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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 23, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
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Rechargeable Zn-air Energy Storage Cells Providing High Power Density
Park, Dong-Won ; Kim, Jin Won ; Lee, Jae Kwang ; Lee, Jaeyoung ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2012, Pages 359~366
Zn-Air energy storage cell is an attractive type of batteries due to its theoretical gravimetric energy density, cost-effective structure and environmental-friendly characteristics. The chargeability is the most critical in various industrial applications such as smart portable device, electric vehicle, and power storage system. Thus, it is necessary to reduce large overpotential of oxygen reduction/evolution reaction, the irreversibility of Zn anode, and carbonation in alkaline electrolyte. In this review, we try to introduce recent studies and developments of bi-functional air cathode, enhanced charge efficiency via modification of Zn anode structure, and blocking side reactions applying hybrid organic-aqueous electrolyte for high power density rechargeable Zn-Air energy storage cells.
Separation of Non-Metallic Components in Waste Printed Circuit Boards (WPCBs) using Organic Solvent and Potassium Phosphate Solution
Lee, Jae-Cheon ; Jeong, Jin Ki ; Kim, Jong Seok ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2012, Pages 367~371
Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) contain valuable metals such as Cu, Ni, Au, Ag, and Pd. For an effective recycling of WPCBs, it is essential to recover the valuable metals. In recent years, recycling processes have come to be necessary for separating noble metals from WPCBs due to an increasing amount of electronic device wastes. However, it is well known that glass reinforced epoxy resins in the WPCBs are difficult materials to separate into elemental components, namely metals, glass fibers and epoxy resins in the chemical recycling process.
as a catalyst in dimethylformamide (DMF) and N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) was used to depolymerize epoxy resins for recovering metallic and non-metallic components from WPCBs. Reactions of WPCBs were carried out at temperatures
for 2~12 h. The recycled glass fiber from WPCBs was analyzed by thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and evaluated the degree of solubility of the epoxy resin for separation efficiencies of the WPCBs.
Effect of Wrapping Treatment on the Dispersion of MWNT in CNT/ABS/SAN Composites
Kim, Sung Tae ; Park, Hae Youn ; No, Tae Kyeong ; Kang, Dong Gug ; Jeon, Il Ryeon ; Seo, Kwan Ho ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2012, Pages 372~376
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are considered as one of ideal nano-fillers in the field of composites with their excellent electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties. Therefore CNT composites are increasingly used in fabricating conductive materials, structural materials with high strength and low weight, and multifunctional materials. The main problem of the CNT composites is difficulty in the dispersion of CNT in the polymer matrix. In this study multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were pretreated by the physical process utilizing a wrapping method. After the pretreatment polymer/MWNT nanocomposites were prepared by melt processing. The effect of functionalization MWNT by wrapping with styrene acrylonitrile (SAN) on the mechanical and electrical properties of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resin (ABS)/MWNT composites was studied by comparing the properties of ABS mixed with the neat MWNT. Electrical and mechanical properties of ABS/MWNT nanocomposites were studied as a function of the functionalization and content of MWNT. The tensile strength of the ABS/MWNT nanocomposites increased, but the impact strength decreased. The polymer wrapping in ABS system has little effect on the improvement of electrical properties.
Effect of Cd Concentration on Characteristics of CdS Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition
Jung, SungHee ; Chung, CheeWon ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2012, Pages 377~382
CdS thin films have been widely used as a buffer layer of CIGS semiconductor solar cells to reduce the lattice mismatch between transparent electrode and absorber layer. In order to prepare the CdS films with high transparency and low resistivity, they were deposited by varying Cd concentration with the constant S concentration in the solution using chemical bath deposition method. They were analyzed in terms of structural, optical and electrical properties of CdS films according to the
ratio. In the case of Cd concentration higher than S concectration, CdS thin films were formed mainly by cluster- by-cluster formation due to the homogeneous reaction between Cd and S in the solution. Therefore the grain size increased and the transmittance decreased. On the other hand, in the case of Cd concentration lower than S concentration, CdS films were formed by heterogeneous reaction on the substrate rather than in the solution. The CdS films have the grains with the uniform circular shape of a few hundreds
. As the Cd concentration increased in the solution, the
ratio decreased and the resistivity decreased by the increase in the carrier concentration due to the formation S vacancy by the excess Cd.
Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon Dioxide Sorbent by using Polyethyleneimine Impregnated Fumed Silica Particles
Hwang, Ha Soo ; Park, In ; Lee, Il Ki ; Choi, Won Jun ; Lee, Sang Il ; Lee, Jun-Young ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2012, Pages 383~387
This paper presents an easy way to prepare carbon dioxide sorbent by using commercially available fumed silica particles (AEROSIL). AEROSIL was impregnated with various concentration of polyethyleneimine (PEI) in methanol and
capture ability was analyzed by thermo gravity analysis (TGA). The
adsorption capacity of 50 wt% PEI-impregnated AEROSIL was 126.2 mg/g-sorbent at
and this capacity was substantially higher than that of the mesoporous silica such as HMS (101.0 mg/g-sorbent) and MSU-J (66.1 mg/g-sorbent).
A Study on the Molecular Weight Control and Rheological Properties of Branched Polycarbonate
Lee, Bom Yi ; Dahal, Prashanta ; Kim, Hee Seung ; Yoo, Seung Yoon ; Kim, Youn Cheol ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2012, Pages 388~393
Branched polycarbonates (B-PCs) were synthesized using melt polymerization method with four different end capping agents and vaying concentrations. The chemical structure of the synthesized PC was determined by FT-IR and
spectroscopy, and the reaction of the end capping agent was confirmed by the existence of hydroxy group in FT-IR spectrum. The average molecular weight and distribution, glass transition and degradation temperatures were determined by GPC, DSC and TGA. The average molecular weight changed with the chemical structure of end capping agent, and 4-tert-butylphenol was estimated as the optimum end capping agent. The average molecular weights of B-PCs decreased with the increase of the concentration of the agent, the number average molecular weight represented 20000 when 0.05 mol% of 4-tert-butylphenol was added to B-PCs. The melt viscosities of the B-PCs decreased with the decrease of the molecular weight of B-PCs, and adding of the agent was not effected to shear thinning tendency.
Reaction Optimization for Enzymatic Synthesis of Astragalin
Lee, Seul Bi ; Chung, Dae-won ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2012, Pages 394~398
Astragalin (AS), kaempferol monoglycoside, is classified as a polyphenol, and a minute quantity of AS is known to be present in several plants. Recently, it was reported that AS can be prepared by the partial hydrolysis of camelliaside A (CamA) and camelliaside B (CamB) in the tea seed extract (TSE) in the presence of a commercial enzyme complex such as Mash. In this paper, the effects of reaction temperature, amount of enzyme, and the substrate concentration on the reactivity were investigated. As the reaction temperature or the amount of enzyme increased, the reaction rate to produce AS increased, however, the hydrolysis of AS into KR was also enhanced. As a conclusion, the reaction, when 2 mL of Mash to 1 g of TSE was applied with a substrate concentration of 15% at
, was found to be optimum, based on the reaction rate and the selectivity to AS.
Study on the Pretreatment of Rice Hull to Enhance Enzymatic Saccharification Efficiency
Bark, Surn-Teh ; Koo, Bon-Cheol ; Moon, Youn-Ho ; Cha, Young-Lok ; Yoon, Young-Mi ; Kim, Jung Kon ; An, Gi Hong ; Park, Kwang-Geun ; Park, Don-Hee ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2012, Pages 399~404
The objective of this study was to investigate the efficient pretreatment method for bioethanol production from rice hull. Ammonia and sodium hydroxide as an alkaline solution and dilute sulfuric acid as an acidic solution were used in a batch reactor under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions. The highest enzymatic saccharification efficiency of 82.8% and ash removal rate of 94.7% were obtained in the dilute sulfuric acid treated sample after the sodium hydroxide solution treatment. The enzymatic saccharification efficiencies and ash removals of pretreated rice hull samples have very similar variation tendency. This means that the maximum obstructive factor for the enzymatic saccharification of rice hull is the ash (silicate) content in biomass. The findings suggest that the combined sodium hydroxide-dilute sulfuric acid treatment system under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions is a promising pretreatment method to enhance the enzymatic saccharification of the silica-rich biomass.
