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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Applied Chemistry for Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 25, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Environmental Stress Strategies for Stimulating Lipid Production from Microalgae for Biodiesel
Kim, Garam ; Mujtaba, Ghulam ; Rizwan, Muhammad ; Lee, Kisay ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 25, issue 6, 2014, Pages 553~558
DOI : 10.14478/ace.2014.1125
Microalgae are a promising alternative feedstock for biodiesel production because their growth rates and oil contents are higher than those of conventional energy crops. Microalgal lipid is mainly triacylglyceride that can be converted to biodiesel as fatty acid methyl esters through trans-esterification. In this paper, the influence of several important lipid inducing factors such as nutrient limitation and changes in salinity and metallic components in microalgae and their potential strategies to be used for biodiesel production are reviewed. Depending upon strains/species that we use, microalgae react to stresses by producing different amount of triacylglyceride and/or by altering their fatty acids composition. Although the most widely applied method is the nitrogen starvation, other potential factors, including nutrient surplus conditions and changes in salinity, pH, temperature and metal concentrations, should be considered to increase biodiesel productivity.
Preparation and Gas Permeability Measurements of PVDF-HFP/Ionic Liquid Gel Membranes
Ko, Youngdeok ; Park, Doohwan ; Baek, Ilhyun ; Hong, Seong Uk ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 25, issue 6, 2014, Pages 559~563
DOI : 10.14478/ace.2014.1051
It is well known that
can be dissolved easily in imidazolium-based room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). Because of the high
solubility in RTILs, membranes containing RTILs can separate easily gas mixtures such as
. In this study, we prepared poly(vinylidene fluoride)-hexafluoropropyl copolymer (PVDF-HFP) gel membranes with several RTILs and measured permeabilities of several gases. When the anion of ionic liquids was tetrafluoroborate(
permeability and selectivities decreased as the carbon number of the cation increased. When the cation of ionic liquids was 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium[emim],
permeability of gel membranes containing bis(trifluoromethane) sulfoneimide(
) anion was double compared to those containing tetrafluoroborate(
) anion. However,
selectivities of the
case were decreased, whereas the
selectivity was almost the same for two cases.
Characteristics of Zirconia Nanoparticles with Hydrothermal Synthesis Process
Cho, Chi Wook ; Tai, Weon Pil ; Lee, Hak Sung ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 25, issue 6, 2014, Pages 564~569
DOI : 10.14478/ace.2014.1057
Zirconia nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal process, and experimental parameters such as reaction temperature, reaction time, kind and concentration of precipitator, kind of precursor were varied. Particle sizes and crystalline phases of each synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed with X-ray diffraction and FE-scanning electron microscope (SEM). The particle size and crystallization of zirconia increased with increasing concentration of precipitator. The growth rate of particle sizes when NaOH as a precipitator was used also increased more than that of KOH. Therefore, the use of KOH rather than NaOH was more effective in the control of particle sizes. An amorphous zirconia nanoparticle was found in 4 h of hydrothermal reaction, but the monoclinic zirconia nanoparticle was found in 8 h and over of hydrothermal reaction, and the width of nanoparticles was slightly slimmed and the length of nanoparticles was slightly extended with increasing reaction time. The smallest particle size was produced at the same synthesis condition when zirconium chloride among the precursors such as zirconium (IV) acetate, zirconium nitrate and zirconium chloride was used.
Antimicrobial Activities of Ethosome-Encapsulated Palmitoyl Tripeptide
Lee, Yeon-Jung ; Lee, Yun Sub ; Jin, Byung Suk ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 25, issue 6, 2014, Pages 570~576
DOI : 10.14478/ace.2014.1085
Palmitoyl tripeptide (M330) showed higher antimicrobial activities than methyl paraben or phenoxy ethanol through minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test. However, when the M330 was added into cosmetic formulation, white precipitates formed due to the electrostatic interaction between M330 and carbopol (carboxy vinyl polymer) as a thickener in cosmetics, and the viscosity of cosmetics decreased sharply. Also, the antimicrobial activities of M330 in cosmetics became lower than those of methyl paraben or phenoxy ethanol. Thus, the encapsulation of M330 in ethosome vesicle was attempted in order to recover the declined antimicrobial activities of M330 in cosmetics and prevent the precipitates from forming. When ethosome-encapsulated M330 was added into cosmetics, the precipitates did not form, and the decrease in the viscosity of cosmetics was not large compared to the addition of unencapsulated M330. Challenge tests showed that antimicrobial activities against gram negative bacteria were improved by the encapsulation of M330, but the encapsulation was not effective against gram positive bacteria and fungus. A combination of M330 with EDTA showed synergistic inhibitory potential against C. albicans. After coencapsulation of M330 and EDTA in ethosome, antimicrobial activities proved to be higher than those of unencapsulated M330 and EDTA.
