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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Applied Chemistry for Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Dec 2007
Volume 18, Issue 5 - Oct 2007
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Aug 2007
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Jun 2007
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Apr 2007
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
Selecting the target year
Utilization of Spent Catalysts for the Removal of VOCs
Kim, Sang-Chai ; Shim, Wang-Geun ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 4, 2007, Pages 303~313
Various commercial catalysts used in chemical related applications have been disposed as an industrial waste when the catalytic activity of catalysts is not good enough to achieve an optimum yield. In addition, the amount of disposed three way catalysts (TWC) has been continuously increased. Considering the physicochemical, environmental, and economical characteristics, the deactivated spent catalysts can be treated in several alternative ways such as regeneration, recycling, and disposal. In view of the environmental and economical matters, the spent catalyst should be regenerated and used for the various purposes, although its activity is not as good as a fresh catalyst. On the other hand, spent catalysts containing noble and metal oxides can be applicable for the catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by applying the proper treatment method. Therefore in this review the quantity of the spent catalysts and the available regeneration methods for the spent catalysts are briefly summarized and especially the proper regeneration method for applying the catalytic oxidation of VOCs and its results are introduced.
Destruction of Acetic Acid Using Various Combinations of Oxidants by an Advanced Oxidation Processes
Kwon, Tae-Ouk ; Park, Bo-Bae ; Moon, Jang-Soo ; Moon, Il-Shik ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 4, 2007, Pages 314~319
The destruction of synthetic acetic acid wastewater was carried out using UV, O3, H2O2, Fe2+ oxidants in various combinations by the advanced oxidation processes. UV/H2O2, UV/H2O2/Fe2+, O3, O3/H2O2, UV/O3/H2O2, UV/O3/H2O2/Fe2+ processes were tested. UV/H2O2/Fe2+, O3/H2O2, UV/O3/H2O2, UV/O3/H2O2/Fe2+ processes shows the most effective destruction efficiency at low pH (3.5) condition of wastewater, but UV/H2O2 and O3 processes were observed less than 20%. Destruction efficiency was gradually increased with the reaction time in the O3/H2O2 and UV/O3/H2O2 processes, in case of the UV/H2O2/Fe2+ and UV/O3/H2O2/Fe2+ processes shows rapid increasing of destruction efficiency within 90 min, then slightly decreasing with time. The destruction efficiencies of UV/H2O2/Fe2+, O3/H2O2, UV/O3/H2O2 and UV/O3/H2O2/Fe2+ processes were observed 55, 66, 66 and 64%, respectively.
Preparation of Submicron Nickel Powders with Non-aqueous Solvent In Microwave-Assisted Reduction Method
Jeon, Seung-Yup ; Kim, Jae-Hwan ; Park, Na-Yi ; Park, Hoy-Yul ; Lee, Gun-Dae ; Hong, Seong-Soo ; Park, Seong-Soo ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 4, 2007, Pages 320~325
Nickel powders were prepared from an aqueous nickel acetate solution and hydrazine hydrate using diethanolamine as the nonaqueous organic solvent in the conventional and microwave synthetic method. It was investigated that microwave non-thermal effect and synthetic condition affect the preparation of nickel powders by means of X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravymetry analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Compared with the conventional synthetic method, less of aggregation, smaller particle size, and more uniform distribution of particle size were obtained in the microwave synthetic method due to the non-thermal effect of microwaves
Efficient Synthesis of 1,3-Thiazole Derivatives from Arylidenethiosemicarbazones in the Presence of
-Cyclodextrin with Water
Park, Kyung-Jin ; Bae, Sun-Kun ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 4, 2007, Pages 326~329
2-Arylidenehydrazinyl-4-arylthiazole derivatives (9a-f) were prepared by the in situ formation of β-cyclodextrin complex of 2,4'-dibromoacetophenone (8) in water followed by the addition of arylidenethiosemicarbazones (7a-f) in 70∼88% yield. The structures of the compounds 9a-f were elucidated by IR and 1H-NMR spectral data. The role of β-cyclodextrin appears to activate the compound 7 and 8 and promote the reaction to complete in reduced reaction time.
