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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Mycology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Mycology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 39, Issue 3 - Dec 2011
Volume 39, Issue 2 - Aug 2011
Volume 39, Issue 1 - Apr 2011
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Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi of Woody Plants in Mt. Munan
Park, Sang-Hee ; Eo, Ju-Kyeong ; Ka, Kang-Hyeon ; Eom, Ahn-Heum ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 39, issue 1, 2011, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2011.39.1.001
This study was conducted to reveal the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in Mt. Munan, based on the morphological and molecular characters. Soil and root samples were collected from the rhizosphere of host plants including Lindera obtusiloba, Stephanandra incisa, Styrax obassis and Symplocos sawafutagi and AMF were trap-cultured with Sorghum bicolor as a host plant in a greenhouse. The spores were extracted from the cultured soils and five species were identified using morphological and molecular characteristics; Acaulospora longula, A. mellea, Ambispora leptoticha, Gigaspora margarita and Paraglomus occultum. The distribution of AMF showed different trends according to host plants. The dominant AMF species were A. longula in L. obtusiloba, A. leptoticha in S. incisa, S. obassis and S. sawafutagi.
Molecular Identification of Orchid Mycorrhizal Fungi of Native Orchids in Ulleung Island
Youm, Jae-Young ; Chung, Jae-Min ; Lee, Byung-Chun ; Eom, Ahn-Heum ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 39, issue 1, 2011, Pages 7~10
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2011.39.1.0007
Orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMF) were examined in roots of the six terrestrial species of orchids collected in Ulleung Islands. Seven OMF isolates from the roots of orchids were identified based on morphological and molecular characters. Internal transcribed spacer region of OMF DNA was amplified using basidiomycete-specific ITS primers, ITS1-OF and ITS4-OF. OMF beloning to Tulasnellaceae and Ceratobasidaceae was identified through molecular analysis.
Genetic Relationship between Korean Verticillium dahliae Isolates and the Other Verticillium Species
Shang, Fei ; Choi, You-Ri ; Song, Jeong-Young ; Kim, Hong-Gi ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 39, issue 1, 2011, Pages 11~15
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2011.39.1.011
To provide basic information for Verticillium spp., molecular methods were applied to analyze genetic characteristics within Verticillium spp. including Verticillium dahliae, isolated from diseased plants in two regions of Korea. Five Korean isolates of V. dahliae causing Verticillium wilt on chrysanthemum were analyzed, together with six other Verticillium spp., using mitochondrial small subunit rRNA gene (rns) sequence and random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). In a phylogenetic tree based on rns region sequences, Korean V. dahliae isolates formed a single clade with foreign isolates, whereas the other Verticillium spp. formed separate groups. In addition to rns sequence analysis, a dendrogram based on RAPD fragment patterns also showed clustering of all V. dahliae isolates into one group, separate from the six different Verticillium spp., and the V. dahliae isolates formed three subgroups which corresponded to the regions of origin, Kumi, Busan city and Canada. This indicates that high genetic variation exists between regions, although the fungus was isolated from the same host plant, chrysanthemum. These results provide the foundation for the study of genetic diversity and relationships among V. dahliae isolates in Korea.
Genetic Diversity of Korean Cylindrocarpon destructans Based on Virulence Aassay and RAPD Analysis
Seo, Mun-Won ; Kim, Sun-Ick ; Song, Jeong-Young ; Kim, Hong-Gi ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 39, issue 1, 2011, Pages 16~21
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2011.39.1.016
Ginseng root rot caused by Cylindrocarpon destructans is one of the most destructive diseases of ginseng(Panax ginseng). We analyzed the features of the species through pathogenicity test and genetic diversity analysis of C. destructans in Korea, for its application as basic data to attempt for effective control. C. destructans isolated from rotted ginseng roots exhibited a variety of colonial colors on media. It was assumed that there may exist genetic diversity in the population by the diversity of pathogenicity among isolates observed when artificially inoculated into ginseng roots. Pathogenicity tests using ex vivo wound inoculation with agar mixture inoculation on ginseng roots were performed similar results as were observed appear to be useful for rapid pathogen inspection. According to RAPD analysis results, Korean C. destructans isolates formed a single genetic group which can be distinguished readily from closely related other fungi. C. destructans group was divided into two small groups. Therefore, we were able to confirm pathogenicity and genetic difference between the isolates in each of the groups of the pathogen.
