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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 21, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 21, Issue 2 - 00 2010
Volume 21, Issue 1 - 00 2010
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Chitosan Derivatives for Target of Specific Tissue in the Body
Jang, Mi-Kyeong ; Nah, Jae-Woon ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 21, issue 6, 2010, Pages 593~602
Chitosan as a natural polymer has superior physicochemical properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and nontoxicity, but application of chitosan for therapy of cancer and gene related-disease has been limited by poor solubility in aqueous solution. Therefore, low molecular weight water-soluble chitosan (LMWSC) with high reactivity and strong positive charge can be applied as a delivery system having function to carry in the specific tissue the bioactive material like poor solubility drug, or therapeutic gene and developed as a therapeutic system having good therapeutic efficiency. The most important factor for therapy of various diseases is to reveal the antigen or receptor expressed in specific lesion tissue and the antibody and ligand which can bind with antigen is to introduce at the biomaterials for enhancement the therapeutic efficiency. The studies for cationic synthetic polymer as drug or gene delivery have been actively performed, but it has many problems such as toxicity in the body, therapeutic efficiency. From this point of view, this article demonstrated the introduction of functional groups to target the specific tissue and therapeutic strategy using the modification of LMWSC with free-amine group. The development of these delivery system will provide a positive vision for cancer therapy.
Influence of Ceramide III on the Structure of a Phospholipid Lamellar Liquid Crystalline Phase Hydrated in Glycerin : Structural and Thermal Behaviors
Jeong, Kwan-Young ; Lee, Dong-Kyu ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 21, issue 6, 2010, Pages 603~609
This paper aims to investigate the lyotropic behaviors of DSPC and CER3 when they are swollen by GLY as a solvent. The analyses were carried out on DSC, XRDs, PM, and Cryo-SEM. CER3 which has its high crystallinity and structural similarity with DSPC was well arranged up to 7.0 wt% in comparison to 20 wt% DSPC without any separation, but it was separated from the liquid crystalline (LC) phase to form another crystalline phase with the expression of its characteristic peak in XRDs and eutectic thermal behavior in DSC. Introducing CER3, two types of patterns were shown in XRD spectra; one is SPP expressed in a normal LC and another is LPP expressed in human skin SC. Therefore, it was confirmed that the incorporation of CER3 makes LC structure more similar to human skin. In Cryo-SEM study, it was shown that CER3 makes LC structure thicker and denser.
A Study of Ozonation Characteristics of Bis(2-chloroethyl) Ether
Lee, Cheal-Gyu ; Kim, Moon-Chan ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 21, issue 6, 2010, Pages 610~615
In this study ozonation of bis(2-chloroethyl) ether (BCEE) in aqueous solution was performed in a laboratory scale batch reacter. The ozonation process of BCEE was carried out by bubbling ozone at the bottom of reactor containing the BCEE solution. Ozonation was almost complete after 80 min with an ozone concentration of
. Ozonation treatment efficiencies of BCEE were evaluated in terms of
, and TOC. In the ozonation of BCEE a 62.79% decrease of the
and a 57.25% decrease of the TOC lead to biodegradable by-products (
= 0.39). The results of this research show that wastewaters containing non-biodegradable compounds, such as BCEE can be successfully treated by ozonation followed by bio-treatment. The pseudo first-order rate constants of the ozonation was
and the activation energy was
Purification of Waste Organic Solvent Containing Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Acetate (PGMEA)
Yoon, Kyoung-Jin ; Lee, Woong-Mok ; Kwon, Oh-Hoon ; Kim, Jae-Yong ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 21, issue 6, 2010, Pages 616~620
This study was performed to recycle Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Acetate (PGMEA) from Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) industry emission as a waste organic solvent by using a multistage distillation column and tried to decide optimum reflux ratio. From the final experiment result, it was confirmed ; in case the sample A, the PGMEA purity is more than 98% and the moisture is less than 0.05%, on the other hand, in case the sample B, the PGMEA purity is more than 95% when the reflux ratio is 6 and the moisture is less than 0.01% (Refer to Table 1 for the contents of sample A and B). These values means fine level which can be adapted in the LCD manufacture, requiring more than 90% common purity of recycling level.
