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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Applied Chemistry for Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 19, Issue 6 - 00 2008
Volume 19, Issue 5 - 00 2008
Volume 19, Issue 4 - 00 2008
Volume 19, Issue 2 - 00 2008
Volume 19, Issue 1 - 00 2008
Selecting the target year
R & D Trends on Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cells
Kwon, Yongchai ; Han, Jonghee ; Kim, Jinsoo ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 6, 2008, Pages 583~591
Recently, as a demand for the portable device is surged, there are needs to develop a new fuel cell system for replacing the conventionally used secondary battery. For this purpose, it becomes important to develop direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) that uses formic acid as a fuel. The formic acid can offer typical advantages such as excellent non-toxicity of the level to be used as food additive, smaller crossover flux through electrolyte, and high reaction capability caused by high theoretical electromotive force (EMF). With the typical merits of formic acid, the efforts for optimizing reaction catalyst and cell design are being made to enhance performance and long term stability of DFAFC. As a result, to date, the DFAFC having the power density of more than
was developed. In this paper, basic performing theory and configuration of DFAFC are initially introduced and future opportunities of DFAFC including the development of catalyst for the anode electrode and electrolyte, and design for the optimization of cell structure are discussed.
Patent Analysis of Oil Sands Bitumen Upgrading Technologies
Lee, Ki Bong ; Jeon, Sang Goo ; Nho, Nam Sun ; Kim, Kwang Ho ; Shin, Dae Hyun ; Kim, Seon Wook ; Kim, Yong Heon ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 6, 2008, Pages 592~599
Oil sands had not received enough attention due to high production cost. However, as oil price significantly increases, oil sands are receiving more and more interest as unconventional crude oil. The value and applicability of oil sands can be enhanced by upgrading oil sands bitumen to produce synthetic crude oil (SCO). This study analyzed 213 oil sands upgrading patents applied between 1969 and 2006 in US, Canada, Japan, Europe, and Korea. The upgrading technologies could be classified into 9 detailed technologies; hydrocracking, coking, thermal cracking, deasphalting, supercritical technology, bio-technology, hydrotreating, gasification, and others. The number of patents applied for oil sands upgrading increased after 1970, reached a maximum in the early 1980, and slowly increases again in recent years. Korea has a lack of technologies for oil sands. Therefore, the technologies for oil sands production and application, specially, upgrading technologies based on accumulated oil refinery technologies need to be developed to increase self-development ratio of energy resource.
Preparation of Glass Beads as Tire Balancing Materials
Shin, Kyung Soo ; Hong, Seong Uk ; Lee, Kyu Chang ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 6, 2008, Pages 600~603
Tire is one of the key components in automobiles. Especially, most vibrations during driving are resulted from the im-balancing of tire-wheel composites. In this study, this problem has been solved by using glass beads as a balancing material. In addition, the glass beads are coated using several materials to reduce the tendency of aggregation of glass beads.
Nano-capsulation of L-Ascorbic Acid in Nonaqueous System
Hong, Joo-Hee ; Song, Ki-Se ; Kim, Kyoung-Jun ; Lee, Chae-Seong ; An, Byeong-Min ; Kim, Byoung-Sik ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 6, 2008, Pages 604~608
In this work, the basic research for nano-capsulation of L-ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) in nonaqueous system was carried out. 500 nm-sized nano-capsules were prepared in nonaqueous system, and the emulsified capsule had mean size of 410 nm. The stability test on the temperature and the storage periods was performed at 4, 20, and
for 30 days. After 5 days, L-ascorbic acid was extricated 5.1, 9.3, and 12.5% at each temperature, but only 1~2 % was extricated after the time span. Likewise, the results of the skin susceptibility on women and men, each 10 persons, revealed that the very thin allergy was shown from only a woman after 2 days, but it was not shown from the others.
Prediction of Hindered Settling Velocity of Bidisperse Suspensions
Koo, Sangkyun ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 6, 2008, Pages 609~616
The present study is concerned with a simple numerical method for estimating the hindered settling velocity of noncolloidal suspensions with bidisperse size distribution of particles. The method is based on an effective-medium theory which uses the conditional ensemble averages for describing the velocity fields or other physical quantities of interest in the suspension system with the particles randomly placed. The effective-medium theory originally developed by Acrivos and Chang for monodisperse suspensions is modified for the bidisperse case. Using the radial distribution functions and stream functions the hindered settling velocity of the suspended particles is calculated numerically. The predictions by the present method are compared with the previous experimental results by Davis and Birdsell and Cheung et al.. It is shown that the estimations by the effective-medium model of the present study reasonably agree with the experimental results.