Development and Application of Weonhyeong Strain-specific SCAR Marker in Pleurotus ostreatus
Seo, Kyoung-In ; Jang, Kab-Yeul ; Yoo, Young-Bok ; Park, Soon-Young ; Kim, Kwang-Ho ; Kong, Won-Sik ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 39, issue 1, 2011, Pages 22~30
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2011.39.1.022
Weonhyeong is one of important commercial strains. It has good characteristics of bundle formation, grey colored pilei and high productivity. We previously reported grouping of 70 strains of Pleurotus ostreatus in which one group contained 35 strains including Weonhyeong. Four strains in that group showed same profiles implicating no variety distinction for mushroom cultivation. Now we developed a specific marker for identification of Weonhyeong. Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) marker was developed from the RAPD amplicon. SCAR marker 'S-OPO5' produced only one band specific to 2183, 2240, 2595 and 2725 strains showing similar banding patterns to Weonhyeong in RAPD-PCR results. The sequence of 'S-OPO5' marker was unknown when compared with the data in the Genbank using BLASTN. BLASTX results indicated that the marker showed significant alignment with the protein sequences in Tricholoma bakamatsutake reverse transcriptase. The results indicate that this new SCAR marker ('S-OPO5') will be valuable to distinguish the Weonhyeong similar strains from Pleurotus spp.
Development of Suhan Strain-specific SCAR Marker in Pleurotus ostreatus
Seo, Kyoung-In ; Jang, Kab-Yeul ; Yoo, Young-Bok ; Park, Soon-Young ; Kim, Kwang-Ho ; Kong, Won-Sik ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 39, issue 1, 2011, Pages 31~38
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2011.39.1.031
In this study, 81 commercial strains of Pleurotus species cultivated in South Korea were analyzed with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers were developed by designing from one RAPD polymorhic band specific to Suhan strain. The SCAR primer pair 'S-OPA13-1' amplified a 590-bp fragment in the varieties originated from Suhan strain. The Blast search of S-OPA13-1 showed high homology to the POMFBO1 P. ostreatus cDNA clone MFB02-A05 and Laccaria bicolor S238N-H82. The results showed that this SCAR marker can clearly distinguish Suhan strains from Pleurotus spp.
Characterization of a New Cultivar "Dan Bi" by Mono-mono Hybridization in Pleurotus eryngii
Kim, Min-Keun ; Ryu, Jae-San ; Yoo, Young-Bok ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 39, issue 1, 2011, Pages 39~43
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2011.39.1.039
A new cultivar "Dan Bi" of Pleurotus eryngii was developed by the method of mono-mono crossing between monokaryotic strains derived from KNR2312 and KNR2596. The parental strains, KNR2312 and KNR2596, are characterized by the property of high quality and a small number of primordia formation, respectively. The optimum temperature of mycelial growth was 25 and that of fruiting body development was
. The period of harvesting including primordia formation was 0.7~1.3 days later than that of control strain Knneutari No. 3 in the culling cultivation. The color of pileus and stipe surface was neutral-brown and pure white, respectively. The shape of pileus was dome and has a scale like as cobweb. The yield was
g per 850 cc of plastic bottle. Analysis of the genetic characteristics of the new commercial variety "Dan Bi" showed a different profile as that of the control strain, Knneutari No. 3, when RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) primer #8005 was used. This new variety "Dan Bi" of Pleurotus eryngii is characterized by a small number of primordia formation after scratching.
Characteristics of Bed-log of Shiitake Damaged by Bjerkandera adusta and Antagonism between These Two Fungi
Bak, Won-Chull ; Lee, Bong-Hun ; Park, Young-Ae ; Kim, Hyun-Seok ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 39, issue 1, 2011, Pages 44~47
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2011.39.1.044
A harmful fungus occurred seriously in bed-log of shiitake(Lentinula edodes) in Jangheung-Gun, Korea. The fungus was identified as Bjerkandera adusta by its morphology and ITS(Internal Transcribed Spacer) analysis. The fungus was reported as causal agent of stem-rot of Populus euramericana in Korea, but not reported in bed-log of shiitake until this notification. Thus, studies were made to investigate inside condition of bed-log of shiitake damaged by B. adusta, physiological characteristics of B. adusta and antagonism between these two fungi. First of all, B. adusta is white-rotting fungus like shiitake and wood-rotting condition is similar to that of shiitake. But, there are a lot of small spots in damaged wood tissue under bark which are not seen in case of shiitake. Optimal temperature for mycelial growth of B. adusta is ca.
while that of shiitake is ca.
. When confrontation cultures were made between these two fungi under
, B. adusta has antagonistic ability against shiitake in all the temperatures. From the results of experiments, if the bed-logs of shiitake are exposed to high temperature, there should be mass propagation of B. adusta, and shiitake mycelia will be seriously injured by the fungus. Therefore, to prevent the damage by B. adusta, it is needed to grow the mycelia of shiitake fast in the bed-log, and to avoid exposure of the bed-log to high temperature in summer.
