphae of the fungus. On the basis of mycological characteristics and pathogenicity to P. hybrida, this fungus was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii Saccardo. This is the first report on the stem rot of P. hybrida caused by S. rolfsii in Korea.