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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Applied Chemistry for Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 24, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
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Organo-Compatible Gate Dielectrics for High-performance Organic Field-effect Transistors
Lee, Minjung ; Lee, Seulyi ; Yoo, Jaeseok ; Jang, Mi ; Yang, Hoichang ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2013, Pages 219~226
Organic semiconductor-based soft electronics has potential advantages for next-generation electronics and displays, which request mobile convenience, flexibility, light-weight, large area, etc. Organic field-effect transistors (OFET) are core elements for soft electronic applications, such as e-paper, e-book, smart card, RFID tag, photovoltaics, portable computer, sensor, memory, etc. An optimal multi-layered structure of organic semiconductor, insulator, and electrodes is required to achieve high-performance OFET. Since most organic semiconductors are self-assembled structures with weak van der Waals forces during film formation, their crystalline structures and orientation are significantly affected by environmental conditions, specifically, substrate properties of surface energy and roughness, changing the corresponding OFET. Organo-compatible insulators and surface treatments can induce the crystal structure and orientation of solution- or vacuum-processable organic semiconductors preferential to the charge-carrier transport in OFET.
High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Nd-doped
Lee, Jae-Won ; Kang, Sang-Jun ; Kim, Young-Hwan ; Cho, Kwang-Hun ; Park, Guen-IL ; Lee, Jung-Won ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2013, Pages 227~230
The phase change of
powder produced by oxidation of Nd-doped
was investigated by high temperature oxidation heat treatment at
under an air atmosphere. The XRD analysis results showed that the formation of
phase from metastable
phase initiated at a temperature of
. The relative integrated intensity of
phase increased with increasing of the oxidation temperature from 1100 to
. And also, it was found from the SEM observation that the particle size of
phase increased with increasing of the oxidation temperature. However, electrone probe X-ray microanalyzer (EPMA) analysis results showed that Nd contents in
phase decreased with increasing of the oxidation temperature. This behavior on the ground of XRD, SEM, and EPMA analysis data could be interpreted in terms of the transportation of U ions from
phase through the interface of two phases during high temperature oxidation.
The Synthesis of Nano-sphere Titanium-oxide and Cosmetic Applications
Lee, Ji Hye ; Kim, Joon Woo ; Kim, Ji Man ; Choung, Suk-Jin ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2013, Pages 231~238
In this study, the
nano spheres were synthesized by Sol-gel method to give an excellent UV-blocking effect and increase waste adsorption. The pH value was adjusted to obtain a superb UV-blocking effect and adsorption capacity due to the high surface area which is the characteristics of porosity. Base treated
showed outstanding characteristics. The adsorption of gycerine onto the
sample using TGA resulted in a high surface area of 1.16 mg/mg. This also showed a high reflectance in the UV-A region. In order to find the optimum dispersion, inorganic powder particles were maintained their sizes as 180 nm for about 6 months. The size of particles were measured using ester oil and silicon oil. Overall, the results reveal that
has an excellent capability sunscreen in the UV-A region and skin waste adsorption.
Production Process of Foamed Glass by Compressive Shaping
Lee, Chul-Tae ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2013, Pages 239~246
Principle of foamed glass manufacturing process first starts with putting vitreous material powder into a mold. After the foaming calcination, foamed body should be annealed after separation from the mold. For this reason, existing manufacturing process could not be a continuous type process. In this study, in order to develop a continuous production process of foamed glass, the possibility of new foam glass manufacturing process was investigated by foaming calcination of the compact body obtained from compression-molding of vitreous raw materials in stead of using a mold. Through the experimental results of the foaming calcination of the compact body with adding various foaming agents such as
and petroleum coke, into hydrated soda-lime vitreous raw materials, it was shown that developing a continuous process without using any molds for manufacturing foamed glass would be possible.
Fabrication and Electrochemical Characterization of Ion-selective Composite Carbon Electrode Coated with Sulfonated Poly(Ether Ether Ketone)
Choi, Jae-Hwan ; Park, Chan-Mi ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2013, Pages 247~252
Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) with a certain degree of sulfonation were synthesized by reacting PEEK and sulfuric acid at different reaction time. Then ion-selective composite carbon electrodes (ISCCE) were fabricated by coating the prepared SPEEK on the surface of carbon electrodes. The specific capacitance and resistance of the ISCCE were analyzed by electrical impedance spectroscopy. The ion exchange capacities (IEC) of the SPEEKs were measured in the range of 1.60~2.57 meq/g depending on the sulfonation time. The SPEEK more than 2.5 meq/g of IEC was considered unsuitable for fabricating the ISCCE because it was dissolved in water. The specific capacitance of the prepared ISCCE increased with increasing the IEC of coated SPEEKs and the capacitance was improved up to about 20% compared to that of uncoated carbon electrode. In addition, the electrical resistance of coating layer decreased significantly with increasing the IEC of coated SPEEKs. It is expected that the desalination efficiency of conventional capacitive deionization process can be improved by using the prepared ISCCE coated with SPEEK.