Preparation of Anion Exchange Membranes of Cross-linked Poly((vinylbenzyl)trimethylammonium chloride-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)/Poly(vinyl alcohol)
Kim, Mi-Yang ; Kim, Kwang-Je ; Kang, Ho ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 21, issue 6, 2010, Pages 621~626
Anion exchange membranes can be used for reverse electrodialysis for electric energy generation, and capacitive deionization for water purification, as well as electrodialysis for desalination. In this study, anion exchange membranes of poly((vinylbenzyl) trimethylammonium chloride-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)/poly(vinyl alcohol) were prepared through the polymerization of (vinylbenzyl)trimethylammonium chloride and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate in aqueous poly(vinyl alcohol) solutions, esterification with glutaric acid, and cross-linking reaction with glutaraldehyde. We investigated electrochemical properties for the anion exchange membranes prepared according to experimental conditions. Ion exchange capacity and electrical resistance for the membranes were changed with a variation in the monomer ratio in polymerization. Water uptake and conductivity for the membranes decreased with an increase in the content of glutaric acid in esterification. The change in the time of crosslinking reaction with the formed film and glutaraldehyde affected electrochemical properties such as water uptake, conductivity, or transport number for the membranes. Chronopotentiometry and limiting current density for the anion exchange membranes prepared were measured.
Combustion-Retardation Properties of Pinus rigida Treated with Ammonium Salts
Chung, Yeong-Jin ; Jin, Eui ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 21, issue 6, 2010, Pages 627~631
This study was performed to test the combustion-retardation properties of Pinus rigida-based materials by the treatment of ammonium salts. Pinus rigida plate was soaked by the treatment with three 20 wt% ammonium salt solutions consisting ammonium sulfate (AMSF), monoammonium phosphate (MAPP), and diammonium phosphate (DAPP), respectively, at the room temperature. After the drying specimen treated with chemicals, combustion properties were examined by the cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1). When the ammonium salts were used as the retardant for Pinus rigida, the flame retardancy improved due to the treated ammonium salts in the virgin Pinus rigida. However the specimen shows increasing CO over virgin Pinus rigida and It is supposed that toxicities depend on extents. Also, the specimen with ammonium sulfate showed both the lower total smoke release (TSR) and lower total smoke production (TSP) than those of virgin plate. Among the specimens, the sample treated with diammonium phosphate showed a strong inhibitory effect of combustion.
Development of Automatic Water Sampler with Sensor for Practical Measurement
Kim, Jin-Hyok ; Han, Seong-Kuk ; Lee, Jin-Pill ; Kim, Jae-Yong ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 21, issue 6, 2010, Pages 632~637
Considering the water quality regulation of total emission system which is enforced with hydro TMS and so on operating currently, automatic water sampler must be necessary in the viewpoint of national interest for conservation of water resources. This study aimed to develope automatic water sampler for the purpose of decreasing spends on foreign currency which is relied on import from abroad and upgrading the functional efficiency simultaneously. We have made an effort for developing results as follows with some cases. First, flow meter with a sensor equiped into automatic water sampler for field measurement which can perform linkage operation was developed. Second, remote-D/L system was developed which was able to monitor and store some transmitted data from practical measurement sensor. Also, automatic water sampler was developed in this research that operates in a sewage treatment plant, and finally, we confirmed that our system is able to apply to the field well.
The Study for Synthesis and Characteristic of
-tetra(phenoxy, 2-naphthoxy, 4-tritylphenoxy) Oxovanadium Phthalocyanine Derivatives
Son, Dae-Hee ; Heo, Jin ; Kim, Song-Hyuk ; Lee, Seung-Ho ; Lee, Gun-Dae ; Hong, Seong-Soo ; Park, Seong-Soo ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 21, issue 6, 2010, Pages 638~642
After phthalonitrile derivatives were synthesized by the introduction of phenoxy, 2-naphthoxy or 4-trityl phenoxy group on
-position, oxovanadyl phthalocyanine (VOPc) derivatives containing electron-rich substituent group at different position were synthesized successfully in this investigation. The chemical structure of samples was determined by the means of
-NMR, MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy, and FT-IR spectrometer. Also, optical and chemical properties were determined by the means of UV-Vis spectrometer, X-ray diffractometry, and thermo gravimetry. It was found that the maximum absorbing wavelength of VOPc derivatives ranged from 684 to 726 nm. Also, their solubility and Q-band were enhanced and shifted by the introduction of substitute group, respectively.