Synthesis of Optically pure Epichlorohydrine using Dimeric Chiral Salen Catalyst Containing
Lee, Kwang-Yeon ; B.Kawthekar, Rahul ; Kim, Geon-Joong ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 4, 2007, Pages 330~336
In this study, new dinuclear chiral Co (salen) complexes bearing BF3 have been synthesized and their properties as the asymmetric catalyst have been examined. The NMR, UV and ESCA analyses were performed to determine the structure of synthesized catalysts. Their catalytic activity and selectivity have been demonstrated for the asymmetric ring opening of various terminal epoxides by hydrolytic kinetic resolution technology. The easily prepared dimeric complexes exhibited very high enantioselectivity for the asymmetric ring opening of epoxides with H2O nucleophile, providing enantiomerically enriched terminal epoxides (> 99 %ee). The dimeric structured chiral salen showed remakablely enhanced reactivity and may be employed substantially lower loadings than its monomeric analogues, and in addition no racemization happened during the separation of product epoxides. The system described in this work is very efficient for the sinthesis of chiral epoxide and 1,2-diol intermediates
Removal of Odorants by Selective Adsorption from Natural Gas for Protection of Steam Reforming Catalyst in Fuel Cell from Sulfur Poisoning
Oh, Sang-Seung ; Kim, Geon-Joong ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 4, 2007, Pages 337~343
The reforming catalyst and the electrodes in fuel cells can be poisoned by the organic sulfur compound which is added as an odorant for checking out the leakage of natural gas, and that makes a big problem of system degradation. In this study, various adsorbents, such as silica, γ-alumina, activated carbon, HZSM-5, Ultra-stable Y zeolite (USY), and beta zeolite (BEA), were utilized to remove tetra-hydrothiophene (THT) and tert-butylmercaptan (TBM), and to confirm the performance in the adsorption of those odorants by using a continuous adsorptive bed. The effects of Si/Al ratio of zeolites, adsorption temperature and the type of balance gas (methane or He) on the adsorption performance in the packed bed have been investigated. In addition, the competitive adsorption between TBM and THT on the adsorbents was also estimated. The result shows that H-type BEA zeolite exhibited the highest adsorption capacity for TBM and THT odorant, and the higher amount of THT was removed adsorptively on the same adsorbent than TBM. The physical and chemical adsorption of those compounds on acid sites of zeolite were confirmed by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and infrared spectrum (IR) analyses.
Synthesis of NaY Zeolites by Microwave and Conventional Heating
Choi, Ko-Yeol ; Conner, W.Curtis ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 4, 2007, Pages 344~349
마이크로파 가열(microwave heating)에 의하여 제올라이트 NaY를 합성하였으며, 그 결과를 기존의 가열 방법(conventional heating)에 의하여 합성한 결과와 비교하였다. 같은 승온 속도를 사용하였을 때는 마이크로파에 의하여 가열하였을 때가 기존의 가열 방법에 비하여 NaY 결정 생성의 유도 기간(induction period)이 감소하였으며 결정의 생성 속도가 증가하였다. 또한 마이크로파의 사용 여부와 관계없이 승온 속도가 빠를 때도 유도 기간이 감소하고 결정 생성 속도가 증가하였다. 빠른 승온 속도에서 합성하였을 때 최종 결정의 크기가 크며, 이는 마이크로파의 사용에 의하여 더욱 증가하였다. 빠른 승온 속도에서는 반응 시간이 짧아져서 NaY의 합성에 소모되는 에너지 소모량은 감소하였다. 본 연구의 조건에서는 에틸렌글리 콜조(ethylene glycol bath)를 사용한 기존 가열 방법에서의 에너지 소모량이 마이크로파 가열보다 적게 나타났는데, 이는 마이크로파 에너지를 사용하는 것이 항상 효율적인 것만은 아니라는 것을 말해준다. 그러나 승온 속도를 적절히 조절하면 마이크로파 가열에 의해서 에너지 면에서 보다 효율적으로 NaY를 합성할 수 있다는 것을 알 수 있었다
The effect of moisture on SCR reaction of NMO (Natural Manganese Ore)
Kim, Sung-Su ; Hong, Sung-Chang ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 4, 2007, Pages 350~355
The effect of moisture in flue gas on SCR reaction of NMO (Natural Manganese Ore) was studied. The experiments were performed over NMO with NO, NH3 at independent condition or simultaneous condition. NH3 can be oxidized at low temperature by the lattice oxygen in NMO catalyst. The concentration of NO and NO2 by NH3 oxidation with moisture is higher above 300 ℃ than that without moisture. Moisture would competitively adsorb with NO and NH3 on NMO catalyst. It caused poor NOx conversion to compete against H2O. Besides the NOx conversion efficiency was reduced at below 250 ℃ because of the dipped H2O competitively adsorbed NH3. The reactivity of NMO varied with the calcination temperature and the optimum calcination temperature was 400 ℃ regardless H2O.
