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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 20, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
Selecting the target year
Adsorption and Storage of Natural Gas by Nanoporous Adsorbents
Jhung, Sung-Hwa ; Chang, Jong-San ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2009, Pages 117~125
In order to utilize natural gas (NG), one of the clean energy sources in next-generation, as a fuel for vehicles, it is important to store natural gas with high density. To store NG by adsorption (ANG) at room temperature and at relatively low pressure(35∼40 atm) is safe and economical compared with compressed NG and liquefied NG. However, so far no adsorbent is reported to have adsorption capacity suitable for commercial applications. Nanoporous materials including metal-organic frameworks can be potential adsorbents for ANG. In this review, physicochemical properties of adsorbents necessary for high adsorption capacity are summarized. Wide surface area, large micropore volume, suitable pore size and high density are necessary for high energy density. Moreover, low adsorption-desorption energy, rapid adsorption-desorption kinetics and high delivery are needed. Recently, various efforts have been reported to utilize nanoporous materials in ANG, and it is expected to develop a nanoporous material suitable for ANG.
Trend on Development and Application of High Performance Surfactants for Detergents
Rang, Moon-Jeong ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2009, Pages 126~133
The surfactants applied in household detergents and industrial cleansers should satisfy the requirement of not just the basic function such as emulsification, solubilisation, dispersion, detergency, wetting and foaming, but also the economical efficiency and the safety to human and environment. In the viewpoint of the sustainable development, the surfactants, moreover, have to reduce raw materials and energy consumption and waste disposal when they are being manufactured and also consumed for their purposes. New high-performance surfactants have been extensively studied and developed in order to respond the change in social and economical environment. Noticeable progresses have been achieved so far, which are the significant increase in solubility and surface activity through the minor modification of existing surfactant molecular structure and the synergistic increase in a surface activity shown in the mixed surfactant system of anionic and cationic surfactants. In this review, the important and meaningful progresses achieved recently in technological advance and practical application will be summarized and discussed.
Synthesis of New 2,4-Disubstituted Thiazoles and 2-(Allylidenehydrazono)-thiazolo[5,4-b]quinoxaline Derivatives
Kim, Jong-Geun ; Bae, Sun-Kun ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2009, Pages 134~139
A series of allylidenethiosemicarbazone compounds (2a∼2e) were obtained in 45∼85% by condensing (E)-3-(aryl)acrylaldehyde (1a∼1e) with thiosemicarbazide. Theses compounds on treatment of 2,4'-dibromoacetophenone and 2,3-dichloroquinoxaline yielded 2,4-disubstituted thiazoles (3a∼3e) and 2-[(E)-3-(aryl)allylidenehydrazono]thiazolo[5,4-b]quinoxaline (4a∼4e) in good yield respectively. The structures of all the newly synthesized compounds were identified by IR and
Stability and Characterization of Triethanolamine Type Cation Surfactants
Kim, Byeong-Jo ; Kim, Hyeong-Gyu ; Lee, Jong-Ki ; Moon, Surk-Sik ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2009, Pages 140~144
Triethanolamine-type cationic surfactants were synthesized and their applications were established. The production of mono-,di-, and tri-TEA-EQ (triethanol-amine-esterquater) were dependent on the molar ratio of fatty acid and triethanolamine under the controlled reaction temperature. The structures were elucidated by
NMR. Long-term stability was dependent on the amount of mono- and tri-TEA-EQ. When the amount of mono-TEA-EQ was increased, long-term stability was increased. However, the more tri-TEA-EQ made long-term stability decreased. Softening was dependent on the amount of saturated fatty acid, and re-wettability was counted on the amount of unsaturated fatty acid. Softening was measured by the method of sense estimation e.g. touching to home-towel. Absorption was determined to calculate the height of water on a towel after treatment.