Characteristic Analysis of GTL Fuel as an Automobile Diesel
Lim, Young-Kwan ; Shin, Seong-Cheol ; Kim, Jong-Ryeol ; Yim, Eui-Soon ; Song, Hung-Og ; Kim, Dongkil ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 6, 2008, Pages 617~623
GTL (gas-to-liquid) fuel produced by the Fischer-Tropsch reaction of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (
) is expected to be one of the environmental friendly biomass based alternatives and blended to petrodiesel. In this study, the characteristic of the fuel was analyzed by its concentration differences after blending petrodiesel in domestic market with different amounts of GTL fuel which produced from Shell. Gas chromatography shows that GTL fuel consists of longer paraffin chain than common diesel. GTL fuel showed a high flash point, distillation, kinematic viscosity, and derived cetane number. In addition, GTL fuel showed lower lubricity due to low sulfur content.
Comparative Reaction Characteristics of Methane Selective Catalytic Reduction with CO Generation Effect in the N
O Decomposition over Mixed Metal Oxide Catalysts
Park, Sun Joo ; Park, Yong Sung ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 6, 2008, Pages 624~628
Nitrous oxide (
), known as one of the major greenhouse gases, is an important component of the earth's atmosphere, and gives rise to precursor of acid rain and photochemical smog. For the removal of
and other nitrogen oxides, the SCR reaction system with various reductants is widely used. This study is based on the results of experimental and theoretical examinations on the catalytic decomposition of sole nitrous oxide (
) and selective catalytic reduction of
in the presence of oxygen using mixed metal oxide catalysts obtained from hydrolatcite-type precursors. When
is fed together with a reductant, it affects positively on the
decomposition activity. At an optimum ratio of
mole ratio, the
conversion activity is enhanced on the SCR reaction with partial oxidation of methane.
A Study on N-Arylation of Indole Using Copper Nitrate or Copper Carbonate as a Catalyst
Lee, Jun Young ; Yang, Min Ho ; Paik, Seung Uk ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 6, 2008, Pages 629~632
N-Arylation of indole with aryl iodides has been achieved by employing copper nitrate or copper cabonate as a catalyst, which might be more practical and economical over any other copper- or palladium-based catalysts for industrial applications. N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine was found to be the most effective with copper nitrate catalyst systems, while ethylenediamine was the most active with copper carbonate.
Effect of Toluene Added to Casting Solution on Characteristic of Phase Inversion Polysulfone Membrane
Choi, Seung-Rag ; Park, So-Jin ; Seo, Bum-Kyoung ; Lee, Kune Woo ; Han, Myeong-Jin ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 6, 2008, Pages 633~639
Polysulfone membranes were prepared via the phase inversion process. Toluene was added as a nonsolvent additive in the casting solution containing a mixture of polysulfone and n-methylpyrrolidone. When prepared via the diffusion-induced process using isopropanol as a precipitation nonsolvent, the solidified membranes revealed a similar asymmetric structure irrespective of the addition of toluene, presenting both a dense skin layer and a sponge-like support layer. The added toluene played a role of enhancing liquid-liquid phase separation of the casting solution, and skin layer thickness of a prepared membrane increased with toluene content in the casting solution. On membrane performance, the solute rejection showed a uniform behavior irrespective of the addition of toluene. However, in spite of the significant increase in dense skin layer thickness, the water permeation through the membrane prepared with 60 wt% toluene revealed five times as much flux, compared with that of the membrane prepared without toluene additive.
A Study on the Dry Cleaning of Aluminium Surfaces by Low Temperature Plasma Process
Lim, Gyeong-Taek ; Kim, Kyung Hwan ; Kim, Kyung Seok ; Li, Hui Jie ; Song, Sun Jung ; Shon, Hokyong ; Cho, Dong Lyun ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 6, 2008, Pages 640~644
Lubricating oil on aluminium surfaces was cleaned by a low temperature plasma process. Oxygen plasma mixed with argon was used, and process parameters were the mixing ratio of argon in oxygen, discharge power, and negative DC potential. The aluminium surfaces were analyzed with FTIR and EDX after the cleaning. It was found that almost all of the oil was eliminated in 20 min. if the oil was pure. Elimination efficiency was highly dependent on operational conditions of the process. The highest efficiency was obtained when treated at 300 W with oxygen plasma mixed with 30% argon applying negative potential more than -500 V on the aluminium surfaces. However, efficiency higher that 60% cannot be obtained at any condition if the oil contained inorganic materials.