Preparation and Characterization of O-Carboxymethyl Chitosan Ion-complexed Poly(L-Lysine) for Drug and Gene Delivery System
Nam, Joung-Pyo ; Kim, Young-Min ; Park, Jin-Su ; Lee, Eung-Jae ; Choi, Chang-Yong ; Jang, Mi-Kyeong ; Nah, Jae-Woon ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 21, issue 6, 2010, Pages 643~647
O-carboxymethyl water-soluble chitosan (OCMCh) prepared for enhance the application of chitosan was modified with mthoxy polyethyleneglycol (mPEG) by ion-complex for long circulation in the blood. OCMCh-PEG-PLLs was prepared by forming ion-complex with OCMCh-PEG and Poly(L-Lysine) (PLL) for drug and gene delivery system. The physicochemcal characterisitcs of OCMCh-PEG-PLLs were investigated by FT-IR,
-NMR. These results showed that CMCh-PEG-PLLs were successfully syntehsized by ion-complex. Particle size distribution and zeta potential of the OCMCh-PEG-PLLs were determined using dynamic light scattering technique. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also used to observe the morphology of the OCMCh-PEG-PLLs. OCMCh-PEG-PLLs have spherical shapes with particle size 290∼390 nm. OCMCh-PEG-PLLs were showed when the feeding amount of mPEG ratio was increased, particle size and zeta potential were decreased. Based on these results, it is possible to introduction of the OCMCh-PEG-PLLs into various biomedical fields such as drug and gene delivery system.
Partial Oxidation of Methane to
Over Pd/Ti-SPK and Pd/Zr-SPK Catalysts and Characterization
Seo, Ho-Joon ; Kang, Ung-Il ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 21, issue 6, 2010, Pages 648~652
Catalytic activities of the partial oxidation of methane (POM) to hydrogen were investigated over Pd(5)/Ti-SPK and Pd(5)/Zr-SPK in a fixed bed flow reactor (FBFR) under atmosphere, and the catalysts were characterized by BET, XPS, XRD. The BET surface areas, pore volume and pore width of Horvath-Kawaze, micro pore area and volume of t-plot of Pd(5)/Ti-SPK and Pd(5)/Zr-SPK were
, 3.9 nm,
, repectively. The nitrogen adsorption isotherms were type IV with hysteresis. XPS showed that Si 2p and O 1s core electronlevels of Ti-SPK and Zr-SPK substituted Ti and Zr shifted to slightly lower binding energies than SPK. The oxidation states of Pd on the surface of catalysts were
. XRD patterns showed that crystal structures of fresh catalyst changed amorphous into crystal phase after reaction. The conversion and selectivity of POM to hydrogen over Pd(5)/Ti-SPK and Pd(5)/Zr-SPK were 77, 84% and 78, 72%, respectively, at 973 K,
= 2, GHSV =
and were kept constant even after 3 days in stream. These results confirm superior activity, thermal stability, and physicochemical properties of catalyst in POM to hydrogen.
Study of Fuel Properties for Biodiesel Derived from Duck's Oil
Lim, Young-Kwan ; Lee, Cheon-Ho ; Jung, Choong-Sub ; Yim, Eui-Soon ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 21, issue 6, 2010, Pages 653~658
Biodiesel is well known for an eco-friendly alternative fuel for petrodiesel. But biodiesel has a disadvantage since it is derived from expensive food resource. In this study, we synthesized the biodiesel from duck's oil which was food trash via transesterification under base catalyst. After analytic result of density, kinematic viscosity, cold temperature characteristics, lubricity and cetane number which were main fuel characteristics, this duck's biodiesel has enough potential to use as fuel except only domestic winter season.
