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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Mycology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Mycology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 2 - Dec 2009
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Jun 2009
Selecting the target year
Report on the Lichen List of North Korea
Jeon, Hae-Sook ; Koh, Young-Jin ; Lokos, Laszlo ; Lee, You-Mi ; Byun, Bong-Kyu ; Hur, Jae-Seoun ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 1, 2009, Pages 1~10
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.1.001
Total 222 lichen specimens of North Korea including 23 family, 54 genera and 119 species were newly obtained from the Hungarian Natural History Museum for the last 3 years. Among them, 12 species were added to Korean lichen checklist as new. All the species were deposited at the herbarium of Korea National Arboretum. In addition, unpublished list of lichen species distributed in Mt. Myohang was kindly donated from the Hungarian Natural History Museum. The list was originally prepared by North Korean lichenologists and kept in the museum from 1988. In the list, 26 family, 57 genera and 179 species of lichens were described and 17 species were included as new reports. This list provided 29 lichen species as new to the Korean Peninsula. This information will make significant contribution to lichenological study in the Korean Peninsula.
Phylogenetic Relationships of Mushroom Agrocybe spp. Based on rDNA-ITS Analysis
Cheong, Jong-Chun ; Lee, Myung-Chul ; Jang, Kab-Yeul ; Jhune, Chang-Sung ; Lee, Chan-Jung ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 1, 2009, Pages 11~18
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.1.011
Phylogenetic relationships were investigated in the mushroom genus Agrocybe based on sequence data from the internal transcribed spaces(ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA(rDNA). Thirty strains including Agrocybe aegerita, A. grocybe cylindracea, A. grocybe praecox, A. grocybe pediades and Unknown Agrocybe species were subjected for the analysis. The Agrocybe spp. were separated into eight distinct groups. Phylogenetic analysis divided these species into eight groups as follows: A. chaxingu within group I, A. salicacola within group II, A. cylindracea and A. aegerita within group III, Agrocybe sp. within group IV and V, and other Agrocybe spp. were grouped within VI, VII, and VIII.
Genetic Diversity of Pleurotus eringii Strains in Korea Based on Morphological Characteristics and PCR Polymorphism
Jeon, Sun-Jeong ; Kim, Jong-Kun ; Kim, Gum-Hee ; Chi, Jeong-Hyun ; Seo, Geon-Sik ; Kang, Hee-Wan ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 1, 2009, Pages 19~27
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.1.019
This study was conducted to investigate genetic characteristics of 25 Pleurotus eringii strains that have been released in Korea based on cultural, morphological features and PCR fingerprints. Strains PER-007 and PER-012 showed distinct cultural characteristics in growth rate, morphological characteristics of mycelial colony and fruiting bodies when compared to those of other strains. Strain PER-007 did not form primordium initiation in sawdust medium and PER-012 also showed different phenotypes on fruiting bodies. Eleven URP primers were used to detect PCR polymophic bands in P. eringii strains. Primers URP1F, URP2R, URP2F, URP4R, URP6R, URP9F and URP17R were selected as useful primers for amplifying PCR polymorphic bands in P. eringii strains. The genetic similarity index was calculated by using PCR polymorphic bands amplified by eight URP primers among the 25 strains. The P. eringii strains were grouped by four distinct clusters on the UPGMA analysis. The genetic similarity values ranged from 100% to 76% were observed in three major groups, suggesting close genetic relatedness of them. Exceptionally, PER-007 and PER-017 were involved in outgroup.
