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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 12 - Dec 2002
Volume 26, Issue 11 - Nov 2002
Volume 26, Issue 9 - Sep 2002
Volume 26, Issue 10 - Sep 2002
Volume 26, Issue 8 - Aug 2002
Volume 26, Issue 7 - Jul 2002
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Jun 2002
Volume 26, Issue 5 - May 2002
Volume 26, Issue 3_4 - Mar 2002
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Feb 2002
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Jan 2002
Volume 26, Issue 3 - 00 2002
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Expression of visual Image in Fashion Illustration since 19aos(PartII)
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 181~192
The purpose of this study is to clarify the expression of conceptual image by which the modern graphic artists use for creating new visual images and the characteristics in expression of the major fashion images in fashion illustration. In the present study, major findings on the basis of the analysis of expression of visual images in fashion illustration since 1980s are as follow: The conceptual image expression in the visual arts is based on the eight techniques. They are dual image, operation of image, copying·reproduction of image, deconstruction of image, pictorial image, symbolization of image, mystification of image, and making humorous image. Since 1980s, the major fashion images in fashion illustration are mainly classified as classic image, humor image, fantastic image, natural image, avant-garde image, simple image, casual image and feminine image. The characteristics in expression of these images in fashion illustration are; 1) fortification of dual image in classic image, 2) activation in humor image 3) grotesque fantastic image, 4) the modernization of natural image, etc. In addition that, the image of avant-garde is expressed by Postermodernism, Deconstructionism, Techno etc. since 1980s. Also, simple image of the modern composition, casual image of daily life, and feminine image which is emphasized with eroticism are also included in these characteristic in expression of images since 1980s.
A Study on the Color and Texture of Fashion Fabrics
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 193~204
Many fashion forecasting companies propose the fashion colors in every season. Modern fashion consumer respond to fashionable trends with utmost sensitivity. Therefore to satisfy the consumer with an trendy image, the fashion design must be found first, as image matters, followed by an analysis of each design element's effect on the total image composition. In previous studies of fashion image, has been discussed the positive correlation between fashion design elements of color, fabric, and form as the central issue. In this thesis, two of the fashion design elements, color and fabric are simultaneously considered to classify the image of fabric in fashion. For the color variables, 10 hues are selected from Munsell's system of color notation, and 12 tones from PCCS color notation., which are currently used in the domestic fashion industry. Texture variables used in this survey are classified by luster, prominence-depression of surface, thickness, and density of fabric. Graduate students from 20 to 50 years old and the specialists in fashion companies participated in the survey. The results of this survey are as follows: 1. The fashion fabric image is classified as 5 main images: 'elegant', 'comfortable', 'characteristic', 'light'and 'simple'. 2. The influence of hue, tone and texture is significant to the fashion fabric image. Following colors, yellow-red, red hues and light grayish, dark grayish tones convey the elegant image. The texture property for the elegant image is luster, thin and low density. Properties of fabric conveying the comfortable image are yellow-red and green-yellow hue, soft, light tones, matte and high density. Furthermore, hue turned out to be a insignificant variables for the unique image, whereas dark grayish, grayish tone, luster and prominent texture convey a unique image. For light image, properties of fabric are blue-green, purple hues, light, bright tones with thin, low density texture. Properties of fabric conveying the simple image are blue-green, purple-blue, green-yellow hues, and strong, vivid tones, with luster and flat texture.
