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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Applied Chemistry for Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
The Function and Application of Antibiotic Peptides
Lee, Jong-Kook ; Gopal, Ramamourthy ; Park, Yoonkyung ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 2011, Pages 119~124
Currently, people are exposed to many harmful diseases. Therefore, there are many schemes, such as automation of productive facilities, development of information and communication technology, enhanced the quality of human life and wealth. However, these processes lead to weakened immune system. Thus, people are more vulnerable to infections from pathogens and environmental stress. Misuse and abuse of drugs resulted in the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant microbes and tumors, therefore, to find new antibiotics are urgently needed. One of them is a peptide-antibiotic, that is not or less occurred a drug-resistance, comparing to conventional drugs. Peptides with various antibiotic activities have been identified from life organisms. The present review provides an overview of activities and application of peptide antibiotics.
Understanding of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane for a Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell (URFC)
Jeong, Ho-Yeong ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 2011, Pages 125~132
A unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) as a next-generation fuel cell technology was considered in the study. URFC is a mandatory technology for the completion of the hybrid system with the fuel cell and the renewable energy sources, and it can be expected as a new technology for the realization of hydrogen economy society in the
century. Specifically, the recent research data and results concerning the polymer electrolyte membrane for the URFC technology were summarized in the study. The prime requirements of polymer electrolyte membrane for the URFC applications are high proton conductivity, dimensional stability, mechanical strength, and interfacial stability with the electrode binder. Based on the performance of the polymer electrolyte membrane, the URFC technology combining the systems for the production, storage, utilization of hydrogen can be a new research area in the development of an advanced technology concerning with renewable energy such as fuel cell, solar cell, and wind power.
Size Control and Dispersion Properties of Illite Clay by Physicochemical Treatment
Lim, Jae Won ; Jeong, Euigyung ; Seo, Kyeong-Won ; Lee, Young-Seak ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 2011, Pages 133~137
In this study, illite was size-reduced using a wet-ball-milling treatment to improve its dispersion. Changes in illite particle size, size distribution, and dispersion characteristics after varying the treatment period were investigated. And the dispersion and dispersion stability of illite solution after 2 h wet ball milling treatment with different pH conditions were also evaluated. The illite particle size significantly decreased as the treatment time increased and the size reduction effect of wet ball milling deteriorated above 2 h treatment time. In addition, illite particle size was more evenly distributed as the treatment time increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that no crystal structural changes of illite were induced, but the characteristic peak of illite the weaker due to the size reduction and exfoliation, as the treatment time increased. Zeta potential analysis showed that the illite dispersion improved, as the treatment time increased. The illite wet-ball-mill treated at pH 2 had the lowest dispersion stability. Illite dispersion and dispersion stability increased as pH increased, due to the increase in surface ionization. Hence, the results showed that as the treatment time increased, the illite particle size decreased, and dispersion and dispersion stability improved due to the increase in surface energy and repulsion force between particles.
The Effect of Crystallization by Heat Treatment on Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Efficiency of Carbon Fibers
Kim, Jong Gu ; Chung, Choul Ho ; Lee, Young-Seak ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 2011, Pages 138~143
To investigate the electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency (EMI SE) property based on heat treatment effects of carbon fibers in various temperatures, the polyacrilonitrle-based carbon fibers were prepared by electrospinning method and treated at 1073, 1323, 1873 and 2573 K. The surface morphology of carbon fibers was investigated by using FE-SEM and the carbon crystallization was studied by Raman spectroscopy based on effects of reaction temperatures. The electrical conductivity was obtained by measuring the surface resistance with four probe method on carbon crystallization. The permittivity, permeability and EMI SE were investigated by using S-parameter in the range of 800~4500 MHz. In case of carbon fibers treated at 2573 K, the improved carbon crystallization was confirmed by Raman spectrum and the enhanced electrical conductivity showing 54.7 S/cm was also observed. The permittivity was dramatically improved by factor of 4 based on effect of high reaction temperature. Eventually, the highly improved EMI SE value was obtained showing around 41.7 dB.