Optimal Culture Conditions for Photosynthetic Microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata
Park, Hyun-Jin ; Jin, Eun-Jung ; Jung, Tae-Man ; Joo, Hyun ; Lee, Jae-Hwa ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 21, issue 6, 2010, Pages 659~663
Microalgae has been seen all over the seawater and several species are used for human food. Specially, Nannochloropsis oculata, a photosynthetic microalgae, has been focused for a vast array of valuable nutritious compounds. In order to find high mass Nannochloropsis oculata culture conditions, some of important growth factors of pH, temperature, culture media, and
effect were tested. The optimal growth condition was found to be as follows : 3% artificial seawater, initial pH 8.5, and temperature
. The alga mass and chlorophyll content were dramatically increased by applying 5% flue
gas (1.50 g/L algae in a continuous
flue; 0.76 g/L alga without
). It was shown that the chlorophyll biosynthesis was also closely associated with alga growth.
Pyrolysis and Combustion Characteristics of an Pinus densiflora for the Protection of Forest Resources
Park, Jin-Mo ; Kim, Seung-Soo ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 21, issue 6, 2010, Pages 664~669
The forest area of domestic is 6370304 ha, which covers 70% of the whole country, and especially Gangwon-do is remarkably larger than other Province. A thick forest of the country has the most basic component among other natural environments as well as it has invaluable worth to human being such as scientific research and educational value. However due to the breakout of forest fire since 1990s, the loss of trees, destruction of natural environment and ecology, economic damage have been occurring and its scale also has become larger. The causes of becoming larger in scale are resulted from forest components which mainly consist of needle leaf trees, wide leaf trees, fallen leaves, herbaceous plants so that it has been a direct cause for forest fire. However, few research on combustion and pyrolysis characteristics has been done in domestic and abroad. The study on the combustion and pyrolysis for Pinus densiflora which are typical needle leaf trees has been tried using TGA. Pinus desiflora started to being ignited at around
and pyrolysis was done at around
. Differential method was applied to calculate activation energy and frequency factor according to the variation of conversion. Activation energy in pyrolysis was increased from 79 kJ/mol to 487 kJ/mol with increasing conversion and average activation energy was 195 kJ/mol. The activation energy in combustion was decreased from 148 kJ/mol to 133 kJ/mol.
Synthesis of Vinyl-nano Silica Ball Composite : Its Application to Clearcoat
Kim, Bong-Gyeom ; Park, Gun-Hee ; Lee, Yong-Hwa ; Noh, Seung-Man ; Lee, Jae-Woo ; Park, Seung-Kyu ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 21, issue 6, 2010, Pages 670~675
Inorganic-organic hybrid material such as vinyl-nano sized silica ball was synthesized by acrylo-alkoxysilane and nano silica ball with different particle size. And then they were formulated into acrylic-melamine clearcoat. This material is fully characterized with various analytical methods and applied for strength measurement. The glossy effect, matting effect and anti-scratching properties of materials were investigated for further growth and maintenance. When the particle size of nano silica ball is 20~30 nm, the glossy retain effect was increased by 7% compared to bare acrylic-melamine clearcoat. When a commercially available silica Aerosil 200 (Hydrophilic fumed silica, average particle size 12 nm, Degussa) react with vinyl alkoxysilane vinyl-fumed silica complex form. The vinyl-fumed silica along with clearcoat increases only 2% increase at glossy retain. Nano-scratch test results also support the glossy retain effect of vinyl nano-sized silica ball in clearcoat.
Thermal Plasma Synthesis of Nano Composite Particles
Jeong, Min-Hee ; Kim, Heon-Chang ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 21, issue 6, 2010, Pages 676~679
Nano composite particles were synthesized from a bulk ZrVFe alloy ingot by transferred DC thermal plasma. Effects of plasma gas flow rate on the characteristics of the produced nano composite particles were investigated. The characteristics of the synthesized powder were analyzed by field scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), light scattering particle size analyzer (PSA), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer. As the flow rate of plasma gas increased from 20 L/min to 40 L/min, the average particle size decreased from 91 nm to 55 nm, the particle size distribution became narrower, the surface area increased from
, the particle composition was nearly unaffected, and the particle crystallinity was improved.