Effects of Operating Conditions on NOx Emission in OFA-type Boiler
Park, Kyoungwoo ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2013, Pages 253~259
In the present study, the characteristics of combustion phenomena and NOx emission in the OFA-type tangentially injected coal-fired boiler have been investigated numerically in order to find the effect of geometrical variation on the performance of the boiler. For these, numerical analyses of turbulent flow, chemical reaction, and radiation heat transfer are performed by using the computational fluid dynamics method. The predicted results clearly show that NOx formation highly depends on the combustion processes, the temperature and species concentrations. In addition, the optimum conditions for both the maximum NOx reduction and highest boiler efficiency can be obtained by considering the amount of supplied air and the injection angle at OFA, and modifying the boiler configuration. It is also found that the variation of supplied air at OFA is more effective than that of the injection angle for reducing the NOx emission, within the present operating conditions.
A Study on Nano-emulsion for Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Hippophae rhamnoides Leaf Extract
Chae, Kyo Young ; Kwon, Soon Sik ; Park, Soo Nam ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2013, Pages 260~265
In this study, nano-emulsions containing 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.10% ethyl acetate fraction of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides) leaf extracts were prepared. The particle size, particle size distribution and skin permeability of the nano-emulsions were evaluated for five weeks. Nano-emulsion was prepared by the sequential use of homogenizer and microfluidizer. Nano-emulsion containing the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited a monodispersed form. Nano-emulsion containing 0.03% ethyl acetate fraction was the most stable for five weeks. The in vitro skin permeation study of nano-emulsion containing 0.03% ethyl acetate fraction was carried out using Franz diffusion cell. The nano-emulsion showed a better skin permeability than that of O/W emulsion. These results indicate that the nano-emulsion containing the ethyl acetate fraction of H. rhamnoides leaf extract showed a remarkable stability and skin permeability than that of O/W emulsion.
The Syntheses of Phthalocyanine Hybrid Derivatives and Their Properties
Kim, Seong Jin ; An, Ba Ryong ; Lee, Gun-Dae ; Park, Seong Soo ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2013, Pages 266~273
Phthalocyanine (Pc), porphyrin, subphthalocyanine, and perylene compounds can be applicable to the fields of optical storage media, organic solar cell, LCD, PDP, semiconductor, and counterfeit money detection etc. In this study, phthalocyanine hybrid derivatives were synthesized by cross-linking perylene, subphthalocyanine, or porphyrin to the main frame of Pc. Absorbtion band of two different wavelengths appeared simultaneously in the phthalocyanine hybrid derivatives. Compared to phthalocyanine, the solubility was enhanced and the degree of Q-band shift was changed according to the kind of substitute compounds. The chemical and optical properties of samples were analyzed using FT-IR,
, and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques.
The Monitoring Study of Exchange Cycle of Automatic Transmission Fluid
Lim, Young-Kwan ; Jung, Choong-Sub ; Lee, Jeong-Min ; Han, Kwan-Wook ; Na, Byung-Ki ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2013, Pages 274~278
Automatic transmission fluid (ATF) is used as an automatic transmission in the vehicle or as a characterized fluid for automatic transmission. Recently, vehicle manufacturers usually guarantee for changing fluids over 80000~100000 km mileage or no exchange. However, most drivers usually change ATF below every 50000 km driving distance when driving in Republic of Korea according to a survey from the Korea Institute of Petroleum Management which can cause both a serious environmental contamination by the used ATF and an increase in the cost of driving. In this study, various physical properties such as flash point, pour point, kinematic viscosity, dynamic viscosity at low temperature, total acid number and four-ball test were investigated for both fresh ATF and used ATF after the actual vehicle driving distance of 50000 km and 100000 km. It was shown that most physical properties were suitable for the specification of ATF, but the foam characteristics of the used oil after running 100000 km was unsuitable for the specification of fresh ATF. Therefore, the exchange cycle of ATF every 80000~100000 km driving distance is recommended considering great positive contributions to preventing environmental pollution and reducing driving cost.