Analysis of the Effect of Media Types and Chromagenic Chemicals on the Detection of Extracellular Laccase Activity among Lentinula edodes Strains
Kim, Jun-Young ; Kwon, Hyuk-Woo ; Tang, Longqing ; Ko, Han-Kyu ; Kim, Seong-Hwan ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 39, issue 1, 2011, Pages 48~52
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2011.39.1.048
Breeding of Lentinula edodes generates a number of hybrid strains that are subject to evaluation for good traits for the mushroom production. As an effort to understand biochemical properties of the hybrid strains, this study tried to develop a fast and easy method for comparison of the ability of producing extracellular laccase among hybrid strains of Lentinula edodes. For this aim, we estimated the effect of media types and chromagenic chemicals on the detection of extracellular laccase in seven hybrid strains of L. edodes. When Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) dye was used for chromagenic reaction, the detection of the enzyme activity was feasible both in the solid and liquid media containing not potato dextrose but malt extract as a nutrient component. When guaiacol was used for chromagenic reaction, the detection of the enzyme activity was feasible both in the solid and liquid media containing either potato dextrose or malt extract as a nutrient component. Malt extract-based liquid culture with RBBR or guaiacol in 2 ml microfuge tube allowed us to economically and quantitatively detect and compare the enzyme activity within 3 days among the tested hybrid strains of L. edodes.
Antihypertensive Activity and Anti-gout Activity of Mushroom Sarcodon aspratus
Kang, Min-Gu ; Bolormaa, Zanabaatar ; Lee, Jong-Seok ; Seo, Geon-Sik ; Lee, Jong-Soo ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 39, issue 1, 2011, Pages 53~56
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2011.39.1.053
We collected wild mushroom, Sarcodon aspratus from Deogyu Mt. of Muju, Jeollabuk-do and physiological functionalities of its water extract were investigated. The water extracts from S. aspratus showed the highest antihypertensive angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of 74.3% and also showed high anti-gout xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitory activity (59.6%). However, tyrosinase inhibitory activity was very low (17.3%), and antioxidant activity and SOD-likely activity were not detected. The ACE inhibitory activity of S. aspratus fruiting body was the highest when powder of the fruiting body was shaked at
for 24 h by distilled water. Furthermore, the XOD inhibitory activity was also the highest by extraction at
for 24 h with water.
Antitumor and Immuno-potentiating Activities of Crude Polysaccharides from Fruiting Body of Agaricus brasiliensis
Cha, Youn-Jeong ; Kim, Jeong-Hwa ; Lee, Tae-Soo ; Lee, U-Youn ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 39, issue 1, 2011, Pages 57~67
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2011.39.1.057
Agaricus brasiliensis, one of edible mushroom belonging to Basidiomycota, has been used for curing gastric ulcer and stomach cancer of human beings and also known to have good inhibitory effects on sarcoma 180 and Ehrlich carcinoma of mice. Neutral saline soluble (0.9% NaCl), hot water soluble and methanol soluble substances (hereinafter referred to Fr. NaCl, Fr. HW and Fr. MeOH, respectively) were prepared from fruiting body of the mushroom.
-glucan and total protein contents were identify from fractions of edible mushrooms extract. The
-glucan and protein contents of all fractions of the mushrooms ranged from 21.54~32.31% and 0.16~9.34%, respectively. In vitro cytotoxicity tests, crude polysaccharides were not cytotoxic against cancer cell lines such as Sarcoma 180, HT-29, NIH3T3 and RAW 264.7 at the concentration of 10~2000
. Intraperitoneal injection with crude polysaccharides exhibited life prolongation effect of 18.8~50.6% in mice previously inoculated with Sarcoma 180. Fr. HW increased the numbers of spleen cell by 1.2 fold at the concentration of 200
compared with control. Fr. MeOH and Na improved the immuno-potentiating activity of B lymphocyte by increasing the alkaline phosphatase activity by 1.6 fold compared with control at the concentration of 50~500
. Fr. Na generated 15.9
of nitric oxide (NO) when cultured with RAW 264.7 at the concentration of 200
, while lipopolysaccharide, a positive control, produced 3.7
. The Fr. NaCl, Fr. HW and Fr. MeOH increased the secretion of TNF-
, Il-2 and IL-6 by 2.2 times compared with the control group. Fr. Na increased the numbers of peritoneal exudate cells by 4 folds at the concentration of 50mg/kg compared with control. Circulating leukocytes increased by 2.7 folds when Fr. HW from A. brasiliensis was inoculated at the concentration of 50 mg/kg body weight. The hematological and blood chemical analysis of the 3 fractions did not show any difference in blood compositions and enzyme activities compared with the control group (p<0.05). Therefore, the experimental results suggested that crude polysaccharides extracted from A. brasiliensis contain antitumor and immuno-potentiating activities against Sarcoma 180 in ICR mice.