Absorption of CO
Using Mixed Aqueous Solution of N-methyldiethanolamine with Piperazine for Pre-combustion CO
Jang, Won Jin ; Yoon, Yeo Il ; Park, Sang Do ; Rhee, Young Woo ; Baek, Il Hyun ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 6, 2008, Pages 645~651
In this study, the new solubility data at high pressure condition applicable to pre-combustion
capture system were found. Experiments were conducted within the temperature range of
while increasing the pressure from 0 to 50 bar. The effect of MDEA (N-methyldiethanolamine) concentration was studied by varying the concentration from 30 to 50 wt%. In order to improve the absorption rate of MDEA, piperazine was added in ranging of 5~10 wt% into the MDEA solution as a activator. From this experiment, the equilibrium partial pressure was increased with increasing MDEA concentration in absorbent and reaction temperature. Also absorption rate was increased with increasing the reaction temperature. It was noted that the mixture of piperazine and MDEA aqueous solution showed faster absorption rate by 2.5 times than only the MDEA aqueous solution with 40 wt% cencentration at initial reaction stage and also increased absorption capacity by 16%.
Characteristics of EVA-Polymer Modified Mortars Recycling Rapid-chilled Steel Slag Fine Aggregate
Hwang, Eui-Hwan ; Kim, Jin-Man ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 6, 2008, Pages 652~660
For the recycling of rapid-chilled steel slag, the mechanical strengths and physical properties of EVA-polymer modified mortars with the various replacement ratios of rapid-chilled steel slag were investigated. Twenty five specimens of polymer modified mortars were prepared with the five different amounts of EVA-polymer modifier (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 wt%) and rapid-chilled steel slag (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 wt%). For the investigation of the characteristics of polymer modified mortars, the measurements such as water-cement ratio, unit volume weight, air content for fresh mortar and compressive strength, flexural strength, water absorption, hot water resistance, porosity and SEM investigation for curing specimens were conducted. As a results, with an increase in the replacement ratio of rapid-chilled steel slag, water-cement ratios decreased but unit volume weight increased remarkably. With increasing EVA-polymer modifier and the replacement ratio of rapid-chilled steel slag, percent of water absorption decreased but compressive and flexural strengths increased remarkably. By the hot water resistance test, mechanical strengths decreased but total pore volume and porosity increased remarkably. In the SEM observation, the components of specimen were shown to stick to each other in the form of co-matrix phase before hot water resistance test, but polymer modifier of co-matrix phase was decomposed or deteriorated after hot water resistance test.
Synthesis of Cholesteric Liquid Crystal and Its Application as a Polarizing Component on the Optical Film
Kim, Yong-Suk ; Lee, Kwang-Yeon ; Ahn, Cheol-Heung ; Kim, Geon-Joong ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 6, 2008, Pages 661~667
In this study, cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) was synthesized and applied as a polarizing component on the optical film of back light units (BLU) for LCDs. After mixing CLC with nematic liquid crystal, this mixture was fulfilled in the module consisting of two films and then its amplifying efficiency and polarizing ability for a planarly emitted light were examined to apply as a BLU polarizer film for increasing the brightness of light. The properties of CLC compound were tested by UV/Visible spectroscopy and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). Flexible spacer was made by linear carboxylic acid group of cholesteric derivatives between cholesterol mesogen units for one-axis orientation in each layer. The CLC containing film could be used as a module to increase the ability of polarization and to enhance brightness of BLU and to widen wavelength range by stacking the films.
Selective Ni Recovery from Spent Ni-Mo-Based Catalysts
Lee, Tae Kyo ; Han, Gi Bo ; Yoon, Suk Hoon ; Lee, Tae Jin ; Park, No-Kuk ; Chang, Won Chul ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 6, 2008, Pages 668~673
The objective of this study is to optimize the leaching conditions of sequential leaching and extracting processes for selective Ni recovery from spent Ni-Mo-based catalyst. The selective Ni recovery process consists of two processes of leaching and extracting process. In this 2-step process, Ni component is dissolved from solid spent Ni-Mo-based catalyst into leaching agent in leaching process and sequentially extracted to Ni complex with an extracting agent in the extracting process. The solutions of nitric acid (
), ammonium carbonate (
) and sodium carbonate (
) were used as a leaching agent in leaching process and oxalic acid was used as an extracting agent in extracting process.
solution is the most efficient leaching agent among the various leaching agent. Also, the optimized leaching conditions for the efficient and selective Ni recovery were the leaching temperature of
concentration of 6.25 vol% and elapsed time of 3 h. As a result, Nickel oxalate having the highest yield of 88.7% and purity of 100% was obtained after sequentially leaching and extracting processes under the optimized leaching conditions.