Reduction of Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted from Automobile Felt by Activated Carbon and Hollow Core/Mesoporous Shell Carbon Ball
Park, Seung-Kyu ; Kim, Heon-Chang ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 21, issue 6, 2010, Pages 680~683
Nano carbon balls (NCBs), activated carbons (ACs) and their mixture (new carbon mixtures, NCMs) were used to reduce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the automobile felt. The optimum analytical method to measure the trace amount of the VOCs, including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, has been established by utilizing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). The levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde released from newly produced felt were in the ranges of 0.3~6.0 ppm and 0.2~3.0 ppm, respectively. After 14 days of aging at the room temperature, however, their levels were still in the ranges of 0.2~0.5 ppm and 0.2~0.4 ppm, respectively. By applying NCMs of 2 wt% to the automobile felt, the amount of the total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) was reduced under the chronic inhalation minimum risk level of
The Effect of Lubricity Improvement by Biodiesel Components
Lim, Young-Kwan ; Park, So-Ra ; Kim, Jong-Ryeol ; Yim, Eui-Soon ; Jung, Choong-Sub ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 21, issue 6, 2010, Pages 684~688
Biodiesel produced from the reaction of methanol and triglyceride which is the main component of animal fats and vegetable oils is known for remarkable lubricity. In this study, the lubricity of 3 kinds of biodiesel came from vegetable oils such as soybean oil, palm oil, and perilla oil and 2 kind of biodiesel which were produced from beef tallow and pork lard were analyzed using HFRR (High frequency reciprocating rig). In HFRR test result, the lubricity of perilla and soybean's biodiesel was higher than other biodiesels. After analysis of biodiesel components by GC-MS and determination of the lubricity of pure biodiesel components using HFRR, it was found that a higher olefin content and long alkyl chaining biodiesel had an excellent lubricity property.
Amperometric Kinetics of Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor Bound with Natural Rubber
Rhyu, Keun-Bae ; Yoon, Kil-Joong ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 21, issue 6, 2010, Pages 689~693
When natural rubber dissolved in toluene comes into use as a binder of carbon powder, the volatilization of solvent just after the construction of biosensor brought the mechanical robustness on the paste. This characteristic satisfied the pre-requisite condition for the practical use of carbon paste electrode and a biosensor for the determination of hydrogen peroxide was designed. In order to evaluate its electrochemical qualitative and quantitative behaviors, various electrochemical kinetic parameters of the electrode, e.g. the symmetry factor (
, 0.37), the exchange current density (
), the capacitance of double layer (
), the time constant (
, 0.92 s), the maximum current (
), the Michaelis constant (
) and others were investigated. Results show that natural rubber is a promising binder of carbon powder.
Synthesis and Characterization of Doped Silicon Nanoparticles by a Solution Route
Kwon, Ha-Young ; Lim, Eun-Hee ; Lee, Sung-Koo ; Lee, Kyeong-K. ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 21, issue 6, 2010, Pages 694~696
We have synthesized boron (or phosphorous) doped silicon nanoparticles (Si-NPs) by a solution process. The surfaces of the Si-NPs were terminated with various alkyl groups to form a protecting layer. The Si-NPs were characterized by UV-Vis, PL, FTIR, and NMR. Through a microwave sintering process, the crystalline thin films of the Si-NPs were prepared by removing the surface alkyl groups. The TEM and SEM images reveal that contiguous films as large as
in diameter were formed with a cubic structure. The electrical conductivity of the Si film was controlled by a doping type.
A Study on Reactions of Palladium Anode Catalyst in Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cells
Han, Jong-Hee ; Kim, Jin-Soo ; Yoon, Sung-Pil ; Nam, Suk-Woo ; Lim, Tae-Hoon ; Kwon, Yong-Chai ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 21, issue 6, 2010, Pages 697~701
We investigate the cell performance and characteristics of a direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) using palladium (Pd) as a catalyst for anode. Pd is deposited on the electrolyte using the "direct paint" method. From a continuous three time-test of the polarization curve of the DFAFC, it is found that the catalytic activity of Pd and the cell performance of DFAFC steadily degrade as the tests are proceeded. This behavior may be due to the deactivation of Pd by formate (COOH) and hydroxyl (OH) groups, which are electrochemically dissociated from formic acid solution. Estimations of the degradation, followed by reactivation in activity of Pd catalyst and DFAFC cell performance are implemented by linear voltage sweep tests going in both positive and negative directions. When the maximum voltage of 1.0 V versus DHE is applied to the cell while a linear voltage sweep test going in negative directions, the activity of Pd catalyst and the DFAFC cell performance recover by the rehabilitation in activity of the deactivated Pd.