Particles using Binary Ionic Liquids for Photocatalysis
Lee, Seulbi ; Yoo, Kye Sang ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2012, Pages 405~408
particles with various shapes were synthesized by using a modified sol-gel method with binary ionic liquids. The structural properties of the particles were significantly affected by the composition of ionic liquids. This is mainly attributed to the interaction between the organic solvent and ionic liquid at the interface leading to the formation of particle structure. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared samples was also examined for the degradation of 4-chlorophenol. Among the particles,
prepared with 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate showed the best photocatalytic performance.
Physical Properties of Polymer Concrete Composites Using Rapid-Cooled Steel Slag (II) (Use of Rapid-Cooled Steel Slag in Replacement of Fine and Coarse Aggregate)
Hwang, Eui-Hwan ; Lee, Choul-Ho ; Kim, Jin-Man ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2012, Pages 409~415
To recycle the steel slag as manufactured composite materials of polymer concretes, we used the atomizing method to make round aggregates from steel slag, which is treated as industrial wastes. A round rapid-cooled steel slag was used to replace fine aggregate (river sand) or coarse aggregate (crushed aggregate), depending on the grain size. To examine general physical properties of polymer concrete composites manufactured from rapid-cooled steel slag, the polymer concrete specimen with various proportions depending on the addition ratio of polymer binder and replacement ratio of rapid-cooled steel slag were manufactured. In the result of the tests, the mechanical strength of the specimen made by replacing the optimum amount of rapid-cooled steel slag increased notably (maximum compressive strength 117.1 MPa), and the use of polymer binder, which had the most impact on the production cost of polymer concrete composites, could be remarkably reduced. However, the mechanical strength of the specimen was markedly reduced in hot water resistance test of polymer concrete composite.
Study on the Condensation Reaction of Alkyl Glycidyl Ethers and Fatty Acids
Kim, Ji-Hyun ; Hwang, Hyun Ah ; Lee, Young-Seak ; Lee, Byung Min ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2012, Pages 416~420
A convenient procedure for the synthesis of fatty acid diesters was studied. Long chain diesters have been used as biolubricant and transformer oils. The series of octyl, dodecyl, hexadecyl, octadecyl, and octadec-9-enyl glycidyl ether were used to synthesize those diesters. Alkyl glycidyl ethers were reacted with fatty acid such as oleic acid and octanoic acid, and octanoic acid. The one-step / two-step reactions were compared during the condensation reaction. The products were confirmed by
, FT-IR, and HR/MS spectra. The yield of the product 1-O-acyl-2-O, 3-O-dioctadec-9-enoylglycerol was 55~60%.
Synthesis of Vegetable-based Alkanol Amides for Improving Lubricating Properties of Diesel Fuel
Yuk, Jung-Suk ; Kim, Young-Wun ; Yoo, Seung-Hyun ; Chung, Keun-Wo ; Kim, Nam-Kyun ; Lim, Dae-Jae ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2012, Pages 421~427
To improve the lubricity of ultra low sulfur diesel, vegetable oil-based alkanol amide derivatives were prepared and their lubricity properties were studied. To synthesize the alkanol amides, we conducted the amidation reaction of diethaolamine High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) and the fatty acid methyl esters, obtained by the continuous transesterification of methanol and several vegetable oil, such as soybean oil, palm oil and coconut oil. The synthesized amides were soluble in ultra low sulfur diesel in the concentration range of ca. 1 wt%; the lubricating properties of ultra low sulfur diesel containing 120 ppm of amides were measured using an HFRR method. It was found that the wear scar diameter in the pure ultra low sulfur diesel decreased significantly from 581
upon the addition of the amides, indicating that lubricating properties of the diesel were improved. On the other hand, the types of vegetable oils did not affect the wear scar diameters, implying that lubricating properties of the diesel did not depend strongly on the structures of alkyl groups of alkanol amide derivatives. When we measured the lubricating properties of the one type of diesels containing various amounts of alkanol amide, we observed that the wear scar diameter decreased drastically with increasing the amide concentration, meaning that the lubricity improved with the amide concentration.