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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Applied Chemistry for Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Dec 2007
Volume 18, Issue 5 - Oct 2007
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Aug 2007
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Jun 2007
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Apr 2007
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
Selecting the target year
Current Status of Policy and Market for Biodiesel in Korea
Kim, Seung-Soo ; Kim, Ki-Ho ; Shin, Seong-Cheol ; Yim, Eui-Soon ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 5, 2007, Pages 401~406
The status of biodiesel (BD) production and consumption, specifications and market status in Korea are discussed in this review. The main feedstock to produce BD is soybean oil and waste cooking oil in domestic, and some companies have tried to diversify BD feedstocks. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) has begun a pilot project to produce BD feedstock from rapeseed for 3 years since 2007. In July 2006, Ministry of Commerce, Industry & Energy (MOCIE) and the domestic oil industry reached an agreement under which BD0.5 is supplied in market, and 158400 MT of BD would be supplied between 2007 and 2008. MOCIE reported that it will increase BD 0.5% every year to reach BD3 by 2012. It is expected that BD supply would continuously increase domestically in the future.
Application of CAE in Injection Molding Process of Automobile Part
Cho, Jung-Hwan ; Chang, Woo-Jin ; Park, Young-Hoon ; Choe, Soon-Ja ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 5, 2007, Pages 407~414
Using the MPI (Moldflow Plastics Insight) software from Moldflow Co., the optimum conditions for producing the upper part of the automobile air cleaner were obtained for 20% talc filled polypropylene (PP). The analysis was carried out to solve the cracking problem between upper and lower parts and the improved process was proposed using the flow balance. The comparative results between the conventional process, CASE-1, with one-pin gate and the new process (CASE-2) comprising two-pin gate system are the followings. In the case of CASE-2, the shorter filling time and reduced cycle time induced an improved production and processibility. In addition, the orientation and volumetric shrinkage are similar to those observed in the lower part, but the assembly, deformation, and physical characteristics are enhanced. The problem induced by the CASE-1 did not originate from the residual stress, but from the difference in the size of the upper part air cleaner after shrinkage. Thus, the orientation problem was expected to improve by optimizing the gate structure.
Pyrolysis Characteristics of Sawdust and Rice Husk
Park, Dong-Kyoo ; Seo, Myung-Won ; Goo, Jeong-Hoi ; Lee, See-Hoon ; Lee, Jae-Goo ; Song, Byung-Ho ; Kim, Sang-Done ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 5, 2007, Pages 415~423
Pyrolysis characteristics of sawdust and rice husk as biomass resources in a thermogravimetric analysis were determined. Experiments were carried out with a linear heating rate under inert atmosphere of N2 gas. Pyrolysis of the biomass can be classified as a lower temperature reaction zone where the major component of holocellulose is thermally decomposed and a high temperature reaction zone where lignin is thermally decomposed. The obtained data was analyzed by the two-step consecutive reaction model. Activation energies of sawdust and rice husk are found to be respectively 82.5 kJ/mol and 85.1kJ/mol in the low temperature zone according to the first order reaction model and 19.7 kJ/mol, 22.0 kJ/mol in the high temperature zone according to the three-way transport model. The reaction rate constant with variation of heating rate can be well predicted by the kinetic compensation relation of Gaur-Reed.
Simulation on Isothermal Expansion of Water Oversaturated Perlite
Kim, Ji-Hwan ; Hahm, Yeong-Min ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 5, 2007, Pages 424~432
With the aiming to improve the comprehension of an expansion process of perlite, a numerical study has been carried out, concerning a water vapor bubble growth in a softened perlite melt. Isothermal case of the model is investigated and compared with the experimental results. Water content is an intrinsic parameter in a perlite expansion. With increasing water content, the expansion time is faster. But it can not be changed easily in an industrial process. Initial temperature is a changeable parameter in an industrial process. Higher initial temperature hastens the expansion time and this can be a key parameter in an industrial process. Experimental results are observed by SEM. Increasing initial temperature, perlite shape becomes close to sphere. Calculated bubble growth results are compared with experimental results. Packing density is measured and compared with simulated results. These results indicate that some other factors are applied on the model during heat transformation to work
Synthesis of Bis(dithiobenzil) Metal Complex and Its Photostability
Lee, Gun-Dae ; Park, Na-Yi ; Jeon, Seung-Yup ; Heo, Jin ; Son, Dae-Hee ; Hwang, Tae-Kyung ; Park, Seong-Soo ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 5, 2007, Pages 433~437
Bis(dithiobenzil) metal complex, used as functional NIR absorbing dye and photostabilizer, was synthesized using bezoin and anisoin as intermediate compounds. And squarylium, a charge generation material, was synthesized to find its photostability effect. The structure of the product was determined by 1H-NMR and FT-IR and the thermal property was analyzed by DSC and TGA. Optical property and photostability were determined by UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. High absorbance was obtained in the NIR range and maximum absorbing wavelength was shifted depending on the nature and position of substituent in the bis(dithiobenzil) metal complex. The photofading effect of squarylium decreased by the addition of bis(dithiobenzil) metal complex.