Preparation of Cadmium-free Buffer Layers for CIGS Solar Cells
Moon, Jee Hyun ; Kim, Ji Hyeon ; Yoo, In Sang ; Park, Sang Joon ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 25, issue 6, 2014, Pages 577~580
DOI : 10.14478/ace.2014.1086
Indium hydroxy sulfide (
) as a cadmium (Cd)-free buffer layer for
(CIGS) solar cells was prepared by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) and the reaction time was optimized. The band gap energy and transmittance data alongside the thickness results from the direct observation with focused ion beam system (FIB) could be a powerful tool for optimizing the conditions. In addition, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were also employed for the layer characterization. The results indicated that the optimum reaction time for
buffer layer deposition by CBD was 20 min at
under the conditions employed. At the optimum conditions, the buffer layer thickness was near 57 nm and the band gap energy was 2.7 eV. In addition, it was found that there was no XPS peak shift in between the buffer layers deposited on molybdenum (Mo)/glass and that on CIGS layer.
Preparation and Characterization of PEDOT/PSS Hybrid with Graphene Derivative Wrapped by Water-soluble Polymer
Park, No Il ; Lee, Seul Bi ; Lee, Seong Min ; Chung, Dae-Won ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 25, issue 6, 2014, Pages 581~585
DOI : 10.14478/ace.2014.1087
We conducted investigation on the hybridization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT : PSS) with graphene derivative (G-PSS), which has been prepared by wrapping reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with PSS. In situ polymerization of PEDOT/PSS in the presence of G-PSS afforded the PEDOT/PSS and graphene hybrid (GP). The analysis of XPS, IR and Raman spectroscopies for GP showed that PEDOT/PSS was successfully synthesized and hybridized with graphene. Compared to the G-PSS, GP showed an enhanced electrical conductivity of
with a good wter-dispersity.
Synthesis of Diarylide Pigments and Their Dispersion Behavior by Dispersion Precursors
Kim, Song Hyuk ; Kim, Jae Hwan ; Yang, Seok Won ; Kim, Dae-Sung ; Lee, Gun-Dae ; Park, Seong Soo ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 25, issue 6, 2014, Pages 586~591
DOI : 10.14478/ace.2014.1092
In this study, the diarylide compound pigment of high hiding power and vivid color was synthesized successfully by controlling several factors such as pH, coupler solution temperature, kind and addition amount of dispersion precursor, and crystallization temperature in the process of coupling synthesis. The properties of samples were measured by the means of FT-IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, PSA, zeta potential, and turbiscan. It was found that the highly dispersive sample could be prepared by introducing the dispersive precursor.
Electrochemical Characteristics of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials of Graphite/SiO
Ko, Hyoung Shin ; Choi, Jeong Eun ; Lee, Jong Dae ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 25, issue 6, 2014, Pages 592~597
DOI : 10.14478/ace.2014.1094
composites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were prepared by sol-gel method to improve the graphite's electrochemical characteristics. The prepared graphite/
composites were analysed by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX. The graphite surface modified by silicon dioxide showed several advantages to stabilize SEI layer. The electrochemical characteristics were investigated for lithium ion battery using graphite/
as the working electrode and Li metal as the counter electrode. Electrochemical behaviors using organic electrolytes (
, EC/DMC) were characterized by charge/discharge, cycle, cyclic voltammetry and impedance tests. The lithium ion battery using graphite/
electrodes had better capacity than that of using graphite electrodes and was able to deliver a discharge capacity with 475 mAh/g at a rate of 0.1 C. Also, the capacity retention ratio of the modified graphite reaches 99% at a rate of 0.8 C.
Formation of Polypropylene Thin Films with Superhydrophobic Surface
Park, Jae Nam ; Shin, Young Sik ; Lee, Won Gyu ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 25, issue 6, 2014, Pages 598~601
DOI : 10.14478/ace.2014.1098
The effects of process parameters for the formation of polypropylene film such as the polypropylene concentration in the solution, drying temperature for coating film, and variation of nano-silica content on the surface structure and property of polypropylene film have been studied. A super-hydrophobic polypropylene film with a maximum contact angle of
was obtained at the condition of a polypropylene concentration of 30 mg/mL, a drying temperature of
, a drying pressure of 93 mtorr for 90 min. The increase of a drying temperature reduced the contact angle by enhancing the surface smoothness of the film. The increase of nano-silica content in the composite film composed of polypropylene and silica changed the surface shape from microporous to microglobular, which led to increasing the contact angle and showed the super-hydrophobic surface property.