Genetic Relationship of Pleurotus ferulae Strains
Choi, Jae-Sun ; Lee, Dong-Hee ; Chang, Hu-Bong ; Kang, Bo-Gu ; Koo, Chang-Duck ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 1, 2009, Pages 28~32
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.1.028
This study was carried out to investigate the genetic relationship of Pleurotus ferulae, an edible mushroom found on a medicinal plant, Ferula assa-foetida, in central China. The genetic relationships of 15 Pleurotus species strains, including five P. ferulae strains were analyzed. The strains were divided into seven groups at 80% genetic similarity level according to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Four out of the seven groups consisted of two to four strains, while the other three groups consisted of three strains. In each of the three groups, the three strains were from each of three different Pleurotus species (P. cornucopiae, P. florida and P. sajorcaju). Other strains grouped together for genetic similarity were P. eryngii 26060 and P. fuscus var. ferulae 26065, three strains of P. ostreatus, and four P. ferulae strains (Bakdal, Awi, Cheonsan 1, and Yesan). However, Japanese Seolyi which belongs to P. ferulae and Heukpyung which belongs to P. ostreatus were together in a separate group.
Site Characteristics and Vegetation Structure of the Habitat of Cauliflower Mushroom (Sparassis crispa)
Oh, Deuk-Sil ; Park, Joon-Moh ; Park, Hyun ; Ka, Kang-Hyeon ; Chun, Woo-Jae ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 1, 2009, Pages 33~40
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.1.033
From 2006 to 2008, natural habitat of Sparassis crispa were surveyed for investigating ecological conditions at sixteen different sites in Korea. The investigated sites showed very wide altitudinal distribution ranged from 240 meters to 1,100 meters above the sea level. In general, S. crispa showed distinct feature of heart-rot fungi as it occurs on soils around the stems of larch (Larix kaempferi) and Korean white pine (Pinus koraiensis). But it also could be found on stems or on the stumps of dead trees, which indicated that the fungus might have several invasion routes and capabilities to grow on various ecological conditions. All of the sixteen sites were pure stands consisted with conifers such as larch or Korean white pine. The dominant tree layer showed
meters for tree heights, thicker than twenty centimeters for the diameter at breast height (DBH), and all of them were older than thirty years. Since the stands were pure stand, species diversity of trees in the sites was extremely low. While the dominant tree layer showed only pure coniferous stand, the co-dominant tree layer, shrub layer and herbaceous layer showed more diverse features with higher Shannon-Wiener (H') indices. Soil texture of thirteen sites among sixteen investigated sites were loamy soils, and the contents of organic matter in soil were more or less higher than general forest soils in Korea with
. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) was also relatively higher than general forest soils with
cmol+/kg. The data indicated that the cauliflower mushroom occurring sites were relatively fertile than general forest soils. The soils were acidic with pH ranged from 4.2 to 5.2, which were typical features for conifer stands in Korea.
Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Amanita hemibapha subsp. hemibapha (Berk. & Broome) Sacc.
Sou, Hong-Duck ; Hur, Tae-Chul ; Joo, Sung-Hyun ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 1, 2009, Pages 41~48
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.1.041
This study was conducted to investigate optimum cultural conditions for Amanita hemibapha isolated in Korea and its hyphae characteristics. Micrographs shows the presence of clamp connection. A. hemibapha grows as mycelial form(M-phase) 2-4
and yeast-like form(Y-phase) 7-8
. The fungal spores were broadly elliptical and papillate, 8-11
in size. The nucleotide sequence analysis of the ITS of nuclear ribosomal DNA from sporocarps and in-vitro-grown mycelium supported the fungal species is Amanita hemibapha. A. hemibapha showed sequence similarity in the ITS rDNA with A. caesarea(97.5) and A. jacksonii(98.5%) which are morphologically similar species to A. hemibapha. The optimal pH and temperature for mycelial growth of A. hemibapha were pH 6.0 and
, respectively. The fungal species showed best growth in SYP and GYS medium. A. hemibapha grew well with mannitol and glucose as carbon sources and peptone as a nitrogen source.
