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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 19, Issue 6 - 00 2008
Volume 19, Issue 5 - 00 2008
Volume 19, Issue 4 - 00 2008
Volume 19, Issue 2 - 00 2008
Volume 19, Issue 1 - 00 2008
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The Effective Product Method of Biodiesel
Lim, Young-Kwan ; Shin, Seong-Cheol ; Yim, Eui-Soon ; Song, Heung-Ok ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 137~144
In these days, there has been increased focus on global warming and the exhaustion of resources caused by the heavy consumption of fossil resources. In order to resolve these problems, biomass is increasingly gaining international attention as a source of renewable energy. Biodiesel fuel produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats is expected to be one of the eco-friendly biomass based alternatives to petrodiesel. This article reviews some of the research for effective of biodiesel production.
Overview of Technology for Fixation of Carbon Dioxide Using Microalgae
Jeon, Seon-Mi ; Kim, In-Hae ; Ha, Jong-Myung ; Lee, Jae-Hwa ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 145~150
In this work we have studied the antifouling properties of the hydrophobic sol-gel modified sensing membrane and its optical properties for sensor application. E. coli JM109, B. cereus 318 and P. pastoris X-33 were cultivated in confocal cultivation dishes with glass surface, respectively. The glass surface was coated with the hydrophobic sol-gels prepared by the dimethoxy-dimethyl-silane (DiMe-DMOS) and tetramethyl-orthosilicate (TMOS). After cultivation, microorganisms adhered on the surface coated with sol-gels and glass surface were dyed by gram-staining method and the numbers of microorganisms were analyzed based on the image data of the scanning electronic microscope (SEM). A great number of microorganisms, about 2∼3 × 104/mm2, was adhered on the glass surfaces which no hydrophobic sol-gels were coated. But, the antifouling effect of the hydrophobic sol-gels was large, that microorganisms of less than 200∼300/mm2 were adhered on the coated glass surface. The performance of the sensing membranes for detection of pH and dissolved oxygen was enhanced by recoating the light insulation layer prepared with the mixture of the hydrophobic sol-gel and graphite particles.
The Research of Papers to Restore the Waxed Volume in the Annals of Joseon Dynasty
Seo, Jin-Ho ; Jeong, So-Young ; Jeong, Seon-Hwa ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 151~156
The annals of Joseon Dynasty is the most valuable resource containing the record of Korean history and has been known as one of the UNESCO’s Memory of the World Register. There was a period that the annals of Joseon Dynasty was used with beeswax to control pests. It is considered as the prior reason of damage on the annals of Joseon Dynasty. Therefore, in this study we analysed the spectrum of traditional paper inside and outside of Korea, beeswax and accelerated artificial aging paper to restore the waxed volume in the annals of Joseon Dynasty by using FT-IR. As a result of FT-IR analysis, spectrum did not showed its big difference in all paper used in this study. However, there was a different spectrum in paper which was made with not Broussonetia kazinoki, but Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentacea and Dioscorea batatas. Among traditional papers in various countries, spectrum of Korean paper showed the most similarity from the annals of Joseon Dynasty. In comparison between accelerated artificial aging paper and waxed volume, we could identify the change of spectrum affected by the damage.
Investigation of the High Temperature Shift for a Generation of High Purity Hydrogen
Lim, Mun-Sup ; Chun, Young-Nam ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 157~160
The generation of high-purity hydrogen from hydrocarbon fuels is essential for efficient operation of fuel cell. In general, most feasible strategies to generate hydrogen from hydrocarbon fuels consist of a reforming step to generate a mixture of H2, CO, CO2 and H2O (steam) followed by water gas shift (WGS) and CO clean-up steps. The WGS reaction that shifts CO to CO2 and simultaneously produces another mole of H2 was carried out in a two-stage catalytic conversion process involving a high temperature shift (HTS) and a low temperature shift (LTS). In a typical operation, gas emerges from the reformer is taken through a high temperature shift catalyst to reduce the CO concentration to about 3∼5%. The HTS reactor was designed and tested in this study to produce hydrogen-rich gas with CO to a range of 2∼4%. The iron based catalysts (G-3C) was used for the HTS to convert the most of CO in the effluent from the partial oxidation (POX) to H2 and CO2 at a relatively high rate. Parametric screening studies were carried out for variations of the following variables: reaction temperature, steam flow rate, components ratio (H2/CO), and reforming gas flow rate.