Acute Oral and Genetic Toxicity Study of ASCO EAQ80, a Novel Cationic Surfactant
Kim, Byeong-Jo ; Kim, Dong-Hyeon ; Lee, Jong-Ki ; Moon, Surk-Sik ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2009, Pages 145~153
The acute oral and genetic toxicity of ASCO EAQ80 was established in this study. ASCO EAQ80, a novel cationic surfactant produced by Aekyung Speciality Chemicals Co. LTD. is currently commercialized as a clear fabric softener. In acute oral toxicity study, the 50% lethal dose
of ASCO EAQ80 was determined to be higher than 5000 mg/kg and this product could be classified as Category 5 or Unclassified by Globally Harmonized Classification System. Also, to establish the genetoxicity of ASCO EAQ80, we performed bacterial reversion assay against Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, Escherichia coli WP2uvrA, and in vitro chromosomal aberration assay against Chinese hamster lung cells in the presence and absence of S-9 metabolic activation system. From these experiments, ASCO EAQ80 revealed nonmutagenic potential in S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA both in the absence and presence of metabolic activation system. No clastogenicity of ASCO EAQ80 was observed in chromosomal aberration assay in vitro.
Microwave Syntheses of Subphthalocyanine Derivatives and Their Properties
Kim, Jae-Hwan ; Heo, Jin ; Kang, Boo-Min ; Son, Dae-Hee ; Lee, Geun-Dae ; Hong, Seong-Soo ; Park, Seong-Soo ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2009, Pages 154~158
Subphthalocyanine (SubPc) derivatives with different kind of substitute groups were synthesized successfully from various precursors using conventional and microwave heating sources. The chemical structure of precursor and product was determined by
and FT-IR spectrometer. Also, spectroscopic property was measured by UV-Vis spectrometer. Compared to the conventional synthesis, it was found that SubPc derivatives were synthesized for a shorter reaction time with a higher synthetic yield in the microwave synthesis.
A Study Based on Molecular Orbital Theory of Polymerization of Oxetane High Explosives
Kim, Joon-Tae ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2009, Pages 159~164
Monomers of oxetane high explosives were theoretically examined in terms of reactivity, reaction mechanism and process of polymerization substituted by azido
which belong to the 5th class hazardous materials and have explosiveness under acid catalyst using MINDO/3, MNDO, and AMI methods for formal charge, heat of formation, and energy level. Nucleophilicity and base of oxetane high explosives could be explained by negative charge size of oxetane oxygen atom and reactivity of oxetane in the growth stage of polymerization under acid catalyzer could be expected to be governed by positive charge size of axial carbon atom and low LUMO energy of electrophile. It could be estimated that carbenium ion was more beneficial in the conversion process of oxetane high explosives than that of stabilization energy (13.90∼31.02 kcal/mole) of oxonium ion. In addition, concentration of oxonium ion and carbenium ion in equilibrium state influenced mechanism and it was also estimated that
1 mechanism reacts faster than that of
2 in prepolymer growth stage considering quick equilibrium based on form and calculation of polymerization under acid catalyzer.
Adsorption of Uranium (VI) Ion on Synthetic Resin Adsorbent with Styrene Hazardous Materials
Kim, Joon-Tae ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2009, Pages 165~171
Resins were synthesized by mixing 1-aza-15-crown-5 macrocyclic ligand attached to styrene (2th petroleum in 4th class hazardous materials) and divinylbenzene (DVB) copolymer with crosslinkage of 1%, 2%, 8%, and 16% by substitution reaction. The characteristic of these resins was confirmed by content of chlorine, element analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), surface area (BET), and IR-spectroscopy. The effects of pH, time, dielectric constant of solvent and crosslinkage on adsorption of metal ion by the synthetic resin adsorbent were investigated. The metal ion showed a fast adsorption on the resins above pH 3. The optimum equilibrium time for adsorption of metallic ions was about two hours. The adsorption selectivity determined in ethanol was in an increasing order of uranium
ion. The adsorption was in the order of 1%, 2%, 8%, and 16% crosslinkage resin and adsorption of resin decreased in proportion to the order of dielectric constant of solvents.