TMTD, MBTS, and CBS Accelerator Effects on a Silica Filled Natural Rubber Compound upon Vulcanization Properties
Kim, Sung Min ; Nam, Chae Seok ; Kim, Kwang Jae ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 2011, Pages 144~148
Various types of accelerators, thiuram (TMTD), thiazole (MBTS), and sulfenamide (CBS) are added into a silica filled natural rubber (NR) compound. Their effects on vulcanization properties are also investigated. TMTD shows a fast vulcanization rate and a higer maximum torque (
), as well as excellent mechanical properties (hardness, 300% modulus, tensile strength, elongation). MBTS shows a moderate vulcanization rate, a lower
, and mechanical properties. Finally, CBS shows a slow vulcanization rate but excellent mechanical properties. The same vulcanization trend can be found in carbon black filled NR compounds.
Aging Property Studies on Rubber Gasket for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Stack
Kang, Dong-Gug ; Hur, Byung-Ki ; Lee, Dong-Won ; Seo, Kwan-Ho ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 2011, Pages 149~154
In order to explore properties of various rubber compounds after thermal aging under the condition similar to the operating environment of a fuel cell-stack, heat resistance and compression set of those compounds were investigated for a long term operation in
, and LLC (ethylene glycol :
= 50 : 50) solution. It was assumed that aging Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and Elthylene Propylene diene rubber (EDPM) compound in the solution resulted in discoloration as time passed. It was also found that hydrolysis was developed on the Silicone rubber (VMQ) compound intentionally aged under acidic condition by means of TGA, SEM, and EDS analysis.
Production of Lard Based Biodiesel Using Ultrasound Assisted Trans-Esterification
Cho, Hae-Jin ; Lee, Seung-Bum ; Lee, Jae-Dong ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 2011, Pages 155~160
An animal fat is an attractive biodiesel energy source for its high stability against oxidation and low incomplete combustion ratio due to the high heating value and cetane value. However, it requires a refinery process because of the high content of saturated acid and impurity which increas the boiling point. In this study, the optimum biodiesel synthetic process of lard is suggested. Indeed, we demonstrate new biodiesel production processes to alter conventional process of heating and mixing by applying ultrasonic energy. While the optimum reaction temperature and mole ratio of methanol and lard, when using conventional mixing and heating process, were 55
and 12, respectively, the reaction time were reduced to 30 minutes by applying ultrasonic irradiation power of 500 W. The new process applying ultrasonic irradiation yielded synthetic biodiesel properties as followings: 3.34 cP of the viscosity, 37.0 MJ/kg of the caloric value and below 0.25 mgKOH/g of the acidic value, which satisfy biodiesel quality criteria.
The Effect of Pt and La Promoted on Cobalt-Based Catalyst for
Lee, Hye-Hyun ; Song, Sang-Hoon ; Chang, Tae-Sun ; Hong, Ji-Sook ; Suh, Jeong-Kwon ; Lee, Chang-Yong ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 2011, Pages 161~166
dry reforming reaction, which converts carbon dioxide to hydrogen and carbon monoxide, is typical endothermic reaction, and also known as adverse reaction owing to thermodynamics. In order to overcome the problem, the development studies of suitable catalyst based on precious metals for high durability of thermal and optimization of life time have been examined but it had economical problem by high cost. In this study, we confirmed optimum contents of Pt and La with such different contents of Pt (0.02~0.2 wt%) or La (2~20 wt%) over Co/
which prepared for excellent activity and cost-effective catalysts. As a result, the promoted catalysts with 0.04 wt% Pt or 9 wt% La over Co/
showed the highest activity which is 57% and 55%
conversion respectively. Also, the particle size of cobalt on the promoted catalysts with 0.04 wt% Pt or 9 wt% La by characterization of catalyst could confirm the smallest particle size in this study. Therefore, it could know that particle size of cobalt had effected the stability and reactivity of catalysts due to the contents of Pt and La.