Preparation and Physical Properties of Poly(ethylene-co-ethyl acrylate)/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites
Kook, Jeong-Ho ; Jeong, Kwang-Un ; Yang, Jong-Seok ; Park, Dae-Hee ; Go, Jin-Hwan ; Nah, Chang-Woon ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 161~167
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-reinforced poly(ethylene-co-ethyl acrylate) (EEA) nanocomposites were prepared by both melt and solution mixing methods. The mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties were investigated as a function of type and loading of CNT. The tensile strength and modulus increased, while elongation at break decreased with increasing MWCNT content. The hollow-type MWCNT showed an improved tensile strength and elongation at break compared with a conventional MWCNT. The thermal degradation temperature was increased by around 40 ℃ with increasing the amount of MWCNT. The melt-mixed composites showed the highest volume resistivity. In the case of solution-mixed composites, the conventional MWCNT was estimated to show much lower volume resistivity than that of hollow MWCNT. The number and length of extruded CNT onto the fractured surface increased by both increasing the content of CNT and employing the tensile strain to the sample. The melt-mixed specimens showed much smaller number and shorter length of extruded CNT.
Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel Organic Bleach Activator (Decanoyloxyethoxycarbonyloxybenzenesulfonate) for Laundry Detergents
Cho, Wan-Goo ; Lee, Chang-Woo ; Oh, Kyung-Hee ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 168~172
Not all types of soil occurring on household fabrics can be removed by simple washing with normal surfactants. In order to achieve a satisfactory cleaning effect, an additional treatment step, called bleaching, is required in such cases. Currently, the best known bleach activator is tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED). In this study, we synthesized a novel organic bleach activator (OBA), decanoyloxyethoxycarbonyloxybenzenesulfonate. For stabilizing the OBA, it was coated with zeolite and polyethylene glycol. It is found that the stability was enhanced and OBA shows good cleansing and bleaching effects even in cold water (20 ℃). OBA also shows easy biodegradability with 88% in the condition of OECD standard. During the cleansing process, OBA shows excellent microbiological effect against T. mentagrophytes and S. aureus.
A Study on the Synthesis of Calcium Lactate Using Precipitated Calcium Carbonate
Park, Joo]Won ; Cho, Kye]Hong ; Park, Jin]Koo ; Ahn, Ji]Whan ; Han, Choon ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 173~178
Calcium lactate was prepared by reacting lactic acid with precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) which was prepared by carbonation process (calcite) and solution process (aragonite). Effects of PCC morphology (calcite and aragonite) on calcium lactate by the solution process were investigated experimentally. Despite the slow forming rate at the initial stage, the final yield of calcium lactate appeared higher when calcite was used. Therefore, the maximum yield of calcium lactate using aragonite was 85.0% and that using calcite was 88.7%, respectively. For both cases, the optimum temperature for the preparation appeared at around 60 ℃. Furthermore, the increase in lactic acid concentration over 2.0 mol% increased slurry viscosity and deteriorated mass transfer, which resulted in low yield of calcium lactate for both cases. SEM analyses showed that the prepared calcium lactate appeared as plate-like crystal form, irrespective of PCC morphologies, reaction temperatures, and concentrations of lactic acid.
Determination of Main Factors Affecting the Electrodialysis of Succinate by Using Design of Experiment Method
Shin, Seung-Han ; Chang, Eu-Gene ; Lee, Do-Hoon ; Kim, Sang-Yong ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 179~184
The separation and purification of succinate are necessary for the succinic acid production by a fermentation process. Among the purification processes, desalination of succinate is inevitable. In this work, electrodialysis was selected as a desalination method and its operating parameters affecting the degree of desalination and energy consumption were examined. Commercialized electrodialysis apparatus was used in this work and its optimum operating parameters were determined by using design of experiment (DOE) method. Voltage, concentration of succinate, and pH were selected as main parameters. Among them, voltage seemed to be the most important one. The final conversion of succinate to succinic acid was calculated when the operating parameters were optimized. Finally, the effect of impurities, such as corn steep oil, yeast extract, and dextrose on the electrodialysis efficiency was also studied.