Fabrication of TiO
Impregnated Stainless Steel Fiber Photocatalyts and Evaluation of Photocatalytic Activity
Song, Sun-Jung ; Kim, Kyoung Seok ; Kim, Kyung Hwan ; Li, Hui Jie ; Cho, Dong Lyun ; Kim, Jong Beom ; Park, Hee Ju ; Shon, Hokyong ; Kim, Jong-Ho ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 6, 2008, Pages 674~679
impregnated stainless steel fiber photocatalysts (
) were fabricated to overcome inherent problems of powdery
photocatalysts in water treatment. Adhesion strength of the impregnated
was examined using an ultrasonic-cleaner. Photocatalytic activity was evaluated through decomposition experiment of methylene blue and formic acid. Bactericidal efficiency was evaluated through sterilization experiment of E. Coli and Vibrio Vulnificus. Adhesion strength of the impregnated
was so high that more than 95% was left over even after the treatment in an ultrasonic-cleaner for 30 min. Methylene blue and formic acid were decomposed as much as 60% and 38% of the initial concentration and more than 99.9% of E. Coli and Vibrio Vulnificus were killed after 1 hour exposure to the prepared photocatalyst under UV irradiation. In the case of decomposition of formic acid, decomposition ratio increased if oxidants were added. Especially the decomposition ratio increased as high as 80% when hydrogen peroxide was added as an oxidant.
Formation and Decomposition of Methane Hydrate Using Silica Sand
Nam, Sung-Chan ; Linga, Praveen ; Englezos, Peter ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 6, 2008, Pages 680~684
The formation of methane hydrate (
hydrate) in silica sand and decomposition experiments were performed at
using a newly designed reactor. Temperature profile within silica sand bed was measured by thermocouples installed at different height of reactor. Both temperature and pressure are the main parameters for the formation (measured by adsorption experiment) and decomposition (measured by desorption experiment) of methane hydrate. Experiment of methane hydrate formation at 8 MPa and
showed that 70% of methane was converted to hydrate and the recovery of methane by the decomposition of methane hydrate was 82%.
The Synthesis and Characterization of Thin Film for Anti-Glare Using Silica Particles
Ahn, Jae-Beom ; Noh, Si-Tae ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 6, 2008, Pages 685~689
The effect of filler type and dispersion time on thin film characterization is studied. Hollow silica powders which have the advantage of transmittance are selected. In this paper, the characterization of haze, transmittance, and gloss are analyzed in terms of filler concentration and coating thickness, respectively. As a result, the value of haze and gloss increased with increasing of filler concentration and coating thickness, respectively. In addition, the variation of transmittance by filler concentration and coating thickness is not occurred. In conclusion, it is assumed that hollow silica powders as a filler have an advantage of concentration increment and transmittance.
Glycerol Separation from Biodiesel Byproduct
Yang, Young-Mi ; Kim, Kwang-Je ; Lee, Yongtaek ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 19, issue 6, 2008, Pages 690~692
Pure glycerol could be obtained from a biodiesel byproduct by separation processes including neutralization, precipitation, and distillation. The contents of distilled glycerol through the above separation processes were measured and the results were compared according to experimental conditions such as acid concentration and precipitation temperature. Neutralization processes were carried out in the concentration range of 5~37 wt% hydrochloric acid, 5~95 wt% sulfuric acid, and 5~85 wt% phosphoric acid, respectively. Precipitation temperatures in neutralization were controlled in the range of 293~333 K. Higher values of the distilled glycerol content were obtained due to the salt removal in the pretreatment case of neutralization with 10 wt% sulfuric acid and precipitation of 313 K with 85 wt% phosphoric acid, respectively. The variations of acid concentration and precipitation temperature in pretreatment steps affected to some extent glycerol recovery from the biodiesel byproduct.