Study on Physical Properties of PVC Involving Norbornene Dialkyl Ester
Yun, Dae-Hee ; Ko, Tae-Won ; Woo, Je-Wan ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 25, issue 6, 2014, Pages 602~606
DOI : 10.14478/ace.2014.1099
In this study, we observed changes in the physical properties of norbornene dialkyl ester applied to a PVC. The PVC specimens were prepared by blending PVC, norbornene dialkyl ester and stabilizers. Then, the hardness, tensile strength, elongation, tearing strength, transmittancy, haze and yellowness index of these specimens were measured, and were compared with DOP. The hardness of compounds except dicyclohexyl-5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylate (DCHN) were an equal to or higher than that of DOP. The tearing strength and tensile characteristic of DCHN could not be analyzed due to its high hardness. Tensile properties such as the tensile strength and elongation were improved for six compounds except diisononyl-5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylate (DINN). All compounds measured showed better tearing strength and transmittancy than those of DOP. Also all norbornene derivatives except DDN showed good haze indices. The yellowness index of DON and DPN showed similar values as DOP.
Electrostatic Interaction between Mercaptoundecanoic-acid Layers on Gold and ZrO
Park, Jin-Won ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 25, issue 6, 2014, Pages 607~612
DOI : 10.14478/ace.2014.1100
The physical properties of mercaptoundecanoic-acid layer formed on gold surfaces, which may affect the distribution of either gold particles adsorbed to the zirconium dioxide surface or vice versa, were investigated. To conduct this investigation, the surface forces were measured between the surfaces with respect to the salt concentration and pH value using atomic force microscope (AFM). The forces were quantitatively converted by the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory to the surface potential and charge density of surfaces. The converted-value dependence on the salt concentration and pH was described with the law of mass action, and the dependence was consistent with the theoretical prediction. It was found that the mercaptoundecanoic-acid layer had higher values for the surface charge densities and potentials than the
surfaces, which may be attributed to the ionized-functional-groups of the mercaptoundecanoic-acid layer.
Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Efficiency Characteristics of Ammonia-treated Graphene Oxide
Park, Mi-Seon ; Yun, Kug Jin ; Lee, Young-Seak ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 25, issue 6, 2014, Pages 613~618
DOI : 10.14478/ace.2014.1105
In this study, nitrogen doped graphene oxide (GO) was prepared using liquid phase ammonia treatment to improve its electrical properties. Also, the aminated GO was manufactured into a film format and the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding efficiency was measured to evaluate its electrical properties. The XPS result showed that the increase of liquid phase ammonia treatment concentration led to the increased nitrogen functional group on the GO surface. The measurement of EMI shielding efficiency reveals that EMI shielding efficiency of the liquid phase ammonia treated GO was better than that of non-treated GO. When GO was treated using the ammonia solution of 21% concentration, the EMI shielding efficiency increased by -5 dB at higher than 2950 MHz. These results were maybe due to the fact that nitrogen functional groups on GO help to improve the absorbance of electromagnetic waves via facile electron transfer.
The Effect of Acid Hydrolysis and Enzymatic Saccharification in Bioethanol Production Process Using Fruit Peels
Lee, Seung Bum ; Kim, Hyungjin ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 25, issue 6, 2014, Pages 619~623
DOI : 10.14478/ace.2014.1109
The acid hydrolysis and enzymatic saccharification were carried out for the production of cellulosic ethanol. The possibility of bio-energy production from tangerine peel and apple and watermelon rind was evaluated by determining the optimum production condition. The optimum conditions for the production of cellulosic ethanol from fruit peel were as follows: the sulfuric acid concentration and reaction time of acid hydrolysis for the ethanol production from an apple rind were 20 wt% and 90 min, respectively. The concentration of sulfuric acid for tangerine peel and a watermelon rind at the hydrolysis time of 60 min were 15 wt% and 10 wt%, respectively. A viscozyme was proven as the best conversion for the ethanol production when using enzymatic saccharification from fruit peels. The optimum enzymatic saccharification time for tangerine peel and apple and watermelon rind were 60, 180, and 120 min, respectively.
Synthesis and Photovoltaic Properties of Conjugated Polymers Having Push-pull Structure according to the Type of Side-chain in the N-Substituted Phenothiazine
Seong, Ki-Ho ; Yun, Dae-Hee ; Woo, Je-Wan ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 25, issue 6, 2014, Pages 624~631
DOI : 10.14478/ace.2014.1111
In this study, a new series of conjugated polymer 3-(5-(5,6-bis(octyloxy)-7-(thiophen-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-yl)thiophen-2-yl)-10-(4-(octyloxy)phenyl)-10H-phenothiazine (P1) and 3-(5-(5,6-bis(octyloxy)-7-(thiophen-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-yl)thiophen-2-yl)-10-(4-((2-ethylhexyl)oxy)phenyl)-10H-phenothiazine (P2) were synthesised and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) properties were characterized. The push-pull structure polymer consisted of phenothiazine derivative as an electron donor and benzothiadiazole derivative as an electron acceptor. The aliphatic chain substituted aromatic ring was substituted at the position of N in phenothiazine for the electron-rich and improved solubility. Excellent thermal stabilities of P1 and P2 were confirmed by measured Td values as 321.9 and
, respectively and the degrees of polymerization were 4,911 (P1) and 5,294 (P2). The maximum absorption wavelength of P1 and P2 were 549 and 566 nm, respectively. The device was fabricated and the OPVs property was measured. As a result, the power efficiency of conversion for P1 and P2 were 0.96 and 0.90%, respectively.