A Study on the Electrochemical Properties of Porous Carbon Electrode according to the Organic Solvent Contents
Lim, Jung-Ae ; Choi, Jae-Hwan ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 185~190
In order to increase the surface area of electrodes for electrosorption, porous carbon electrodes were fabricated by a wet phase inversion method. A carbon slurry consisting of a mixture of activated carbon powder (ACP), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF), and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent was cast directly on a graphite sheet. The cast film was then immersed in pure water for phase inversion. The physical and electrochemical properties of the electrodes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosimetry, and cyclic voltammetry. The SEM images verified that the pores of various sizes were formed uniformly on the electrode surface. The average pore sizes determined for the electrodes fabricated with various NMP contents ranged from 64.2 to 82.4 nm and the size increased as the NMP content increased. All of the voltammograms showed a typical behavior of charging and discharging characteristic at the electric double layer. The electrical capacitance ranged from 3.88 to 5.87 F/cm2 depending on the NMP contents, and the electrical capacitance increased as the solvent content decreased. The experimental results showed that the solvent content is an important variable controlling pore size and ultimately the capacitance of the electrode.
Thermal Degradation of High Molecular Components Obtained from Pyrolysis of Mixed Waste Plastics
Oh, Sea-Cheon ; Ryu, Jae-Hun ; Kwak, Hyun ; Bae, Seong-Youl ; Lee, Kyong-Hwan ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 191~198
The thermal degradation characteristics of high molecular components obtained from pyrolysis of mixed waste plastics have been studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and gas chromatography spectrometry (GC-MS). The kinetics of thermal degradation has been studied by a conventional nonisothermal thermogravimetric technique at several heating rates between 10 and 50 ℃/min. The dynamic thermogravimetric analysis curve and its derivative have been analyzed using a variety of analytical methods reported in the literature to obtain information on the kinetic parameters such as activation energies and reaction orders. The yields of liquid products have been monitored by batch pyrolysis reactor under various reaction temperatures and reaction times. And the characteristic of liquid products with the increase in reaction temperature has been performed by GC-MS.
Degradation Properties and Production of Fuels from Hemicellulose by Pyrolysis-liquefaction
Lee, Jong-Jib ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 199~204
Hemicellulose, consisteing of pentose as xylose and mannose, is usable as high octane fuels and heavy oil additives if depolymerized to monomer unit. In this study, thermochemical degradation by pyrolysis-liquefaction of hemicellulose, the effects of reaction temperature, conversion yield, degradation properties and degradation products were investigated. Experiments were performed in a tube reactor by varying reaction temperatures from 200 ℃ to 400 ℃ at 40 min of reaction time. The liquid products from pyrolysis-liquefaction of hemicellulose contained various kinds of ketones. Ketones, as 2,3-dimethyl- 2-cyclopenten-1-one, 2,3,4-trimethyl-2-cyclopentan-1-one, and 2-methyl-cyclopentanone, could be used as high-octane-value fuels and fuel additives. However, phenols are not valuable as fuels. Combustion heating value of liquid products obtained from thermochemical conversion processes of hemicellulose was in the range of 6,680∼7,170 cal/g. After 40 min of reaction at 400 ℃ in pyrolysis-liquefaction of hemicellulose, the energy yield and mass yield were as high as 72.2% and 41.2 g oil/100 g raw material, respectively.
Preparation of Sulfonated PolySEBS/PS Blending Films
Jang, Suk-Yong ; Han, Sien-Ho ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 205~208
Sulfonated polySEBS and sulfonated PS were synthesized by sulfonation at the aromatic group of polySEBS and PS. Novel sulfonated polySEBS/sulfonated PS blending films for the ion exchange membrane of polymer electrolyte fuel cell were prepared from these sulfonated polymers. The proton conductivities of these blending films were varied in 10-2∼10-3 S/cm with the blending ratio of sulfonated polySEBS/sulfonated PS. Especially, the film prepared from the addition of the sulfonated PS (0.5 g) in the sulfonated polySEBS (10.0 g) has the best proton conductivity (0.07 S/cm) with ion exchange capacity (0.75 meq/g) and water uptake (25%).