Study on Soft Etching Material Development to Improve Peel Strength between Surface of Copper and Solder Resist Ink
Kang, Yun-Jae ; Hong, Min-Eui ; Kim, Duk-Hyun ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2009, Pages 172~176
In this research, we defined the basic structure of soft etching material as
, and used additives as inhibitor, surfactant, and stabilizer. By analyzing influence to surface roughness and change of etching rate related to type and density of additives, we research to develop soft etching material having the same adhesiveness as existing etching material. As a result of research, it is estimated that after densities of
are 3%, 4% respectively, 500 ppm of amine type 5-Azol, as inhibitor, and 600 ppm of PEI, as surfactant, and 10 ppm of phosphoric acid, as stabilizer, are added, is the most reasonable surface roughness and etching rate. As result of solder test, it is estimated that solder resist ink did not peel away or curl up and have reliable adhesiveness.
Failure Analysis on Scale Formation of Thermostat Housing and Development of Accelerated Test Methodology
Cho, In-Hee ; Hyung, Sin-Jong ; Choi, Kil-Yeong ; Weon, Jong-Il ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2009, Pages 177~185
The failure analysis of scales deposited on automotive thermostat housing has been carried out. Observations using energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron probe micro analyzer indicate that the main components of scales are some of additives of coolant used. For a detailed investigation of organic matters pyrolysis-GC/MS is employed. The result shows that the main organic component is benzoic acid and furthermore, a small amount of acetophenone, benzene and phenyl group is detected. Based on the results of failure analysis performed, the scales on automotive thermostat housing appear due to the deposition of coolant components, followed by crevice corrosion, into gap between housing and rubber horse. New accelerated test methodology, which could mimic the scale formation and the crevice corrosion on thermostat housing, is developed considering the above results. In order to reproduce the real operating conditions, the accelerating factors, i.e. temperature and humidity, are changed and programmed. The reproducibility of the accelerated test proposed is confirmed after analyzing the scales obtained from the accelerated test.
Thermodynamic Analysis of DME Steam Reforming for Hydrogen Production
Park, Chan-Hyun ; Kim, Kyoung-Suk ; Jun, Jin-Woo ; Cho, Sung-Yul ; Lee, Yong-Kul ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2009, Pages 186~190
This study is purposed to analyze thermodynamic properties on the hydrogen production by dimethyl ether steam reforming. Various reaction conditions of temperatures (300∼1500 K), feed compositions (steam/carbon = 1∼7), and pressures (1, 5, 10 atm) were applied to investigate the effects of the reaction conditions on the thermodynamic properties of dimethyl ether steam reforming. An endothermic steam reforming competed with an exothermic water gas shift reaction and an exothermic methanation within the applied reaction condition. Hydrogen production was initiated at the temperature of 400 K and the production rate was promoted at temperatures exceeding 550 K. An increase of steam to carbon ratio (S/C) in feed mixture over 1.5 resulted in the increase of the water gas shift reaction, which lowered the formation of carbon monoxide. The maximum hydrogen yield with minimizing loss of thermodynamic conversion efficiency was achieved at the reaction conditions of a temperature of 900 K and a steam to carbon ratio of 3.0.
Fabrication of Hexagonally Assembled Gold Nonodots Based on Anodization of Aluminum
Lee, Joon-Ho ; Lee, Han-Sub ; Choi, Jin-Sub ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2009, Pages 191~194
Porous alumina prepared by anodization has been widely studied since it shows very regular nanostructures at inexpensive prices. In this article, porous alumina is obtained by anodization of aluminum in the oxalic acid. After the first formed oxide is selectively removed from the aluminum substrate, the hexagonal nanostructures on the fresh aluminum are converted to nanodots by the second anodization in boric acid. Nanodots are arrayed in the convex of the hexagonal nanostructures. The optimization condition for the fabrication of nanodots with a height of 20 nm is investigated in detail. Subsequently, a gold film is deposited on the nanodots, resulting in the formation of gold nanodots arrays which are probably interesting substrate for biosensor applications.
