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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Mycology
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The Korean Society of Mycology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 2 - Dec 2009
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Jun 2009
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Identification of Fusarium Species Associated with Corn Ear Rot
Choi, Hyo-Won ; Kim, Jung-Mi ; Kim, Jin-Hee ; Hong, Sung-kee ; Kim, Wan-Gyu ; Chun, Se-Chul ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 2, 2009, Pages 121~129
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.2.121
In 2007, a total of 77 isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained from ear rot symptoms of corns collected from 5 locations in Gangwon Province, Korea. The fungal isolates were identified based on their morphological features. Out of the isolates, fifteen isolates were identified as Fusarium verticillioides which formed microconidia in long chains on monophialides. Four isolates were identified as F. subglutinans which formed microconida only on false heads. Six isolates were identified as F. graminearum which produced red pigment in PDA culture. Besides these Fusarium species, F. napiform, F. nygamai, and F. oxysporum were identified from the rest isolates. To assess for genetic diversity of the isolates, a random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD) technique was carried out using URP primers. The results from the RAPD analysis showed that the isolates from corn were divided into 6 groups. These RAPD groups of the Fusarium species corresponded to morphological characters of the Fusarium species. The phylogenetic analysis of most isolates by DNA sequencing of EF-1
gene corresponded to morphological characters of the Fusarium species. The results of pathogenicity tests by two inoculation methods revealed that F. verticillioides, F. graminearum and F. subglutinans are strongly pathogenic to corn stalks.
Molecular Identification and Diveristy of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Pinus densiflora in Boeun, Korea
Gil, Yi-Jong ; Eo, Ju-Kyeong ; Eom, Ahn-Heum ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 2, 2009, Pages 130~133
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.2.130
The endophytic fungi were isolated from red pine trees (Pinus densiflora) that were distributed in three sites of Chungbuk, Korea. Twenty fungal isolates were isolated from 16 trees and divided into 8 groups by morphological characters. The fungal isolates were identified using the sequences of ITS region of rDNA; Lophodermium complex, Sydowia polyspora, Hymenula sp., Sistotrema brinkmannii, Septoria pini-thunbergii, Earliella sp. Lophodermium spp. were the most frequently found fungal species the across sites and firstly detected from Pinus species in Korea by molecular work.
Diversity of Ectomycorrhizal fungi of Abies koreana at Mt. Halla
Sim, Mi-Young ; Eo, Ju-Kyeong ; Eom, Ahn-Heum ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 2, 2009, Pages 134~138
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.2.134
This study was conducted to investigate colonization of ectomycorrhizal fungi(ECM) in roots of Abies koreana which is an endemic and endangered species in Korea. Roots of A. koreana were collected at Mt. Halla. ECM root tips were classified using morphotyping and identified using sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the fungal rDNA. Total 8 species of ECM fungi were identified from roots of 11 seedlings of A. koreana : Cenococum geophilum, Russula brevipes, 2 species of Russula, 2 species of Thelephora, Cortinarius camphorates and 2 species of Helotiales. These species were known to be typical ectomycorrhizal fungi found in coniferous mature forests.
Identification of an entomopathogenic fungus, Nomuraea rileyi ANU101, infecting the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, in Korea
Hwang, Ji-Hyeun ; Park, Bok-Ri ; Kim, Geun-Seop ; Lee, Sun-Gu ; Kim, Yong-Gyun ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 2, 2009, Pages 139~143
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.2.139
Several entomopathogenic fungi have been exploited to be developed into biological control agents in insect pest management. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is a serious insect pest infesting various crops, but not effectively controlled by commercial chemical pesticides due to its high insecticide resistance. A fungal isolate was isolated from S. exigua larvae collected from cabbage field in Andong, Korea. The fungus could be cultured in potato dextrose agar. Larvae of S. exigua injected with the cultured conidia showed a potent entomopathogenicity. To identify the fungus isolate, its internal transcribed space (ITS) and surrounding partial 18S/28S regions were sequenced. The ITS sequence was highly matched (99%) to that of Nomuraea rileyi. Morphological characters of its hyphae and conidia were well fit to those of known N. rileyi. This study reports the first record of an entomopathogenic fungus, N. rileyi, in Korea.