Influence of Food Wastewater Loading Rate on the Reactor Performance and Stability in the Thermophilic Aerobic Process
Jang, Hyun Min ; Choi, Suk Soon ; Ha, Jeong Hyub ; Park, Jong Moon ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2013, Pages 279~284
In this study, the feasibility of a single-stage thermophilic aerobic process for the treatment of high-strength food wastewater produced from the recycling process of food wastes was examined to substitute anaerobic digestion process. Also, the removal and stability of thermophilic aerobic process were assessed according to the changes of hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and organic loading rates (OLRs). When the OLR increased from 9.2 to
, a pH value in R1 (HRT : 5 d) significantly decreased to 5.0, due to the organic acid accumulation. On the other hand, the pH value in R2 (HRT : 10 d) was stable and R2 showed the high removal of COD, organic acid and lipid, even though the OLR increased from 4.6 to
. In R1, the COD loading rates for COD removal was suddenly dropped, as the COD loading rate increased from 18.6 to
. In contrast, R2 showed that the COD loading rates for COD removal increased with regard to increment in the loading rates of 3.61, 7.05, 9.43 and
, indicative of the high COD removal efficiency. Therefore, the results demonstrated that over 10-d HRT, the high concentration of raw food wastewater was efficiently treated in the single-stage thermophilic aerobic process.
Net Energy Analysis of the Microalgae Biorefinery
Lee, See Hoon ; Kook, Jin Woo ; Na, Jeong Gal ; Oh, You-Kwan ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2013, Pages 285~290
Recently a novel bio refinery process with using nonedible biomass, especially microalgae, has been developed in order to directly reduce
concentration from flue gas and simultaneously produce renewable bio fuel. Micro algae-to-biofuel processes are composed of microalgae cultivation, harvesting, lipid extraction, and bio fuel conversion. So, there are concerns about the energy efficiencies of bio refinery processes. In this study, the net energy ratio of microalgae processes were calculated for the microalgae produced from a pilot photobioreacto using
released from coal combustion. In this study, trans-esterification and pyrolysis processes were used to analyze the net energy efficiencies. Micro algae-to-biofuel processes might produce bio fuels with the higher energy than that of the total consumed energy for cultivation, harvesting, extraction and conversion. If the lipid content of microalgae was higher, the trans-esterification conversion process was more effective than that of pyrolysis process.
Synthesis of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Methylester using Heterogeneous Catalysts
Yuk, Jeong-Suk ; Lee, Sang-Jun ; Kim, Nam-Kyun ; Kim, Young-Wun ; Yoon, Byeong-Tae ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2013, Pages 291~298
Conjugated linoleic acid methylester was synthesized through isomerization of linoleic acid methylester by using heterogeneous catalysts. As for heterogeneous catalysts, Ni supported zeolite type catalysts were used. H zoelite Y (HY) were ion exchanged with KCl aqueous solution to synthesize K zeolite Y (KY), and with impregnation method, Ni supported zeolite catalysts were synthesized. Catalysts were used after pre-treatment by using hydrogen. HY catalysts showed a high conversion at low temperatures; but a low selectivity for conjugation reaction. KY catalysts showed a low conversion at low temperatures; but a similar conversion with HY catalysts at high temperatures while a high selectivity at low temperatures. As a result, 4 wt% Ni/KY720 recorded the high conjugation yield of 63.4% at 220.
Optimization of Synthesis Condition of Monolithic Sorbent Using Response Surface Methodology
Park, Ha Eun ; Row, Kyung Ho ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2013, Pages 299~304
A 17-run Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the synthesis conditions of a monolithic sorbent. The effects of the amount of monomer (mL), crosslink (mL) and porogen (mL) were investigated. The experimental data were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation by the multiple regression analysis and examined using statistical methods. The adjusted coefficient of determination (
) of the model was 0.9915. The probability value (p < 0.0001) demonstrated a high significance for the regression model. A mean amount of polymer as 2120.15 mg was produced under the following optimum synthesis conditions: the optimized volumes of monomer, crosslink and porogen are 0.30, 1.40, and 1.47 mL, respectively. This was in good agreement with the predicted model value.
Effects of Annealing Temperature on Thermal Properties of Glycidyl Azide Polyol-based Energetic Thermoplastic Polyurethane
Kim, Jeong Su ; Kim, Du Ki ; Kweon, Jeong Ohk ; Lee, Jae Myung ; Noh, Si Tae ; Kim, Sun Young ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2013, Pages 305~313
In this study, we investigated effects of thermal annealing on the thermal properties and microphase separation behaviors of glycidyl azide-based thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers (ETPE). The GAP-based ETPEs were characterized by attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The effects of annealing temperature conditions (
, 1 h or 24 h) on the properties of the ETPEs were investigated. The intensity of azide group absorption peak of ATR-FTIR spectra and the solubility of ETPE for methylene chloride and dimethylformamide solvent decreased after the annealing at
for 1 h and at
for 24 h. With increasing the annealing temperature from
, the high temperature rubbery plateau region of storage modulus curves from DMA thermogram for GAP-based ETPEs was extended to the higher temperature.