A Study on Consumer Characteristics, and Clothing Buying Behavior by Clothing Involvement of College Female Students in China
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 205~215
The purpose of this study was to identity the relationship of clothing involvement, consumer characteristics, and clothing buying behavior of college female students in China. A questionnaire was developed to measure clothing involvement, materialism, conspicuous consumption, reference group influence, clothing purchasing modes, fashion information sources. The questionnaire was administered to 390 college female students in Dandong of china. The data were analyzed using percentage, frequency, factor analysis, and t-test. The results of the study were as follows: 1. Subjects were divided into low clothing involved and high clothing involved groups according to the level of clothing involvement. 2. Three dimensions of materialism were derived by factor analysis such as Happiness-pursuing, Life-centered, and Sucess-symbolic. And three dimensions of conspicuous consumption and reference group influence were derived by factor analysis such as luxury oriented, Status symbolic, Brand-name oriented, and Comparative, Informational, Normative exactly. Clothing purchasing motives and fashion information sources were factor analysed as Social and Individual mole, and Printed & Electric-wave media, Marketer managed, Personal exactly. 3. There were significant differences between high involved and low involved consumers in consumer characteristics and clothing purchasing behavior. The high involved consumers showed more importance than low involved consumers about materialism especially in Happiness-pursuing about conspicuous consumption in status symbolic and about influence of reference group in comparative. The high involved consumers put more importance than low involved consumer individual motive as clothing purchasing motive, and marketer managed in clothing fashion information. The high invoked consumers showed more importance than low invoked consumers about evaluating attributes of product, and about store patronage criterion.
The Influence of shopping Motives and Service Quality Perception on Customers′ Emotional Responses and Fashion Store Satisfaction
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 216~226
This study attempts to understand how the perception of service quality as well as shopping motives influence on the emotional responses in store shopping, and to examine how these relevant variables influence on the store satisfaction. The 463 questionnaires were collected from the purchasers in department stores, fashion specialty stores, and national brand franchise stores. The results of this study are as fellows: 1. In regard to shopping motives, two dimensions of product motive and experiential motive were identified, explaining 47.39% of shopping motives. 2. In regard to emotional response, two dimensions of pleasure emotion and displeasure emotion were identified, explaining 65.95% of emotional responses. 3. Shopping motives led to the store satisfaction after the perception of service quality and then the experience of pleasure emotion. These related variables explained 60% of the store satisfaction. 4. The consumers of fashion specialty store showed the highest product motive, whereas the consumers of department stores showed the highest displeasure emotion in the store. As the results showed, customers' shopping motives influence their perception of service quality and pleasure emotion. Therefore, in order to stimulate shopping motives, the store environment that can give customers pleasure and opportunity to pursue various experiences should be provided. As the service quality is a very important variable that leads pleasure emotion in the store, sales persons should be trained to satisfy customers.
The Effect of Women′s Life-Style on Image Evaluation and Selection in Clothing Styles
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 227~238
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of women's life-style on image evaluation of clothing styles, and on their selection of clothing styles by situations. The subject of investigation was 441 women above 20 living in Daegu. 6 types of clothing styles including classic, casual, elegant, dramatic, romantic, and mannish and 7 social situations including shopping near house, shopping in a busy street, cultural center, wedding ceremony, eating out, alumni meeting or fraternity meeting, and couples meeting were used for this study. Data analysis was performed using SPSS package, which included factor analysis, reliability test, cluster analysis, frequency, percentage, ANOVA, and
-test. The results are summarized as follows; 1. Adult women could be classified into 5 groups including activist, in-activist, the leisured well-off, the wholesomely economical, and the appearance showing-off by their life-styles. 2. The clothing image according to the 6 clothing styles was different. In the image evaluation of each clothing style by life-style groups, in-active group thought classic style most functional and leisured well-off group, mannish style. Elegant style and dramatic style were estimated positively by the leisured well-off and the appearance showing-off. 3. Selection of clothing style differed according to situations. More formal the situation was, more formal style tended to be selected and for less formal situation, active and mannish style was selected.