Electrochemical Behaviors of Pt-Ru Catalysts on the Surface Treated Mesoporous Carbon Supports for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Kim, Byeong-Ju ; Seo, Min-Gang ; Choe, Gyeong-Eun ; Park, Su-Jin ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 2011, Pages 167~172
In this work, the effect of surface treatment on mesoporous carbons (MCs) supports was investigated by analyzing surface functional groups. MCs were prepared by a conventional templating method using mesoporous silica (SBA-15) for using catalyst supports in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The MCs were treated with different phosphoric acid (
) concentrations i.e., 0, 1, 3, 4, and 5 M at 343 K for 6 h. And then Pt-Ru was deposited onto surface treated MCs (H-MCs) by chemical reduction method. The characteristics of Pt-Ru catalysts deposited onto H-MCs were determined by specific surface area and pore size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron, transmission electron microscopy, and inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The electrochemical properties of Pt-Ru/H-MCs catalysts were also analyzed by cyclic voltammetry experiments. From the results of surface analysis, an oxygen functional group was introduced to the surface of carbon supports. From the results, the H4M-MCs carbon supports surface treated with 4 M
led to uniform dispersion of Pt-Ru onto H4M-MCs, resulting in enhancing the electro-catalytic activity of Pt-Ru catalysts.
type Mesoporous Materials Using Alum Sludge
Kang, Kwang Cheol ; Kim, Young Ho ; Kim, Jin Man ; Lee, Choul Ho ; Rhee, Seog Woo ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 2011, Pages 173~177
In this study, the formation of
type porous materials from alum sludge was investigated. The materials were synthesized by the reaction of aluminum hydroxide and phosphoric acid with an organic template. Cationic surfactant, natural humic acid, and amino acids were used for the organic template. The residual organic templates were removed by calcination at 600
in the air. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns showed the charicteristic patterns of the
type porous materials. The morphology of the material was examined using a scanning electron microscopy. The coordination environment of
ion was investigated by
MAS NMR technique. Both tetrahedrally and octahedrally coordinated
ions were found in the as-synthesized samples while all
ions were tetrahedrally coordinated in the calcined products. The development of mesopore in the solid material was confirmed by the measurement of BET specific surface area. Finally, they were used for removal of toxic formaldehyde from the air and the formaldehyde molecules were adsorbed on the surface of pores. In conclusion,
type porous materials from alum sludge might be applicable in the removal of toxic volatile organic compounds from the air.
Antibacterial, Antioxidative and Antiaging Effects of Allium cepa Peel Extracts
Kim, Jung Eun ; Kim, A Reum ; Kim, Min Ji ; Park, Soo Nam ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 2011, Pages 178~184
In this study, the antibacterial, antioxidative and inhibitory effects of Allium cepa peel extracts on tyrosinase and elastase were investigated. MIC values of the ethyl acetate fraction of Allium cepa peel on especially, S. aureus among the skin resident flora (Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus; Propionibacterium acnes, P. acnes; Pityrosporum ovale, P. ovale; Escherichia coli, E. coli) were 0.06%. The aglycone fraction showed more excellent free radical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, DPPH) scavenging activity (
). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities (
) of the ethyl acetate fraction and aglycone fraction in the luminol-dependent
system were 0.05 and 0.03
, respectively. The cellular protective effect of the aglycone fraction on the rose-bengal sensitized photohemolysis of human erythrocytes exhibited more prominent (
, 480 min at 25
). The inhibitory effects (
) of the ethyl acetate fraction and aglycone fraction on tyrosinase were 9.16 and 8.68
, the inhibitory effect (
) of the aglycone fraction on elastase was 14.12
The transepidermal water loss of the cream containing 0.1% ethyl acetate fraction was decreased from 8.3
in control to 6.8
in the subjects applied with cream containing the ethyl acetate fraction. These results indicate that extract/fractions of Allium cepa peel can function as antioxidant in biological systems, particularly skin exposed to UV radiation by scavenging
and other ROS, and protect cellular membranes against ROS, and possibly as antiaging agents. Allium cepa peel extract could be used as a new cosmeceutical for whitening and anti-wrinkle products.