Immuno-stimulating and Antitumor Effects of Crude Polysaccharides Extracted from Fruiting Body of Grifola frondosa
Kim, Jeong-Hwa ; Cha, Youn-Jeong ; Shim, Mi-Ja ; Lee, Min-Woong ; Lee, Tae-Soo ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 39, issue 1, 2011, Pages 68~77
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2011.39.1.068
80% methanol and 0.9% neutral saline soluble and hot water substances (hereinafter referred to Fr. NaCl, Fr. HW and Fr. MeOH, respectively) were extracted from fruiting bodies of Grifola frondosa. In vitro cytotoxicity tests, crude polysaccharides were not cytotoxic against cancer cell lines such as Sarcoma 180 and RAW 264.7 at the concentration of 10~2000
, but crude polysaccharides from Fr. NaCl was slightly toxic to HT-29 and NIH3T3 at the concentration of 2000
. Intraperitoneal injection with crude polysaccharides exhibited life prolongation effect of 25.0~52.9% in mice previously inoculated with Sarcoma 180. Fr. HW increased the numbers of spleen cells by 1.3 fold at the concentration of 200
compared with control. Fr. NaCl improved the immuno-stimulating activity of B lymphocyte by increasing the alkaline phosphatase activity by 1.5 fold compared with control at the concentration of 200
of nitric acid were generated when Fr. NaCl was added to RAW 264.7 at the concentration of 50~500
, while the control group produced 4.3
of nitric oxide. The Fr. NaCl, Fr. HW and Fr. MeOH increased the production of TNF-
, Il-2 and IL-6 by more than 1.4 times compared with the control group. The Fr. of MeOH increased the numbers of peritoneal exudate cells and circulating leukocytes by 3.0 and 2.0 folds compared with the control at the concentration of 50
, respectively. Therefore, the crude polysaccharides extracted from fruiting bodies of Grifola frondosa could improve antitumor activity of mice.
Screening of Fungal Nuruk and Yeast for Brewing of Gugija-Liriope tuber Traditional Rice Wine and Optimal Fermentation Condition
Song, Jung-Hwa ; Baek, Seung-Ye ; Lee, Dae-Hyoung ; Jung, Jae-Hong ; Kim, Ha-Kun ; Lee, Jong-Soo ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 39, issue 1, 2011, Pages 78~84
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2011.39.1.078
To develop new functional traditional rice wines using Gugija and Liriope tuber as raw materials, screenings of optimal fungal nuruk and alcohol fermentative yeast for brewing of Gugija-L. tuber traditional rice wine were performed with investigation of optimal fermentation condition. Finally, we selected commercial SJ nuruk and Saccharomyces cerevisiae C-2 as optimal nuruk and yeast for Gugija-L. tuber traditional rice wine. Furthermore, a new antihypertensive and anti-gout Gugija-L. tuber traditional rice wine was produced when 3% of Jangmyong Gugija and L. tuber No.1 were added into cooked rice and then fermented at
for 5 days with SJ nuruk and S. cerevisiae C-2.
Disruption of the Dual Specificity Kinase Gene Causes the Reduction of Virulence in Candida albicans
Park, Yun-Hee ; Park, Hee-Moon ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 39, issue 1, 2011, Pages 85~87
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2011.39.1.085
The opportunistic human pathogen Candida albicans has the ability to convert from yeast-form to pseudohyphal or true hyphal form. The morphological transition is considered as an important virulence factor, because the decrease or lack in dimorphism causes the reduction of virulence. Our previous study revealed that the disruption of dual specificity kinase gene caused the reduction of dimorphism in C. albicans. Therefore we tested the effect of dual specificity kinase in virulence using mouse model. The mean survival time for kinase-defective strains was about 15 days in comparison with those of wild-type, 3.9 days. Moreover the fungal burden on kidneys for kinase-defective strains was decreased by ten-fold than that for wild-type. These results suggest possible involvement of dual specificity kinase in a novel signal transduction pathway for morphological transition and virulence of C. albicans.
Liver Toxicity of Antihypertensive Traditional Rice Wine Made by Rhizopus stolonifier No. 17 Nuruk and Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Kang, Min-Gu ; Kim, Jae-Ho ; Ahn, Byung-Hak ; Lee, Jong-Soo ;
The Korean Journal of Mycology, volume 39, issue 1, 2011, Pages 88~89
DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2011.39.1.088
To investigate liver toxicity of traditional rice wine, traditional rice wine was prepared by using cooked rice, Rhizopus stolonifier No. 17 nuruk and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After concentrated the traditional rice wine, it was orally administered into Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats and then changes of its body weight and biochemical parameters of the blood were investigated. All of male and female SD rats did not show any changes in its body weight during two weeks after administering the traditional rice wine concentrates and also biochemical parameters such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST or GOT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT of GOT) and alkaline phosphatase activity were not different compared to control. This results indicated that the traditional rice wine has not any toxicity.