Influence of Nanostructured
Electrode Fabricated with Acid-treated Paste on the Photovoltaic Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Lee, Jae-Wook ; Hwang, Kyung-Jun ; Roh, Sung-Hee ; Kim, Sun-Il ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 4, 2007, Pages 356~360
Recently, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) composed of nanoporous TiO2, light-sensitive dyes, electrolytes, and counter electrode have been received much attention. Nanostructured particles with higher surface area for the higher adsorption of Ru (II) dye are required to increase the quantity of light absorption. Also, it has been reported that the key factor to achieve high energy conversion efficiency in the photoelectrode of DSSC is the heat treatment of TiO2 paste with acid addition. In this work, we investigated the influence of acid treatment of TiO2 solar cell on the photovoltaic performance of DSSC. The working electrodes fabricated in this work were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and atomic force microscope (AFM). In addition, the influence of nanostructured photoelectrode fabricated with the acid-treated paste on the energy conversion efficiency was investigated on the basis of photocurrent-potential curves. It was found that the influence of acid-treated paste on the photovoltaic efficiency was significant.
Precipitation of Rare Earth Chlorides in a LiC-KCl Eutectic Molten Salt
Cho, Yung-Zun ; Yang, Hee-Chul ; Eun, Hee-Chul ; Kim, Eung-Ho ; Kim, In-Tae ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 4, 2007, Pages 361~365
The precipitation reaction of some rare earth chlorides (Ce/Nd/GdCl3) in a LiCl-KCl molten salt has been carried out by reaction with oxygen. Identification of rare earth precipitates by reaction with oxygen and effects of oxygen sparging time (max. 420 min) and molten salt temperature (450∼750 ℃) on conversion were investigated. In this study, regardless of the oxygen sparging time and the molten salt temperature, oxychlorides (REOCl) for NdCl3 and GdCl3, and an oxide (REO2) for CeCl3 are formed as a precipitate, which are identical with the estimation results of Gibbs free energy of reaction (△Gr). The conversion of rare-earth chlorides into insoluble precipitates was described by using a conversion ratio. The conversion ratio increased exponentially with the oxygen sparging time and finally showed asymptotic value, over 0.999 at 750 ℃ of the molten salt temperature and over 300 min of sparging time conditions. The conversion ratios were increased with the molten salt temperature. In case of CeCl3, when the sparging time exceed 60 min, the values of the conversion ratio were nearly constant over 0.999 in all experimental temperature conditions.
Clustering Kansei Factors for the Roughness of Plastic Surface Based on Frequency Distribution
Jun, Chang-Lim ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 4, 2007, Pages 366~370
New product development requires information on customers’ emotions such as vision, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, or tactile perceptions. In this study, tactile sense which has not been well studied compared to other senses, was measured and statistically analysed for different surface roughnesses of plastic samples. The emotional responses of 37 pairs of positive and negative adjectives describing tactile senses were collected and analysed through the questionnaire to find the correlation between adjectives and surface roughness. Frequency of the first preference for each adjective on four different roughness is obtained, and used for the statistical studies such as factor analysis, multidimensional scaling, or clustering.
Inconsistent Activities of Titanium Oxide Photocatalysts
Ryu, Jung-Ho ; Choi, Won-Yong ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 4, 2007, Pages 371~375
This study measured the photocatalytic activities of five TiO2 samples commercially available in terms of the degradation rate of nine organic substrates. Efforts were made to correlate the activities with the properties of both catalysts and substrates but little correlation was found. The result clearly shows that the photocatalytic activities sensitively depend on the kind of the test substrates, which strongly supports the fact that the activity measured with one or two model compounds cannot represent the overall performance of a photocatalyst. Therefore, this multi-aspect and inconsistent activity of photocatalytic reaction should be fully understood prior to establish the standard protocol for the activity determination
Flame Retardant Property of PU by the Addition of Phosphorous Containing Polyurethane Oligomers
Jung, Sun-Young ; Kang, Sung-Ku ; Cho, Il-Sung ; Koh, Sung-Ho ; Kim, Youn-Hee ; Chung, Yeong-Jin ; Kim, Sang-Bum ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 4, 2007, Pages 376~380
Used polyurethane (PU) was chemically degraded by the treatment with flame retardants such as tris(1,3-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), triethyl phosphate (TEP), and trimethyl phosphate (TMP). Analysis of FT-IR and P-NMR showed that the degraded products (DEP) contained oligourethanes. Rigid polyurethane foam was produced using the DEP as flame retardants. The flammability and thermal stability of recycled rigid polyurethane were investigated. The mechanical properties such as compressive strength of recycled polyurethane were also studied. The recycled polyurethane reduced flammability and enhanced thermal stability over intrinsic polyurethane. Mechanical strength of recycled polyurethane also shows as high as that of intrinsic polyurethane. In order to evaluate flame retardant properties of the recycled polyurethane foams with various amounts of DEP, heat release rate (HRR) of the foam was measured by cone calorimeter. Scanning electron micrograph of recycled PU showed a uniform cell morphology as a intrinsic PU.