Cultivation Characteristics of Sparassis crispa Strains Using Sawdust Medium of Larix kaempferi
Ryu, Sung-Ryul ; Ka, Kang-Hyeon ; Park, Hyun ; Bak, Won-Chull ; Lee, Bong-Hun ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 1, 2009, Pages 49~54
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.1.049
Cultivation characteristics of 12 strains of cauliflower mushroom (Sparassis crispa) collected in Korea were investigated by growing the mushroom on sawdust medium of Larix kaempferi. As cultivation characteristics, incubation period for full growth of mycelium in a cultivation bottle, cultivation time period taken for first harvest, and mushroom color and yield were examined. S. crispa KFRI 723 showed the shortest for incubation period with 59 days while S. crispa KFRI 746 showed the longest with 94 days. The earliest mushroom harvesting was achieved by 29 days from S. crispa KFRI 746 and the latest was by 63 days from S. crispa KFRI 691. The colors of fruit body of the tested strains can be divided into three groups; S. crispa KFRI 700 was white, S. crispa KFRI 747 was yellow brown, and the others were light yellowish. KFRI 700 yielded the most as 163 g from 380 g sawdust media, while KFRI 746 and KFRI 747 were the lowest with 58 g and 35 g, respectively. As results of cultivation characteristics of 12 strains of cauliflower mushroom, we consider that three strains (KFRI 700, 723 and 724) of S. crispa are suitable for sawdust cultivation on L. kaempferi in the aspects of mycelial growth period, harvesting period and mushroom production, respectively.
Allometric Equations for Estimating the Standing Biomass of Basidiocarps
Heo, Eun-Pork ; You, Young-Han ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 1, 2009, Pages 55~59
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.1.055
The mushroom takes in charge of decomposer in ecosystem and its production is important indicator for sounded ecosystem function. To determine standing crop of basidiocarps(fruit body of mushroom), a weight must be measured by harvesting mushroom individual in the field. But this method has profound affection on the basidiocarps population or its surrounding condition due to habitat destruction. Thus, in this study, without harvesting any mushroom in the field, we developed allometric equation using some morphological parameters to estimate standing crop biomass of basidiocarps. Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Flammulina velutipes and Conocybe tenera were used for allometry. Morphological variables of the mushroom were pileus diameter, pileus area, stipe length and stipe thickness. Consequently, all the experimental mushrooms species showed significantly correlation in biomass estimation of basidiocarps from allometric equation (p<0.05). As a result of this research, the standing biomass of the basidiocarps could be indirectly estimated with proportional expression, allometric equation drived from morphological characters.
Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on the Fruiting Initiation and Development of Grifola frondosa
Chi, Jeong-Hyun ; Kim, Jeong-Han ; Ju, Young-Cheoul ; Seo, Geon-Sik ; Kang, Hee-Wan ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 1, 2009, Pages 60~64
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.1.060
concentration (500, 800, 1,000 and 1,500 ppm) on the initiation and development of fruit body of Grifola frondosa on sawdust cultivation were studied. Optimum concentrations of carbon dioxide for the initiation and development of the fruit body showed the ranges from 500 to 800 ppm. Fruit body initiation was accelerated at lower than 800 ppm
exposure but the maturing of the fruit body was not influenced by above treated
concentrations. The higher ratio of primordial formation, faster fruit body initiation and higher yield were obtained at below 800 ppm of
level, whereas over 1,000 ppm of
levels showed abnormal and lower quality of fruiting bodies. Based on the above results, it is concluded that the favorable
level for bag culture of G. frondosa was below 800 ppm.