Fluid Flow in Plasma Deposition Reactor and Characteristics of Titanium Oxide Films Deposited at Room Temperature
Jung, Il-Hyun ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 5, 2007, Pages 438~443
Titanium oxide films were deposited by the HCP (hollow cathode plasma) reactor at room temperature. With results of simulation about HCP reactor, the temperature profile is uniform on substrate regardless of the heat generation at cathode. The velocity profile on the surface of substrate is more uniform with increasing the gap between cathode and substrate, and surface roughness was decreased with increasing the gap between cathode and substrate. We could confirm that the composition of oxide increased with RF-power, and the ratio of O to Ti in the films was about 2 : 1 at RF-power of 240 watt and distance between cathode and substrate of 3 cm.
Effects of Intra-particle Composition on the Adhesive Properties and Water Dispersity of Water Dispersible Acrylic Emulsion Pressure Sensitive Adhesive
Seo, In-Seon ; Lee, Myung-Cheon ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 5, 2007, Pages 444~448
The effects of intra-particle composition on the adhesive properties and water dispersity of acrylic emulsion type pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) were investigated. In the case of PSA having uniform intra-particle composition, the higher holding strength made the water dispersity lower. By changing the intra-particle composition in hard core/soft shell type, however, it was possible to get PSAs showing both high holding strength and water dispersity. When the weight ratio of MAA/AA is 4/1, high holding strength, but low initial tack and very low water dispersity were observed in both cases of higher contents of (AA+MAA) in core and shell area. When the weight ratio of MAA/AA is 1/4, however, higher water dispersity and lower holding strength were indicated in the case of higher contents of (AA+MAA) in shell area.
Synthesis of Sn-GIC for Carbon Electrode of Lithium Ion Battery and Its Electrochemical Characteristics
Um, Eui-Heum ; Lee, Taeck-Young ; Lee, Chul-Tae ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 5, 2007, Pages 449~453
Synthesis of Sn-GIC (Graphite intercalated compound) and its electrochemical characteristics were investigated to find a method for enhancing the performance of carbon anode of lithium ion battery. The content of Sn intercalated in graphite interlayer increased with increase of concentration of SnCl2 solution and increase of the heat treatment temperature of dried graphite after dipped in SnCl2 solution, respectively. And initial discharge capacity increased upon increase of intercalated Sn content. Sn-GIC with excellent electrochemical performance, which can be synthesized by heat treatment at 900 ℃ after dipped in 1.0 M SnCl2 solution, showed 356 mAh/g of initial discharge capacity and 13% of capacity decay after 10 cycles.
Removal Characteristic of Acidic Ion in Aqueous Solution by Alumina
Hong, Young-Ho ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 5, 2007, Pages 454~458
The removal characteristics of ionic species, such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Sr2+, SO42-, NO3-, and Cl- by adsorption on the alumina were investigated. Alumina precusor powders were prepared from Al(NO3)3.9H2O and NH4OH. Alumina materials prepared from the heat treatment in a furnace at 450∼750 ℃ for 5 h were analysed using FT-IR and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The specific surface area of the product particles decreased significantly with treatment temperature. The adsorption capacities of SO42-and NO3-on alumina were 23 mg/g and 12.4 mg/g, respectively. But, removal efficiencies of Cl- were less than 4 mg/g. In general, the removal efficiencies of the anion species were decreased with increasing treatment temperature. The best anion removal efficiency was obtained when the alumina was treated under 450 ℃. Removal efficiencies of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Sr2+ were increased with increasing treatment temperature.