Occurrences of Major Mushroom Diseases and Microbial Densities of Mushroom Cultivation Facilities
An, Yu-Na ; Jang, Bo-Ra ; Kim, Myun-Su ; Weon, Hang-Yeon ; Jhune, Chang-Sung ; Cheon, Se-Chul ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 2, 2009, Pages 144~149
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.2.144
The occurrences of the major diseases and the densities of air-born microbes were surveyed in the cultivation facilities for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii), and enoki mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) in different areas of Korea. Green mold disease was most often developed in oyster mushroom bed cultivation with the disease incidence rate of approximate 10% while the disease incidences from bottle and plastic envelop cultivation were less than 1~2%. In the bed cultivation, the major air-born microbes in the growth room were Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Curvularia with the total fungal population density of 567~1,297 CFU/
. However, only Trichoderma and Penicillium were detected in the growth rooms and innoculation rooms of bottle and plastic envelop cultivation with the densities of 350~700 CFU/
and 160~260 CFU/
, respectively. The bacterial diseases become evident in the growth rooms of bottle and plastic envelop cultivation with the approximate incidence rate of 10%. The identified bacterial species were Brevibacillus levelkil, Rhizobium radiobacter, Brevundimonas vesicularis, Pseudomonas mosselii, Microbacterium testaceum. Sphingomonas panmi, Sphingomonas yabuuchiae, Paracocus dinitrificans, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens and some unidentified bacteria with the densities of 40~6,359 CFU/
in the growth rooms and 9 CFU/
in the inoculation room. This study indicated that the green mold disease by fungal strains was the major mushroom disease in the bed cultivation and suggested that the contamination of bacteria and fungi together in the growth media could result in severe production loss. The plastic envelope and bottle cultivation were evidenced to be less susceptible to such contaminations.
Changes and Distributional Pattern of Microflora in Cotton Waste Media of Oyster Mushroom Cultivation
Lee, Chan-Jung ; Yu, Hyung-Sik ; Jhune, Chang-Sung ; Cheong, Jong-Chun ; Han, Hye-Su ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 2, 2009, Pages 150~154
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.2.150
The diversity of microflora according to growth stage of Pleurotus ostreatus and the correlation between microbe and medium fermentation were investigated. In farmhouse I, the aerobic bacteria and fungi as longer of growing period were increased. And, thermophilic bacteria and fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. showed high density at the early stage of spawn inoculation. The thermophilic actinomycetes were distributed evenly during all the growing period, but mesophilic actinomycetes were not observed. In farmhouse II, thermophilic actinomycetes were not observed in fermented medium and density of fungi were suddenly increased at 60 days after spawn inoculation. And also, mushrooms can hardly be harvested due to Penicillium spp. After medium fermentation, density of aerobic bacteria, thermophilic bacteria, and fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. was higher at farmhouse I than those of farmhouse II. In farmhouse I, Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. dominated at early stage of mushroom growth but as time goes by, density of Bacillus sp. was higher than the others. And also, the kind of microbe showed a few at early stage of mushroom growth but increased as time goes by. In farmhouse II, Bacillus sp. was dominated at early stage of mushroom growth. And the growth of Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. showed intersect aspect each other in the farmhouse I but Bacillus sp. dominated during all growth periods in the farmhouse II.
Genetic Variation of Scytalone Dehydratase Gene in Colletotrichum spp.