Preparation and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Spinel Ferrites by Chemical Co-precipitation
Shen, Jiao-Wen ; Lim, Yun-Hui ; Jo, Yeong-Min ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 2011, Pages 185~189
In this work, nano-sized M-ferrites (M=Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) for the decomposition of carbon dioxide were synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation. From the thermogravimetric analysis, it was clear that the maximum weight loss of each sample took place below 350
. High temperature calcination resulted in more systematic crystallines, smaller specific surface area and larger particle size. An analysis by FTIR in the range of 375~406
revealed the presence of chelates at the octahedral site, which implies the formation of spinel structure in the ferrites. The current work showed that a 500
is the optimum heat treatment temperature of metal ferrites for
Effects of Multi-layer and
Electrode in Dye-sensitized Solar Cell
Kim, Gyeong-Ok ; Kim, Gi-Won ; Jo, Gwon-Gu ; Ryu, Gwang-Seon ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 2011, Pages 190~195
To investigate the photon-trapping effect and scattering layer effect of
multi-layer in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and the degree of recombination of electrons at the electrode treated
, we formed electrodes of different conditions and obtained the most optimal electrode conditions. To estimate characteristics of the cell, IV curve, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) were measured. As a result, we confirmed that the multi-layer's efficiency was higher than that of monolayer in the IV curve and the performance of
treated electrode was increased according to decreasing the impedance of EIS. Among several conditions, the efficiency of the cell with scattering layer is higher than that of a layer with the base electrode about 19%. Because the light scattering layer enhances the efficiency of the transmission wavelength and has long electron transfer path. Therefore, the value of the short circuit current increases approximately 10% and IPCE in the maximum peak also increases about 12%.
Synthesis and Lubricating Properties of Succinic Acid Alkyl Ester Derivatives
Baek, Seung-Yeob ; Kim, Young-Wun ; Chung, Keun-Wo ; Yoo, Seung-Hyun ; Park, Su-Jin ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 2011, Pages 196~202
In this paper, a series of alkyl succinic acid esters for base oil were synthesized by condensation reaction of succinic anhydride and fatty alcohol. The structures of the synthesized esters were confirmed by
-NMR, FT-IR spectrum and GC analysis. Basic properties of esters such as kinematic viscosity (KV), refractive index (RI), total acid number (TAN) and pour points were measured and lubricating properties such as SRV wear scar diameter (SRV WSD), fraction coefficient (COF) and 4-ball wear (4-ball WSD) were also evaluated. As the results of basic properties, KV, RI and pour point of synthetic esters increased as the carbon chain of the esters increased. Measurement value of total acid number (TAN) was indicated between 0.2~4 mgKOH/g, and that metal working fluids and pressure working oils are acceptable to use as base oil. Also, lubricating properties of the esters showed as follows: 0.391~0.689 mm of SRV WSD, 0.110~0.138 of SRV COF and 0.49~0.55 mm of 4-ball WSD depended on the structure of the esters. In a comparison on the lubrication capacity of the SRV test based on polyester TMPTO, SRV WSD result showed that a better performance caused by the alkyl group. On the other hand, SRV COF test was not influenced of the alkyl group which the capacity of the lubricant was sightly diminished than the comparison material, regardless of the alkyl group.
Effect of Effluent Recirculation and Internal Return on the Performance of UASB Process
Kim, Jin-Hyok ; Han, Seong-Kuk ; Kwon, Oh-Hoon ; Yoon, Kyung-Jin ; Kim, Jae-Yong ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 2011, Pages 203~208
Dumping of wastes at sea will be strongly prohibited from 2012 by London Dumping Convention. So, finding the method for treatment of food waste at ground is needed urgently. The solution for above mentioned problem is the resource development from food waste leachate by using Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) process. In this research, we try to find out the effect of effluent recirculation and internal return influence on organic removal efficiency and biogas production. Laboratory investigation was conducted for 25 days with only internal recycling, and then, effluent recirculation was performed. As the result of experiments, the organic removal efficiency was above 90%, and the content of methane was 78~80% during operating time. Also, when UASB reactor was operated to over the 3 Q effluent recirculation, there was not 1 N-NaOH consumption any more, therethrough the experiment was economically and stably carried out.
Facile Preparation of Nanoporous Silica Aerogel Granules
Kim, Nam Hyun ; Hwang, Ha Soo ; Park, In ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 2011, Pages 209~213
Hydrophobic silica aerogel beads with low thermal conductivity and high porosity were prepared using a cost-effective sodium silicate as a silica source via an ambient-pressure drying process. Monolithic wet gels were first prepared by adjusting pH ~5) of a diluted sodium silicate solution. The silica aerogel beads (0.5~20 mm) were manufactured by breaking the wet gel monoliths under a simultaneous solvent exchange/surface modification process and an ambient-pressure drying process without using co-precursors or templates. Dried silica aerogel beads exhibit a comparable porosity (593
of surface area, 34.9 nm of pore size, and 4.4
of pore volume) to that of the aerogel powder prepared in the same conditions. Thermal conductivity of the silica aerogel beads (19.8 mW/mK at 20
) is also identical to the aerogel powder.