Selective Removal of Odorants in Natural Gas by Adsorption on Metal-containing Beta Zeolite Adsorbents
Oh, Sang-Seung ; Kim, Geon-Joong ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 5, 2007, Pages 459~466
In this study, H-type beta zeolites (BEA) having various metals were used as the adsorbent for the removal of sulfur containing odorants. The different adsorbents containing single or bimetals were utilized to investigate the performance in the individual adsorption of TBM and THT odorants or in the competitive adsorption between them by using a continuous adsorptive bed system. The result shows that the pure H-type BEA zeolite exhibited the highest adsorption capacity for TBM compound, but the higher amount of THT was removed and adsorbed on a HBEA adsorbent having Fe, Pd metal and ZnO oxide. In the case of bimetal containing adsorbents, Cu-Zn/HBEA and Fe-Mo/HBEA showed a higher adsorption capacity for TBM.
Adsorption Characteristics of PAN-based Activated Carbon Fiber Impregnated with Palladium and Gold Nanoparticles
Lee, Jin-Jae ; Jun, Moon-Gue ; Kim, Young-Chi ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 5, 2007, Pages 467~474
The palladium and gold nanoparticles containing PAN-based active carbon fiber (ACF) with a high specific surface area were prepared. Using the BET, TEM, FE-SEM, and XPS, their specific surface area and pore volume, pore structure, and the change in surface oxygen groups with time were analyzed and SO2 adsorption performances were investigated. Because of the impregnating process, the micropore volume was mostly decreased from 95.5% to 30.5∼43.7% compared with the total pore volume. And the change in surface oxygen groups with time was higher for the metal salt than the nanoparticles. Also, SO2 breakthrough time of PAN-ACFs impregnated with Au nanoparticles and metal salts did not change compared with that of the non-impregnated PAN-ACF. But the PAN-ACF impregnated with Pd nanoparticles (100 ppm) showed good SO2 adsorption performance as the breakthrough time of 880 sec. These results indicated that the SO2 adsorption performance depended on the change in surface oxygen groups with time and the moderate impregnation of Pd nanoparticles on the PAN-ACF caused the increase in the SO2 adsorption performance by a catalytic action.
Thermotropic Liquid Crystalline Properties of Glucose Penta(cholesteryloxycarbonyl)alkanoates
Jeong, Seung-Yong ; Ma, Yung-Dae ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 5, 2007, Pages 475~482
The thermal and optical properties of glucose penta(cholesteryloxycarbonyl)alkanoates (CAGLn, n = 2∼8, 10, the number of methylene units in the spacer) were investigated. All the CAGLn formed monotropic cholesteric phases with left-handed helical structures. CAGLn with n = 2 or 10, in contrast with CAGLn with 3 ≤ n ≤8, did not display reflection colors over the full cholesteric range, suggesting that the helical twisting power of the cholesteryl group highly depends on the length of the spacer joining the cholesteryl group to the glucose chain. The isotropic-cholesteric transition point (Tic) decreased with increasing n and showed no odd-even effect. The plot of transition entropy at Tic against n had a sharp negative inflection at n = 7. The optical pitches (λm’ s) of CAGLn with 3 ≤ n ≤ 8 decreased with increasing temperature. However, the temperature dependence of the λm of the derivatives exhibited pronounced dependence on n. The transitional properties and the temperature dependence of the λm observed for CAGLn were discussed in terms of the differences in arrangement of the cholesteryl groups and the conformation of the molecules.
Gas Separation Properties of Polyaniline/Polyimide Blend Membranes
Lee, Ki-Seob ; Kim, Jin-Hwan ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 5, 2007, Pages 483~489
Polyaniline (PANI)/Polyimide (PI) membranes were prepared and the effects of PANI contents and doping on the structural properties and gas separation properties were studied. The polyamic acid (PAA) solution was prepared by the polycondensation reaction of 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphthalic anhydride (6FDA) and 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA) in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolydinone (NMP) solvent. The PANI/PI blends were obtained by mixing PAA solution and PANI solution, and were doped with 1 M aqueous HCl solution for 24 h. The structural characterizations of the as-cast and doped membranes were examined by FT-IR, XRD, and TGA. The gas permeation experiments with H2, CO2, O2, N2, and CH4 were carried out by variable pressure method at 30 ℃ and 5 atm. For all gases tested, the permeability coefficients of the blends decreased with increasing PANI content and the magnitude of permeability was in the order of H2 > CO2 > O2 > N2 > CH4. The permeability for PANI/PI membranes decreased after the doping process while the permselectivity increased. For H2/CH4 separation, the doped PANI/PI (75/25) membrane has a permselectivity of 991.