Studies on Breeding and Cultivation Characteristics of Lentinula edodes Strains for Sawdust Cultivation
Ryu, Sung-Ryul ; Bak, Won-Chull ; Koo, Chang-Duck ; Lee, Bong-Hun ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 1, 2009, Pages 65~72
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.1.065
For the breeding purpose, in this study we attempted to select a new Lentinula edodes strain by comparing mycelial growth rate, fruit-body quality and mushroom productivity per substrate weight of hybrid strains with parent strains. Nineteen hybrid strains were made by cross of di-karyotic and mono-karyotic to develop strains suitable for sawdust cultivation of L. edodes. Among the nineteen strains, ten were selected by comparing mycelial growth rate on PDA media and wood rot on sawdust-based substrates. The most mushroom harvesting was achieved by 100 days incubation from KFRI 960, KFRI 961, KFRI 962, KFRI 963, KFRI 964, KFRI 971, KFRI 973 and 125 days from KFRI 968, 970. Experiment of incubation periods with the ten strains showed that there were productivity differences between 100 and 150 days incubations. Through comparison of hybrid strains' mushroom productivity it was found that there was no difference in mushroom productivity through crossing high temperature types with high temperature types, crossing low temperature types with high temperature types and crossing unknown temperature types with high temperature types, but there was difference through crossing middle temperature types with high temperature types. Hybrid strains showed better productivity compared with parent strains. Fruiting temperature type analysis of hybrid strains confirmed that strains of high temperature types have a dominant character.
Decoloration of Polycyclic Aromatic Dyes by Mushroom Fungi
Sancheti, Sandesh ; Sancheti, Shruti ; Seo, Sung-Yum ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 1, 2009, Pages 73~79
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.1.073
As waste-water disposal plants and oxidative biodegradation for the removal of waste polyaromatic dyes are proved to be ineffective due to the chemical stability of dyes, we studied various strains of mushroom fungi for the removal of these dyes. 100 fungi were isolated from the mushroom samples of 230 species collected in Korea. The growth medium containing a dye (Bromophenol Blue, Congo Red, or Methylene Blue) was inoculated to 10% and incubated for 7 days without shaking. The six strains which removed dyes effectively were selected for further studies with respect to removal of polycyclic aromatic dyes. For all strains, the rate of decoloration of dyes was increasing with Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue and Congo Red. The rate of decoloration was higher with stationary culture than with shaking culture. Adsorption of the dyes was the highest with Congo Red.
Comparative Study on the Sawdust Cultivation and the Antioxidants of Hericium spp.
Ryu, Sung-Ryul ; Lee, Wi-Young ; Ka, Kang-Hyeon ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 1, 2009, Pages 80~85
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.1.080
As a preliminary study in order to develop new varieties of Hericium species, this study was carried out to investigate the optimal temperature for mycelial growth, to figure out the applicability to sawdust cultivation on Quercus mongolica substrate, and to analyze the antioxidant capacity of ergothioneine and polyphenols in Hericium strains preserved in Korea Forest Research Institute (KFRI). In the results of optimal temperature for mycelial growth of eight Hericium erinaceus, it was
in a strain (KFRI 842),
in five strains (KFRI 507, 508, 509, 843, 845), and
in two strains (KFRI 582, 844). Optimal temperature for mycelial growth of H. coralloides (KFRI 713) was
. Four strains (KFRI 508, 843, 844, 713) out of the total nine Hericium strains showed full mycelium growth within 20 days at the optimal temperature on PDA medium in petri-dish (85 mm in diameter). The other strains have need of more time for full mycelium growth. Mushroom production of H. erinaceus ranged from 215 to 384 g of fresh weight and its dry weight was 7 to 9% of it, whereas that of H. coralloides was 299 g of fresh weight and its dry weight was 10% of it. The contents of ergothioneine and polyphenols of H. erinaceus strains were different by strains and those were in the range of
mg/g dw. and
mg/g dw., respectively. On the other hand, those of H. coraloides were in the range of 1.7 mg/g dw. and 3.9 mg/g dw., respectively. From the results of correlation (
= 0.1) between ergothioneine and polyphenols in the strains, it was found that the total contents of them differ by strains but the ratio of the two compounds was not very different in the strains.