The Preparation of
Coated Activated Carbon Pellets Driven by LED and Removal Characteristics of VOCs
Kim, Yesol ; Kim, Do Young ; Jung, Min-Jung ; Kim, Min Il ; Lee, Young-Seak ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2013, Pages 314~319
In this study, nitrogen doped
) coated on an activated carbon pellet (ACP) was prepared using sol-gel and the solid state heat treatment of urea to improve the removal property of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). To explore the visible light photocatalytic activity of the ACP under the light emitting diods (LED), the removal property of benzene gas was characterized by gas chromatography. The SEM and BET results show that the increment of titanium tetra isopropoxide contents leads to the increased
coating amount of ACP surface and decreased specific surface area. From the results of benzene gas removal, the breakthrough time of ACP10 increased about 2 times compared to that of the ACP. The improved performance was attributed to the
coating on ACP surface, which could be more effective to remove benzene gas under the condition of LED lamp.
Changes in the Optical and Thermal Properties of Low-Temperature Cured Polyimide Thin Films Using the Catalyst
Park, Myeong-Soon ; Kim, Kwang-In ; Nam, Ki-Ho ; Han, Haksoo ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2013, Pages 320~326
In this study, various polyimide films were synthesized via low temperature cure in order to understand changes in their physical properties when using 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA) as a diamine and dianhydride molecules with different backbones on a single diamine such as 4,4'-Oxydiphthalic anhydride (ODPA), 4,4-hexafluoroisopropylidene diphthalic dianhydride (6FDA), and 3,3', 4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA). After the synthesis of poly(amic acid), polyimide films were fabricated by adding 1,4-diazabicyclo [2.2.2]octane (DABCO), a low-temperature catalyst, at various wt% to poly(amic acid)s. Changes of optical and thermal properties were compared and analyzed between polyimide films without catalyst and polyimide films with catalyst by FT-IR, UV-Vis transmittance, DSC/TGA, and WAXD analysis. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analysis revealed that the mean intermolecular distance decreased with the use of a catalyst by the type of dianhydride. Thus, while the optical properties of the films improve by a low-temperature cure performed using a catalyst, their thermal properties decrease. These changes can be explained by the changes in the morphological structure of the films triggered by a catalyst-induced reduction in the mean intermolecular distance. Moreover, the results show that the type of dianhydride determines the degree of change in the optical and thermal properties in each types of polyimide, demonstrating that changes in the optical and thermal properties are directly associated with the backbone of the polyimide structure.
Adsorption Equilibrium, Kinetics and Thermodynamic Parameters Studies of Bismarck Brown R Dye Adsorption on Granular Activated Carbon
Lee, Jong-Jib ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2013, Pages 327~332
Batch experiments were carried out for adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic parameters of the brilliant brown R onto granular activated carbon. The operating variables studied were the initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature. Experimental equilibrium adsorption data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm by linear regression method. The equilibrium process was well described by Freundlich isotherm model and from the determined separation factor (1/n), granular activated carbon could be employed as an effective treatment for the removal of bismarck brown R. From kinetic experiments, the adsorption processes were found to confirm the pseudo second order model with a good correlation and the adsorption rate constant (
) increased with increasing adsorption temperature. Thermodynamic parameters like the activation energy, change of Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy were also calculated to predict the nature of adsorption in the temperature range of 298~318 K. The activation energy was determined as 8.73 kJ/mol for 100 mg/L. It was found that the adsorption of bismarck brown R on the granular activated carbon was physical process. The negative Gibbs free energy change (
= -2.59~-4.92 kJ/mol) and the positive enthalpy change (
= +26.34 kJ/mol) are indicative of the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption process.
A Study for SCR Catalyst Reduction in Fast SCR Using Oxidation Catalyst
Lee, Jae Ok ; Lee, Dae Hoon ; Song, Young-Hoon ; Oh, Dong-Kyu ; Seo, Jung-Wook ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2013, Pages 333~336
Experimental investigation to estimate the feasibility of fast selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or oxidation catalyst combined ammonia SCR system to abate NOx in low temperature condition (
) is reported. Because the conversion of NO to
is pre-requisite of the fast SCR process, the effect of the amount of oxidation catalyst to NO conversion to
was tested. 37, 45 and 51% of conversion rates were obtained for the OCV of 563000, 375000 and 281000 h, respectively.
performance in the case of
ratio of 45% showed the best result in all tested temperature conditions. Comparison of the fast SCR and standard SCR with the condition of
ratio of 45%,
and space velocity of 10000~30000 h showed that the fast SCR does not show much difference according to the variance of space velocity. Also it was shown that using the fast SCR, the volume of SCR catalyst can be reduced less than half of the standard SCR condition by increasing space velocity without the loss of