Study on High Density Activated Carbons for Electrode Materials of Supercapacitor
Roh, Kwang-Chul ; Park, Jin-Bae ; Lee, Chul-Tae ; Park, Chul-Wan ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 4, 2007, Pages 381~385
High density activated carbons electrode materials, for supercapacitor were prepared by chemical KOH activation of cokes as the starting material under Ar atmosphere. By controlling the synthesis conditions and reducing KOH quantity in the activation step, the specific surface area of the product was decreased. BET surface area was measured to be 500∼1260 m2/g, and the electrode density was in the range of 0.68∼0.83 g/cm3. Volumetric specific capacitance (unit cell test) was as high as 20 F/cc, which corresponds to gravimetric specific capacitance of about 95 F/cc on the basis of half cell test. It should be noted that the specific capacitance of the activated carbons prepared in this study is superior to that of commercial activated carbons.
Synthesis and Characterization of Polyurethane bead/silica Hybrid Composites
Yang, Seung-Nam ; Yim, Gie-Hong ; Kim, Nam-Ki ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 4, 2007, Pages 386~390
In this study, polyurethane prepolymers were synthesized from polycaprolactonediol (PCDs. M.W. 530, 830, 1000, 1250, and 2000) and polycaprolactonetriol (PCTs. M.W. 300 and 900), and hexamethylenediisocyanate (HMDI). Polyurethane beads was prepared from the different prepolymers by a two-step suspension polymerization. The particle size of polyurethane beads was investigated by particle size analyzer. The beads were 10∼30 μm in size. The structure of beads was confirmed by FT-IR spectrometer. Their thermal properties were analyzed by TGA. Glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the beads were in the range of -23∼-53 ℃ and decreased with the increase of the PCD molecular weight. In order to prevention the cohesion of beads, the beads were coated with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS
Applicability Evaluation of Electrodes Exchange and Mixed Solution for Enhanced Electrokinetic Process
Lee, Noh-Sup ; Park, Sung-Soo ; NamKoong, Wan ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 4, 2007, Pages 391~395
This study investigated the feasibility of enhanced electrokinetic (EK) remediation of soil contaminated with approximately 20000 Pb-mg/kg. Enhanced EK remediation was evaluated by using mixed solution (0.3 M acetic acid and 0.03 M EDTA, EK-M) and by exchanging electrodes for preventing precipitation of metal hydrate. For the EK-M, the lead removal efficiency was only 2% lower than the case where 0.03 M EDTA was solely used (EK-Blank, EK-B). Considering the costly expense of EDTA, the application of EK-M would be economically viable. The efficiency of of EK-E was higher by 2% than the EK-B method. More impertantly, the pH values of entire soil packed column presented to be neutral (7∼8) in the EK-E process. Unlike to EK-B and EK-M, the deposition of heavy metals to any specific area was avoided in the EK-E process.
Study of Anti-bacterial Properties for Impregnated Activated Carbon by Silver Nano-particles
Lee, Chul-Jae ; Kim, Dong-Yeub ; Kim, Byung-Soo ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 4, 2007, Pages 396~399
In present work, the anti-bacterial effect of silver/activated carbon (Ag/C) composites prepared by the γ-irradiation of AgNO3 solution on Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been studied. Characteristics of the Ag/C composites were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The inhibitory concentration of E. coli was found to be 0.387 ppm and the sterilizing concentration for the tested organism was 1.017 ppm. These results support the evidence that Ag/C composites have strong antibacterial activity to E. coli