RAPD Analysis and Cordycepin Concentration of Hybrided Cordyceps militaris Strains by Mating
Jeong, Jin-Woo ; Jin, Cheng-Yun ; Kim, Mun-Ock ; Lee, Jae-Yun ; Choi, Yung-Hyun ; Lee, Jae-Dong ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 1, 2009, Pages 86~90
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.1.086
The C. militaris belongs to entomopathogenic fungi, which have their specific sequences in internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) depending on species. In this study, to identify the phylogenetic relationship of the strain hybrided by mating of C. militaris, we compared DNA sequences of ITS regions and 5.8S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat unit of hybrid strain and its parental strains. The result revealed that hybrid strains are C. militaris species. In addition, cordycepins produced by hybrid strains and other strains of C. militaris were analyzed by HPLC with 20mM
of mobile phase and C-18 columns. The result indicated that the strain hybrided by mating produce higher concentration of phytochemical cordycepin than other C. militaris strains.
Characteristics of Polysaccharide Extracted from the Cultured Mycelia of Schizophyllum commune
Lee, June-Woo ; Kim, Yong-Seok ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 1, 2009, Pages 91~95
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.1.091
To examine physico-chemical properties of the polysaccharide extracted from liquid-cultured mycelia of Schizophyllum commune, each the polysaccharide was extracted with hot water treatment and then fractionated with ethanol, alkaline solution and ultrafiltration. And we determined carbohydrate contents, composition of amino acids, infra-red spectrum and viscosity. Carbohydrate contents of polysaccharide treated with ethanol and ultrafiltration were 72.0% and 62.3%, and proteins content were 15.3% and 32.0% respectively. The carbohydrate consisted of four monosaccharides and the protein contained 16 amino acids. The polysaccharide obtained from ultrafiltration was shown an absorption band characteristic of the
-glycosidic linkage by infra red spectra. These results suggest that the polysaccharide extracted from Schizophyllum commune showed the characteristics of proteinbounded polysaccharide, and it was
-glycosidic linkage with strong viscosity.
Isolation of Antifungal Substances by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IUB158-03 and Antagonistic Activity against Pathogenic Fungi
Kim, Hye-Young ; Lee, Tae-Soo ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 1, 2009, Pages 96~103
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.1.096
For the control of pathogenic microorganisms, Bacillus spp. were isolated from diseased pepper fruits in Korea. Among them, Bacillus sp. IUB158-03 showed high inhibitory effect on mycelial growth and spore germination of C. gloeosporioides and Botrytis cinerea. The strain was identified as B. amyloliquefaciens IUB158-03 based on its physiological, biochemical characteristics and Microlog analysis. The highest level of antifungal substances by B. amyloliquefaciens IUB158-03 were obtained when the bacterium was cultured in medium containing 2% soluble starch, 3% yeast extract, 0.5% tryptone, 0.5%
, and 1% NaCl (pH 6.0) at
for 72 hrs. The antifungal substances were purified by butanol extraction, silica gel column chromatography, preparative thin layer chromatography, and high performance liquid chromatography. The purified antifungal substance was confirmed
0.27 by TLC. This substance exhibited antifungal activity against Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cineria, Alternata alternaria of plant pathogenic fungi and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Cryptococcus neoformans of human pathogenic fungi.
Note on the New Record of Mitrula paludosa (Geoglossaceae) in Korea
Park, Yong-Woo ; Koo, Chang-Duck ; Hong, Dae-Eui ; Kim, Tae-Heon ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 1, 2009, Pages 104~107
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.1.104
Mitrula paludosa (Geoglossaccae, Helotiales, Ascomycetes) is reported about morphological and ecological characteristics for the first time in Korea. The mushroom fruited on rotten pine leaves or fine twigs in ditches with flowing or standing water in Sogri Mountain National Park from May to June. The apothecium of M. paludosa is 20 to 50 mm tall. The cap is bright yellow to orange, cylindrical to wrinkled ovoid and
mm. The stem is whitish and cylindrical distinctly set off from the cap. The ascospore is hyaline, smooth long elliptical fusoid with round ends and
. The ascus is unitunicate,
, and has eight spores biseriately lined to the inoperculate apex. Paraphyses are septate filiform,
longer than the asci.