Production of Hydrogen Gas by Thermochemical Transition of Lauan in Fixed Bed Gasification
Jung, Hye-Jin ; Kim, Chul-Ho ; Son, Jae-Ek ; Kim, Lae-Hyun ; Shin, Hun-Yong ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 209~213
The fixed bed gasification reactor with 1 m hight and 10.2 cm diameter was utilized for the hydrogen production from biomass wastes. Lauan sawdust was used for non-catalytic and catalytic gasification reaction as a sample in the fixed bed reactor. The fixed bed temperature and catalyst are the major variables affecting the process operation. Thus, the effect of fixed bed temperature and the catalysts on gas composition were studied at the temperature range from 400 ℃ to 700 ℃. The yield of hydrogen was increased at higher temperature in the fixed bed reaction. Fractions of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane gas in the product gas increased when sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and potassium carbonate (K2CO3) catalysts were used. Furthermore, sodium carbonate catalyst was more effective to obtain higher hydrogen yield compared to potassium carbonate catalyst.
Production of Biodiesel from Waste Frying Oil by Transesterification on Zeolite Catalysts with Different Acidity
Koh, Tae-Suck ; Chung, Kyong-Hwan ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 214~221
A Study on Microorganisms Antifouling and Optical Properties of the Sensing Membrane Surface Modified by Hydrophobic Sol-gels
Kim, Sun-Yong ; Rhee, Jong-Il ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 222~227
In this work we have studied the antifouling properties of the hydrophobic sol-gel modified sensing membrane and its optical properties for sensor application. E. coli JM109, B. cereus 318 and P. pastoris X-33 were cultivated in confocal cultivation dishes with glass surface, respectively. The glass surface was coated with the hydrophobic sol-gels prepared by the dimethoxy-dimethyl-silane (DiMe-DMOS) and tetramethyl-orthosilicate (TMOS). After cultivation, microorganisms adhered on the surface coated with sol-gels and glass surface were dyed by gram-staining method and the numbers of microorganisms were analyzed based on the image data of the scanning electronic microscope (SEM). A great number of microorganisms, about 2∼3 × 104/mm2, was adhered on the glass surfaces which no hydrophobic sol-gels were coated. However, the antifouling effect of the hydrophobic sol-gels was large, that microorganisms of less than 200∼300/mm2 were adhered on the coated glass surface. The performance of the sensing membranes for detection of pH and dissolved oxygen was enhanced by recoating the light insulation layer prepared with the mixture of the hydrophobic sol-gel and graphite particles.
Effect of Current Density on Nickel Surface Treatment Process
Kim, Yong-Woon ; Joeng, Koo-Hyung ; Hong, In-Kwon ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 228~235
Nickel plating thickness increased with the electric current density, and the augmentation was more thick in 6∼10 A/dm2 than low current. Hull-cell analysis was tested to evaluate the current density. Optimum thickness was obtained at a temperature of 60 ℃, and the pH fluctuation of 3.5∼4.0. Over the Nickel ion concentration of 300 g/L, plating thickness increased with the current density. The rate of decrease in nickel ion concentration was increased with the current density. The quantity of plating electro-deposition was increased at the anode surface, which was correlated with the increase of plating thickness. The plating thickness was increased because of the quick plating speed. However, the condition of the plating surface becomes irregular and the minuteness of nickel plating layer was reduced with the plating rate. After the corrosion test of 25 h, it was resulted in that maintaining low electric current density is desirable for the excellent corrosion resistance in lustered nickel plating. According to the program simulation, the thickness of diffusion layer was increased and the concentration of anode surface was lowered for the higher current densities. The concentration profile showed the regular distribution at low electric current density. The field plating process was controlled by the electric current density and the plating thickness instead of plating time for the productivity. The surface physical property of plating structure or corrosion resistance was excellent in the case of low electric current density.
Low Temperature Growth of Silicon Oxide Thin Film by In-direct Contacting Process with Photocatalytic
Layer on Fused Silica
Ko, Cheon-Kwang ; Lee, Won-Gyu ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 236~241
Synthesis and Characterization of Iron Incorporated MCM-41
Cho, Deug-Hee ; Jin, Hang-Kyo ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 242~248
The iron incorporation method according to addition steps during the synthesis of iron incorporated MCM-41 was examined systematically. Iron addition during pH adjustment was more effective than the other addition steps which were addition to template agent solution or addition after mixing of template agent and sodium silicate solution. In case of iron addition after extraction of template agent from as-synthesized silica MCM-41, most of the iron was on the surface of pores not the frame work structure. Although the amount of iron addition was increased, there was a limit to the amount of iron incorporated into framework structure of MCM-41. The synthesized FeMCM-41 catalyst showed catalytic activities for propylene oxidation. Otherwise, there might be no attractive differences of catalytic activity among the addition steps of iron.