Preparation and Properties of
-Tetrakis(hydroxyethyl)cyclohexanetrans-1,4-dicarboxamide as a Crosslinker of Polyester Powder Coatings
Jung, Hong-Ryun ; Heo, Joon ; Lee, Wan-Jin ; Kim, Hyung-Jin ; Lim, Hyung-Soo ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2009, Pages 195~200
To develop a crosslinker for the polyester powder coatings,
HAA), incorporated with a cyclohexane ring within the main chain of commercial
HAA), was prepared from the amidation of dimethyl trans-1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate and diethanolamine in the presence of
, The structure of Cy-
HAA was confirmed by its NMR, FT-IR and ESI-MS spectra. Cy-
HAA was thermally more stable than
HAA. When Cy-
HAA was used as a crosslinker for the polyester powder coatings, it provided the smooth coating surface and reduced the formation of pinholes in the coating surface with comparison with
Hydrogenation of Methyl Dodecanoate Using Copper Chromite
Kang, Ho-Cheol ; Lee, Sang-Hoon ; Park, Jong-Mok ; Kim, Dong-Pyo ; Lee, Byung-Min ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2009, Pages 201~207
The hydrogenation reaction of methyl dodecanoate for the synthesis of 1-dodecanol has been carried out in the presence of a copper chromite catalyst. The catalysts were synthesized by ceramic method, co-precipitation, and improved co-precipitation method and the particles were characterized by SEM and XRD. Also, the products of the reaction were assigned by GC, GC/MSD and NMR. The particles synthesized by each method showed (1) a spherical shape with the size of 3.2 to 7.0
m, (2) an agglomerated spherical shape with the size of 50 to 500 nm and (3) a spherical shape with smaller particle size, respectively. Especially, in order to control the size of particles, the particles were synthesized in various dispersant solutions as Span 80, polyacrylate, and polyethyleneglycols (PEGs). The particles synthesized in PEG (Mw = 4000) solution showed the smallest particle size of 30 to 50 nm and the regularity of the particle size distribution. Our experimental results elucidated that the activity of catalyst for hydrogenation increases with decreasing the size of catalyst particle. The highest yield of dodecanol in the hydrogenation reaction was 95.5% when copper chromite synthesized in the PEG solution was used as a catalyst in the optimized reaction condition.
Synthesis of Biodiesel from Vegetable Oil and Their Characteristics in Low Temperature
Lim, Young-Kwan ; Kim, Dong-Kil ; Yim, Eui-Soon ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2009, Pages 208~212
Biodiesel come from animal fat and vegetable oil by methanolysis was known for eco-friendly fuel for the alternative petrodiesel. But, various kinds of biodiesel need to analyze the cold characteristic due to poor fuel properties than petrodiesel in a cold condition. In this paper, 12 types of biodiesel were synthesized in 86∼96% yields from 12 kinds of vegetable oil by transesterification. These synthesized biodiesels were analyzed in terms of the cold characteristics like cloud point, pour point, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP). The biodiesel comes from perilla oil which has rich olefin showed the excellent fuel characteristics in a low temperature.
Characteristics of Electricity Generation by Microbial Fuel Cell for Wastewater Treatment
Kim, Sun-Il ; Lee, Sung-Wook ; Kim, Kyung-Ryang ; Lee, Jae-Wook ; Roh, Sung-Hee ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2009, Pages 213~217
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been known as a new alternative energy conversion technology for treating wastewater and producing electricity simultaneously. A MFC converts the chemical energy of the organic compounds to electrical energy through microbial catalysis at the anode under anaerobic conditions. To examine the performance of MFC, in this work, the characteristics of the efficiency of wastewater treatment and generation of electricity was evaluated for sewage. When acetate as a carbon source was added into the sewage, the removal efficiency of COD was increased from 75.7% to 88.2% and the voltage was increased significantly from 0.22 V to 0.4 V. The influence of distance between anode and cathode was examined and the effect of the surface area of anode was investigated under the various external resistances. It was found that the maximum power density was
and power generation was effective when the distance between the electrodes was shorter and the surface area of the anode was smaller.