Synthesis of Zeolite A from Coal Fly Ash
Jee, Jeong-Dae ; Choi, Ko-Yeol ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 2011, Pages 214~218
Zeolite A was synthesized from coal fly ash by the microwave heating as well as the conventional heating method. The effects of reaction time, the amount of sodium aluminate, and the reaction temperature on the crystallization of zeolite A were investigated. The optimum crystallization time was about 3 to 6 h in the temperature range of 80~100
. The amount of sodium aluminate was found to be optimum when the molar ratio
of starting solution was in the range of 0.44 to 1.05 at above 90
, However, The more amount of sodium aluminate was required to get zeolite A at 80
. Although the rate of crystallization was slightly faster in the microwave heating than that in the conventional heating, the reaction time need to obtain fully crystallized zeolite A was similar in both methods. Therefore, the influence of the microwave heating was not so large compared with the conventional heating in the synthesis of zeolite A from coal fly ash.
A Study on SOx Emission Characteristics in Coal Combustion
Kang, Youn Suk ; Kim, Sung Su ; Lee, Hyun Dong ; Kim, Jae-Kwan ; Hong, Sung Chang ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 2011, Pages 219~223
The characteristics of SOx emission were investigated using SM (India) coal and Berau, C&A (Austria) coal. Experiments were performed in two different ways. In the first type of experiment, the temperature in the furnace was increased and the, samples were combusted at the ignition temperature after filling the furnace with coal. The second experimental method was to add the coal to after maintaining a constant temperature. The results demonstrated that SOx emission from coal combustion depended upon the sulfur content. In the case of Berau coal and C&A coal, an enhancement of combustibility which was accomplished by increasing the combustion temperature, an increase in airflow and decrease in particle size of coals tended to increase
generation. Conversely, in the case of SM coal, the concentration of
tended to decrease, because the high contents of
in the ashes increased the oxidation power of coal itself, which oxidized
. In the case of C&A coal, the
peak was only observed twice. This was thought to be caused by the thermal transfer rate from the surface to the interior of the coal.
Study on Adsorption Characteristics of Erythrosine Dye from Aqeous Solution Using Activated Carbon
Lee, Jong-Jib ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 2011, Pages 224~229
Adsorption characteristics of erythrosine dye onto the activated carbon has been investigated in a batch system with respect to initial concentration, contact time and temperature. Kinetic studies of the adsorption of erythrosine were carried out at 298 K, using aqueous solutions with 100, 250 and 500 mg/L concentration of erythrosine. The adsorption process followed a pseuo second order model, and the adsorption rate constant (k2) decreased with increasing the initial concentration of erythrosine. The equilibrium process can be well discribed by Freundlich isotherm in the temperature range from 298 to 318 K. Free energy of adsorption (
), enthalpy (
), and entropy (
) change were calculated to predict the nature the adsorption. The estimated values for
were -3.72~-9.62 kJ/mol over the activated carbon at 250 mg/L, indicated toward a spontaneous process. The positve value for
indicates that the adsorption of erythrosine dye on activated carbon is an endothermic process.
Organic-inorganic Hybrid Materials for Spin Coating Hardmask
Yu, Je Jeong ; Hwang, Seok-Ho ; Kim, Sang Bum ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 22, issue 2, 2011, Pages 230~234
In this work, the primary material for a single layered hardmask which can afford a spin-on process was prepared by the minture of organic and inorganic sources. The preparation of hybrid polymer was attempted by esterification from silanol terminated siloxane compounds and acetonide-2,2-bis(methoxy)propionic acid. The optical, thermal and morphological properties of the test hardmask film was examined in terms of cross-linking agent and additives. In addition, the etch rate of hardmask film and photo resist layer were compared. The hybrid polymer prepared from organic and inorganic materials was found to be useful for hardmask film to form the nano-patterns.