Isotherms, Kinetics and Thermodynamic Parameters Studies of New Fuchsin Dye Adsorption on Granular Activated Carbon
Lee, Jong-Jib ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 25, issue 6, 2014, Pages 632~638
DOI : 10.14478/ace.2014.1120
Batch adsorption studies including equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption of new fuchsin dye using granular activated carbon were investigated with varying the operating variables such as initial concentration, contact time and temperature. Equilibrium adsorption data were fitted into Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Temkin isotherms. Adsorption equilibrium was mostly well described by Langmuir Isotherm. From the estimated separation factor of Langmuir (
= 0.023), and Freundlich (1/n = 0.198), this process could be employed as an effective treatment for the adsorption of new fuchsin dye. Also based on the adsorption energy (E = 0.002 kJ/mol) from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm and the adsorption heat constant (B = 1.920 J/mol) from Temkin isotherm, this adsorption is physical adsorption. From kinetic experiments, the adsorption reaction processes were confirmed following the pseudo second order model with good correlation. The intraparticle diffusion was a rate controlling step. Thermodynamic parameters including changes of free energy, enthalpy, and entropy were also calculated to predict the nature of adsorption. The change of enthalpy (92.49 kJ/mol) and activation energy (11.79 kJ/mol) indicated the endothermic nature of adsorption processes. The change of entropy (313.7 J/mol K) showed an increasing disorder in the adsorption process. The change of free energy found that the spontaneity of process increased with increasing the adsorption temperature.
Comparison Evaluation of Distribution Engine Oils in Korea
Lim, Young-Kwan ; Jeong, Choong-Sub ; Lee, Joung-Min ; Na, Byung-Ki ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 25, issue 6, 2014, Pages 639~644
DOI : 10.14478/ace.2014.1052
Domestic vehicle companies have been selling genuine engine oils with higher price than that of the same grade of regular engine oils. In this study, our group investigated the properties of engine oils for 14 kinds of the genuine and equivalent regular engine oil (KS product) species under a fresh as well as used condition recovered after 10,000 km driving. From analytic results, genuine engine oils had similar physical properties to regular engine oils under the fresh condition. But recovered regular engine oils had better properties in lubricity, kinematic viscosity and acid number change than those of recovered genuine engine oils.
Synthesis of Ru Incorporated TiO
and Application to Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol with Molecular Oxygen
Kim, Youngyeong ; Choi, Myong Yong ; Kwon, Ki-Young ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 25, issue 6, 2014, Pages 645~647
DOI : 10.14478/ace.2014.1106
and Ru via an one-step hydrothermal method. The physical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The prepared samples were applied as a catalyst for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde using molecular oxygen (
). Especially, the catalytic activities increased as the contents of ruthenium in
increased without the formation of any byproducts.
Kinetics and Mechanism of the Oxidation of Substituted Benzyl Alcohols by Cr(VI)-Heterocyclic Complex (2,4'-Bipyridinium Chlorochromate)
Park, Young Cho ; Kim, Young Sik ;
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, volume 25, issue 6, 2014, Pages 648~653
DOI : 10.14478/ace.2014.1108
Cr(VI)-heterocyclic complex (2,4'-bipyridinium chlorochromate) was synthesized by the reaction between heterocyclic compound(2,4'-bipyridine) and chromium trioxide, and characterized by IR and ICP analysis. The oxidation of benzyl alcohol using 2,4'-bipyridinium chlorochromate in various solvents showed that the reactivity increased with the increase of the dielectric constant (
), in the order : N,N-dimet-hylformamide (DMF) > acetone > chloroform > cyclohexene. In the presence of DMF solvent with acidic catalyst such as hydrochloric acid (HCl solution), 2,4'-bipyridinium chlorochromate oxidized benzyl alcohol (H) and its derivatives (p-
, m-Br, m-
). Electron-donating substituents accelerated the reaction rate, whereas electron acceptor groups retarded the reaction rate. The Hammett reaction constant (
) was -0.67 (303 K). The observed experimental data have been rationalize the proton transfer occurred followed the formation of a chromate ester in the rate-determining step.