Diversity of Fungal Endophytes from Pinus koraiensis Leaves in Korea
Seo, Sang-Tae ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ; Kim, Myoung-Ju ; Hong, Jin-Sung ; Park, Jong-Han ; Shin, Sang-Chul ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 1, 2009, Pages 108~110
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.1.108
The composition of endophytic fungal species from Pinus koraiensis was studied in two areas (Yeongwol and Jincheon), Korea. To identify 113 isolates, rDNA ITS regions were sequenced. On the basis of the ITS sequence, Pestalotiopsis sp. was the most frequently isolated species in both areas. Pestalotiopsis sp. (68.5%) and Lambertella sp. (12.4%) were isolated frequently in Yeongwol, whereas Pestalotiopsis sp. (41.7%), Hypoxylon sp. (20.8%) and Phomopsis sp. (12.4%) were dominant in Jincheon. Hypoxylon sp. and Phomopsis sp. were not found in Yeongwol.
Ectomycorrhizal Formation of Ramaria botrytis Using Pinus densiflora Seedling
Ka, Kang-Hyeon ; Jeong, Suk-Ju ; Park, Hyun ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 1, 2009, Pages 111~113
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.1.111
Ramaria botrytis is one of the commercially important ectomycorrhizal mushrooms in Korea and the mushroom is only picked in natural forest. This study was conducted to make ectomycorrhizal synthesis of the fungus using Pinus densiflora seedling. Ectomycorrhizal types of the fungus were simple and dichotomous. Diameter of ectomycorrhizal root was
and fungal mantle was subhyaline with
in diameter. On the other hand, optimum temperature for mycelial growth was
and the fungus grew 5 cm on potato dextrose agar medium in two months.
Oospore Production in Broth Media and Oospore Germination of Phytophthora capsici
Kim, Byung-Sup ; Rin, Ernest James ; Coffey, Michael D. ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 1, 2009, Pages 114~116
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.1.114
In this study, we selected suitable broth media for mass production of Phytophthora capsici oospore, investigated oospore germination and secured
progeny. Carrot broth and V8C broth were determined most effective for oospore formation by calculating and comparing oospore concentration produced from 8 different liquid media. Eleven strains were selected from P. capsici (CapA)/P. tropicalis (CapB) and 9 crosses were formed. Oospore progeny were produced, isolated and germinated from A1 and A2 combinations of P. capsici (CapA) with P tropicalis (CapB). This resulted in a total number of 129
isolates of P. capsici/P. tropicalis with a 0.64-4.0% (mean 1.85%) oospore germination.
Occurrence of Strawberry Soft Rot by Rhizopus stolonifer on Distribution after Harvest
Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk ; Yoon, Hae-Suk ; Nam, Myeong-Hyeon ; Park, Chang-Seuk ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 1, 2009, Pages 117~119
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.1.117
Rhizopus soft rot caused by Rhizopus stolonifer occurred on strawberry (Fragaria
ananassa) in the plastic boxes in Jinju City Wholesale Market of Agricultural Products at Gyeongnam province in Korea on April 2008. The infected fruits were rapidly softened, water soaked and finally rotted. The symptoms were mainly occurred through wounds at harvest time. The colony color was white, cottony to brownish black after fully matured and numerous sporangiospores were formed on sporangia. The optimum growth temperature of the fungus was
on potato dextrose agar. Sporangia were globose or hemispheric shape of white color at initial stage and gradually changed with black color of
in size. Sporangiophores were
in width. Columella were hemispheric in shape, and
in size. Sporangiospores were irregular round or oval in shape, brownish-black in color and
in size. This fungus formed stolones and rhizoid on PDA. On the basis of symptom, mycological characteristics and pathogenicity of the fungus, the causal fungus was identified as Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrenb.) Vuill.