Yun, Yeo-Hong ; Hyeon, Min-U ; Suh, Dong-Yeon ; Kim, Yong-Min ; Kim, Seong-Hwan ; Choi, Chang-Won ; Kim, Young-Shick ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 2, 2009, Pages 155~160
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.2.155
The production of dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin is known to be essential factor for pathogenicity in Colletotrichum lagenarium. However, the genetic diversity of melanin genes was not much known among Colletotrichum spp. To investigate the variability of melanin gene in Colletotrichum spp. that cause anthracnose on diverse crops including tomato, we cloned and sequenced partial sd, one of DHN melanin genes encoding for scytalone dehydratase, from eight strains of C. coccodes, C. acutatum, C. truncatum C. caricae, and C. musae. The size of PCR-amplified sd ranged 437 bp to 545 bp. The nucleotide sequence identity of sd among the Colletotrichum strains tested varied from 49% to 99%. All of the PCR-amplified sd from eight strains contain an intron and have two exons coding for 122 amino acids. Overall, the size and nucleotide sequence of sd varied among the five Colletotrichum spp. Sequence identity of the predicted scytalone dehydratase protein of 122 amino acids ranged 50 to 99%. Phylogentic analysis based on the sd nucleotide sequences revealed that the five Colletotrichum spp. could be genetically divided.
Effect of medis composition on the Cordycepin and content Nutritional Components of Cordyceps militaris
Cho, Soo-Muk ; Park, Hong-Ju ; Seo, Geon-Sik ; Hong, Jong-Deok ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 2, 2009, Pages 161~166
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.2.161
The purpose of the present study is to develop a simple, fast and sensitive LC/MS method for simultaneous separation and the determination of an active component in the oriental medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris. Based on this work, the contents of cordycepin in Cordyceps militaris fruiting cultivated on various media were determined and compared. And also, the nutritional components such as minerals and vitamins were determined in order to provide useful information to consumer as a food material. The analysis methods of nutritional components were chosen on the basis of AOAC. The optimum separation for cordycepin was achieved using a solvent gradient consisting of the mixture of 0.1% formic acid in methanol (solvent B) in a background of 0.1% formic acid in water (solvent A) as a mobile phase and a 3.0
150 Waters XTera column. Selective ion monitoring (SIR) mode ([M+H]+ at m/z 252) was used for quantitative analysis of cordycepin. The cultivated Cordyceps militaris on various media contained 1~14 /g of cordycepin, 0.65~1.08% of thiamine, 0.86~7.17% of riboflavin, and 3.01~5.26% of niacin. The content of mineral components varied on categories, especially contained 500~3500% of potassium as a major mineral. Cordycepin, niacin and potassium were found much higher in the fruiting cultivated with soy power media (gold 10) than other media.
β-glucan and glucosamine contents in various cereals cultured with mushroom mycelia
Lee, Hui-Deok ; Lee, Ga-Soon ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 2, 2009, Pages 167~172
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.2.167
Mycelia of Pleurotus ostreatus, Phellinus linteus, Ganoderma lucidum and Lentinus edodes were cultured in the selected cereals to generate functionally active cereals. The optimum water contents for the mycelial growth were 50%(wt/wt) for brown rice, barley and soybean and 75% for wheat and corn, respectively. P. ostreatus grew well in the most cereals while the mycelial growth of P. linteus, G. lucidum and L. edodes in soybean were siginificantly retarded. The contents of β-glucan and glucosamine in the mycelial cereals were determined. Wheat cultured with mushroom mycelia showed high ß-glucan content. Especially, wheat with G. lucidum contained the highest value of 26.16%. Soybean cultured with G. lucidum showed two-fold increase in glucosamine content with 9.63% of total mass while wheat showed 7.91%. Overall, wheat cultured with G. lucidum was the best functional cereal in terms of β-glucan and glucosamine contents.
The Suitable Condition for Mycelial Growth of Volvariella volvacea strains and Selection of the Superior strain
Jang, Myoung-Jun ; Lee, Han-Bum ; Kim, Jeong-Han ; Lee, Yun-Hae ; Ju, Young-Cheol ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 2, 2009, Pages 173~180
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.2.173
This study was carried out to obtain basic data on mycelial growth characteristics for an artificial cultivation of Volvariella volvacea. Twelve URP primers were used to assess genetic relationship of V. volvacea and its result was divided into two groups. But there was nothing different in morphological characteristics in V. volvacea. Among five kinds of mushroom media, MCM medium was selected as the favorable culture medium. The optimal range of temperature and pH for mycelial growth on V. volvacea were 35oC and pH 6~8, respectively. Carbon sources had not an effect on 10 strains of V. volvacea, and nitrogen source for the optimum mycelial growth was yeast extract. Also, we selected GMVV 79004 as a superior strain of 10 strains V. volvacea based on the mycelial growth and yield.