System Development for Removing Dust & Odor from Manufacturing Process of Resin Products (I)
Yun, Huy-Kwan ; Kim, Jae-Yong ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2009, Pages 218~222
As we look into the related technologies at home and abroad, the odor and dust removal technologies did not make us satisfied because its removal method is not appropriate and its economical efficiency was low. If bad odor and dust were generated simultaneously, we should install two removal factories separately, and it made a big problem. Consequently, we investigated to obtain the related basic information for a new hybrid bag filter system which can remove both odor and dust at the same time, using bag filter with ACF (dual filter type).
Low Temperature Pyrolysis for Valuable Resources Recovery from Waste Wire (I)
Han, Seong-Kuk ; Kim, Jae-Yong ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2009, Pages 223~226
In this study, we investigated the recovery of copper and synthetic fuel from the waste wire by low temperature pyrolysis which can overcome problems of the recent incineration methods. Through thermal decomposition process of waste wire, we achieved the big advantage of getting usable resources as the forms of copper and fuel with a very high value. The TG/DTA and small-scale reaction experiments were carried out to determine an optimum temperature for waste wire pyrolysis. And the pyrolysis was done at 350, 450, and 550
, respectively, and heating rate of the TG/DTA was 5
/min untill 700
. The result shows that the optimum temperature range for dehydrochlorination of PVC was 280∼350
, as a lower temperature range than 400∼550
of PE and PP. Practically over 95% of copper metal and synthetic fuel, which has the 8027 kcal/kg as a calorific value, were recovered from the waste wire samples.
Efficiency Variation of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Influenced by Phosphor Additives
Jeong, Seong-Hun ; Hwang, Gyeong-Jun ; Gang, Seong-Won ; Jeong, Hyeong-Gon ; Kim, Seon-Il ; Lee, Jae-Uk ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2009, Pages 227~233
Recently, dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), one of the solar cells, has been widely investigated. Studies on DSSCs can be classified into 4 fields such as
nanocrystalline materials, dyes, electrolytes and conductive plate. In this work,
nanoparticles for dye adsorption were synthesized, and added into the photo-electrode paste with different phosphor types and contents. Then, the influence of phosphor additives on the conversion efficiency of DSSCs was investigated. It was found that the maximum conversion efficiency was 8.81% when 0.5% of YAG phospher having the particle size of 400 nm was used.
Comparison of Magnesium Hydroxide Particles by Precipitation and Hydrothermal Treatment for Flame Retardant Application to Low Density Polyethylene and Ethylene-Co-Vinyl Acetate Resin
Hyun, Mi-Kyung ; Lim, Hyung-Mi ; Yoon, Joon-Ho ; Lee, Dong-Jin ; Lee, Seung-Ho ; Whang, Chin-Myung ; Jeong, Sang-Ok ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2009, Pages 234~240
particles were prepared by precipitation and a hydrothermal treatment to examine the effect of
concentration, alkali type and concentration, temperature, hydrothermal treatment on the formation of
particles using full factorial design, as one of DOE (Design of experiment) methods. The primary particle size is similar to the secondary particle size for the samples after the hydrothermal treatment, where the average particle size of
increased with increasing the concentration of
and hydrothermal temperature and decreasing alkali/Mg molar ratio. On the other hand, for the samples prepared from precipitation, the secondary particle size is larger than the primary particles due to aggregation. The difference in alkaline source is that the particles prepared from
exhibit the larger size with better dispersion than those from NaOH. Low density polyethylene and ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (LDPE-EVA) resin composed of the smaller secondary particle size of
shows a higher limited oxygen index (LOI) at 50 and 55% loading, but the smaller primary particle size may result in a better grade in UL-94 tests. At the high loading of 60%, all samples with any preparation methods exhibit V-0 grade but the LOI value depends on not only primary particle size but also dispersion state.