The Preparation and Properties of Petroleum Sulfonate Dispersant
Choi, Sang-Won ; Kim, Eun-Young ; Chang, Woo-Seok ; Kim, Viktor ; Moon, Jang-Soo ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 5, 2007, Pages 490~494
Dispersants were prepared from petroleum pyrolysis residual oil (PPRO) through sulfonation. Without employing a conventional polynaphthalene sulfonate formaldehyde condensate (PNS) process, the dispersants (NPS) were synthesized by a simpler process only in 2 h. The chemical structure of new dispersant, which has various naphthalene derivative groups, was similar to PNS conformed by UV-visible spectroscopy curves. The new dispersants demonstrated high dispersing ability in inorganic suspension ; cement, Fe2O3, and CaCO3.
Concentration in Coal Slag on the Formation of (Fe,Cr)
in Chromia Refractory
Park, Woo-Sung ; Oh, Myong-Sook ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 5, 2007, Pages 495~500
The inside wall of a coal gasifier is lined with refractory, and the corrosion of the refractory is an important factor affecting the refractory lifetime and the replacement period. This paper examines the changes in microstructure of a chromia refractory due to chemical reactions with slag having varying amounts of Fe2O3. Slag samples were prepared by adding Fe2O3 to KIDECO slag, and static corrosion experiments were carried out at 1550 ℃. The layer of (Fe,Cr)3O4 formation and the depth of Fe depletion in the infiltrating slag were determined. In addition, FactSage equilibrium calculations were carried out in order to determine the conditions of formation, and to compare with the experimental observations. In the sample exposed to KIDECO slag, which has about 10 wt% Fe2O3, the formation of (Fe,Cr)3O4 was not observed. As the Fe2O3 concentration in slag increased, (Fe,Cr)3O4 formation and Fe depletion depth increased. Increasing Fe2O3 concentration also made the slag/refractory interface indistinguishable. Equilibrium calculations predicted that higher Fe2O3 concentrations favor chromite formation at gasification temperatures. The chromite formation was most favorable when the amount of Cr2O3 was limited, as in the case of dissolved Cr2O3 in slag. When the concentration of Fe2O3 in slag was less than 20%, the formation of chromite was least favorable in the system with equal amounts of slag and refractory.
Effect of Addition of Tween 20 and Glycerol in Recombinant Escherichia Coli Culture on Organophosphorus Hydrolase (OPH) Production for Biodrgradation of Coumaphos Insecticide
Choi, Suk-Soon ; Seo, Sang-Hwan ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 5, 2007, Pages 501~505
Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) expressed from recombinant Escherichia coli was used to biodegrade organophosphate insecticide coumaphos which has a very high toxicity in mammalian cells. To improve the productivity of OPH, the effects of nonionic surfactants (Tween 20, PEG 1000) and organic solvents, such as glycerol, propanol, and ethanol, were investigated in the strain culture. The maximum OPH was produced when the 0.25% of Tween 20 and 0.5% of glycerol were added to the medium. As the OPH obtained from disrupt-cell process by ultrasound treatment was used, the biodegradation efficiencies of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM coumaphos were 100, 88, 84 and 78%, respectively. A novel method developed in this study could be applied to the biodetoxification technology in the contaminated region with various coumaphos concentration.