Identification and Characterization of Paenibacillus polymyxa DY5 with Antifungal Activity against Crop Pathogenic Fungi
Kim, Hyo-Yoon ; Weon, Hang-Yeon ; Kim, Wan-Gyu ; Yoo, Kwan-Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 2, 2009, Pages 181~188
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.2.181
A Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria named DY5 was isolated from a peat sample collected from Daeam mountain in Korea. The culture filtrate of the bacterial isolate DY5 showed a broad spectrum of antifungal activity on various crop pathogenic fungi such as Trichoderma koningii, Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani AG-1(IA) For the identification of the DY5, morphological, biochemical, API 50 CHB test, analysis of fatty acid and molecular phylogenetic approaches were performed. The DY5 was found to be a member of the genus Paenibacillus on the basis of morphological and biochemical analysis. The 16S rRNA of DY5 showed high similarity(98%) with Paenibacillus polymyxa. On the basis of these results, the DY5 was identified as Paenibacillus polymyxa. Antifungal substance of the DY5 would be mild alkaline proteine molecule. The DY5 seems to have a great potential to be a biocontrol agent against various crop pathogens.
Studies on the Biodiversity of the Higher Fungi from the Yongnup Swamp Land
Yoo, Kwan-Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 2, 2009, Pages 189~194
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.2.189
Author has carried out to survey on the fungal diversity from Yongnup swamp land, Yanggu-gun, Kangwon-do during the fruiting season over five years. During this survey 45 species and 3 varieties were recorded. Among them, Hygrocybe turunda (Peck) Bon var. sphagnophila (Peck) Bon was confirmed as an unknown species and Hygrocybe cruenta (Hongo) Hongo, Hydropus floccipes (Fr.) Sing. and Rhodophyllus setuliforme Kim Y. S. & Seok, S. J. were also found as rare species in Korea based on the examination of sporocarps and through previous literatures. Additional three species and two variety in Myxomycota, Hemitricha serpular (Scop.) Rostaf., H. clavata var. calyculata (Speg.) Y. Yamam, Badhamia affinis var. affinis Rostaf., Acyria cinerea (Bull.) Pers. and Metatricha vesparium (Batsch) Nann.-Bremk were also listed.
Content of Phytosterol composition of Pholiota spp.
Cho, Soo-Muk ; Seo, Geon-Sik ; Kim, Min-Kyung ; Lee, Jong-Soo ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 2, 2009, Pages 195~197
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.2.195
To elucidate the composition of phytosterols in the fruit body of Pholiota spp. 6 species(P. adiposa, P. aurivella, P. highlandensis, P. nameko, P. squarrosa and Pholiota sp.) were analyzed with Gas chromatography(GC). Pholiota spp. were contained campesterol, stigmasterol, and
-sitosterol as the major phytosterols.
Occurrence of Stem Rot of Astragalus sinicus Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Korea
Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk ; Lee, Heung-Su ; Kim, Tae-Sung ; Song, Won-Doo ; Cho, Hyeoun-Suk ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 37, issue 2, 2009, Pages 198~200
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2009.37.2.198
From 2008 to 2009, the stem rot of Astragalus sinicus L. caused by Sclerotium rolfsii occurred sporadically in Gyeongnam area, Korea. The typical symptom is water-soaking, rotting and wilting on the stem. The infected plants were eventually died. White mycelial mats were spread over lesions, and then sclerotia were formed on stems and near soil line. The sclerotia were globoid in shape, white to brown in color, 1-3 mm in size and the hyphal width was 3-9 μm. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth and sclerotial formation on PDA was 30oC. The typical clamp connections were observed in the hyphae of the fungus grown on PDA. On the basis of mycological characteristics and pathogenicity to host plants, this fungus was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii Saccardo. This is the first report on the stem rot of A. sinicus caused by S. rolfsii in Korea.