Formation and Current-voltage Characteristics of Molecularly-ordered 4,4',4''-tris(N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino)-triphenylamine film
Kang, Do-Soon ; Choe, Young-Son ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 5, 2007, Pages 506~510
Vacuum deposited 4,4',4''-tris(N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino)-triphenylamine (1-TNATA), a widely-used semiconductor material, is placed as a thin interlayer between indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode and a hole transporting layer (HTL) in OLEDs and a well-stacked 1-TNATA layer leads to stable and high efficiency devices by reducing the carrier injection barrier at the interface between the ITO anode and hole transport layers. According to Raman spectra, thermal annealing after deposition as well as electromagnetic field treatment during deposition lead to closer stacking of 1-TNATA molecules and resulted in molecular ordering. By thermal annealing at about 110 ℃, an increase in current flow through the film by over 25% was observed. Molecularly-ordered 1-TNATA films played an important role in achieving higher luminance efficiency as well as higher power efficiency of the multi-layered organic EL devices in the present work. Electromagnetic field treatment during deposition was less effective compared to thermal annealing
Pyrolysis Characteristics of Waste Ship Lubricating Oil using Waste Catalyst in Isothermal Tubular Type Pyrolysis Reactor
Kim, Seung-Soo ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 5, 2007, Pages 511~515
The yield of oil was rapidly increased at 440 ℃ compared to 400 ℃ and 420 ℃ when the isothermal pyrolysis of waste ship lubricating oil was carried out in tubular type reactor, and pyrolysis was almost finished within 30 min. The yield of gas was decreased depending on the reaction temperature in which that of solid was not much changed. Pyrolysis experiments of waste ship lubricating oil were carried out with used ZSM-5 produced from a petrochemical process. The yield of gas was highly increased in the case of used ZSM-5 and fresh ZSM-5 compared to the case without catalyst. The produced oil and gas were almost constant for fresh ZSM-5 and used ZSM-5 at the same reaction temperature. In the reaction temperature 400∼440 ℃, the selectivity of C5-C11 was two times higher with fresh ZSM-5 and used ZSM-5 than the case without catalyst.
Characteristics of Copolymerization of Ethylene/1-Octene with rac-
Ahn, Sung-Hyun ; Park, Yeung-Ho ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 5, 2007, Pages 516~521
The copolymerization characteristics of a newly-synthesized catalyst, rac-Me2Si(2-p-tolylindenyl)2ZrCl2, and its analogue, rac-Me2Si(Ind)2ZrCl2, were examined in the ethylene/1-octene copolymerization while varying the concentration of 1-octene in the reaction mixture. The activity of rac-Me2Si(2-p-tolylindenyl)2ZrCl2 catalyst was decreased with increase of comonomer concentration, which is different from the usual comonomer effect of the metallocene catalysts with a bridge structure. The contents of 1-octene in the copolymer from the catalyst with 2-p-tolyl substituent were higher than those from the catalyst without that substituent. The melting point, crystallinity, and molecular weight decreased with comonomer content which was more apparent for rac-Me2Si(2-p-tolylindenyl)2ZrCl2 catalyst.
Structures and Double Layer Performances of Carbons Pyrolized from Carbon Oxides
Kim, Ick-Jun ; Yang, Sun-Hye ; Jeon, Min-Je ; Moon, Seong-In ; Kim, Hyun-Soo ; An, Kye-Hyeok ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 5, 2007, Pages 522~526
Structural features and electrochemical performances of cokes pyrolized from oxidized cokes were examined, and compared with KOH-activated coke. Needle cokes (d002 = 3.5 Å), having a graphene layer structure, were changed to a single phase of graphite oxide after oxidation treatment with an acidic solution having an NaClO3/needle coke composition ratio of above 7.5, and the inter-layer distance of the oxidized coke was expanded to 6.9 Å with increasing oxygen content. After heating at 200 ℃, the oxidized coke was pyrolized to the graphene layer structure with inter-layer distance of 3.6 Å. However, the change of the inter-layer distance of the needle coke was not observed in the KOH activation process. On the other hand, an intercalation of electrolyte ions into the pyrolized coke, observed at first charge, occurred at 1.0 V, in which the value was lower than that of KOH-activation coke. The cell capacitor using pyrolized coke exhibited a lower internal resistance of 0.57 Ω in 1 kHz, and a larger capacitance per weight and volume of 30.3 F/g and 26.9 F/ml at the two-electrode system in the potential range 0∼2.5 V than those of the cell capacitor using KOH-activation of coke. This better electrochemical performance may be associated with structure defects in the graphene layer derived from the process of the inter-layer expansion and shrinkage.
Study for Binary Liquid Type Fire Retardant White Paint of Polyurethane Lacquer
Kwon, Kyung-Ok ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 18, issue 5, 2007, Pages 527~530
The binary liquid type fire retardant paint of polyurethane (alkyd resin) lacquer is developed to cover the defect of one liquid type white paint of chlorinated rubber used generally but which has weak surface and poor adhesive strength to the wood as well as generating much black smoke when it is firing. The properties of the composition of binary liquid type of white paint of polyurethane lacquer developed in this study for using to wood has shown that the better suppressed smoke generation and enhanced the adhesive strength to the wood than that of fire retardant white paint used.