A Study on the Collection and Utilization of Information by Wedding Dress Shops in Seoul
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 239~250
The purpose of the study was to explore the information activities of wedding dress shops and how companies' characteristics (the number of business year and the location of shops) and information users'characteristics (the year of career) influenced on utilization of information (fashion information, market information and internal information). In addition, the study was to investigate ratings of the importance of the competitive means. The questionnaire was revised by the researchers on the base of preceding research studies after interviewing wedding dress industry workers and performing a pilot survey. The total l10 copies were distributed to the workers of the wedding shops located in the city of seoul. Fifty six copies from the shops in Kangnam area were returned, and 38 copies at Kangbuk area. For statistical analysis, one-way ANOVA and Duncan's tests were used. The results from the study are follow. 1. The heavily utilized fashion information was collected from international and domestic wedding magazine by the respondents for their merchandise and design planning. 2. According to the companies'characteristics (the number of business year and the location of shop), the 50∼10 year-old companies collected fashion information from international fashion shows, domestic wedding/fashion magazine reporters, and utilized sales data as internal information sources than any other companies. The shops in Kangnam area used international fashion information and market information on popular/unpopular goods more than other shops. 3. According to information users'characteristics (the year of career), the 3-5 year-experienced workers utilized domestic fabric converters as an information source, lists of popular/unpopular goods as well as future forecasting information as internal information more any other workers. 4. Dress design, fabrics and customer service before wedding were considered as very important competitive power by wedding shop workers.
A Study of the Make-up Behaviors and Consumers Anxiety in Purchasing Cosmetics of the Female High School Student
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 251~262
The purpose of this study is understanding female high school student's make-up culture by developing the recognition criteria for their make-up behavior and anxiety in purchasing cosmetics. This study targeted 524 female high school students who attended vocational and academic high school located in Daegu, Korea. SPSS WIN package was used fur statistics and MANOVA, ANOVA, LSD post-verification was conducted for data analysis. The conclusion of this study is as fellowed ; (1) Academic groups showed statistically different tendency to 6 reasons of make-up behavior ; interest in make-up was chosen most for the reason and etiquette, make-up satisfaction, aesthetics, fashion, synchronism comes next in the order. (2) In case of vocational group, it also showed different tendency to 6 reasons of make-up behavior ; interest in make-up was also most highly chosen reason as the academic group and etiquette was next and then make-up satisfaction, aesthetics, fashion were same level and synchronism was shown to be the lowest chosen reason in the order. (3) Academic group showed different level of anxiety from the 11 reasons of anxiety in purchasing cosmetics ; also anxiety of material was highly chosen reason and then fitness, price, color, quality, utility, purchasing, after service, fashion, label-trust, other people's comments comes next for the reason. (4) Vocational group also showed different level of anxiety from 11 reasons of anxiety in purchasing cosmetics; also anxiety of material was highest reason (same as the academic group) and then fitness, color, quality, price, utility, after service, label-trust, fashion, buying, other people's comments comes next for the reason.
Silk Dyeing Method in Natural Pigments - In Case of Korean Colored Rice Bran -
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 263~269
This research was conducted to establish the efficient use of the colored rice bran fur dyeing textiles. To investigate the fabric dyeability of the colored rice bran extract, the anthocyanin pigments were extracted with water of different temperature ranges of 40 ~ 8
and were dyed on silk fabrics with different dyeing temperature
, at acidic pH and neutral pH, respectively. Aluminum chloride was preheated with mordant K/S value and dyeing fastness of dyed silk fabrics were examined. The anthocyanins of the colored rice bran were stable and red color at acidic pH, red purple or purple blue at neutral pH, but unstable, blue color at alkaline pH. If extracting temperature and dyeing temperature of dyeing solution were higher, the dyeability was high, but the color of dyed fabric showed red tone. When extracting temperature was 8
and dyeing temperature of dyeing solution was 6
, the dyeability was best. Without mordant, the dyeability of silk fabrics was higher in acidic pH than in neutral pH solution. With mordant, the dyeability was higher than without mordant, and also higher in acidic pH. Pretreatment of aluminum chloride resulted in the increase of color intensity and stability. The laundering fastness of dyed fabrics was good from grade 5 to grade 3-4. Because of the anthocyanins sensitivity on light radiation, the light fastness of dyed fabrics was poor from grade 3 to grade 1-2.
A Study of Body Shapes of Korean Males in their Twenties(part 2) - Classification of Lateral Body Shapes -
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 270~279
The purpose of this study is to classify twenties males'lateral body shapes into a few representative types and to give each type a name to symbolize its typical shape clearly .297 male subjects in their twenties participated in this study. 33 anthropometric and 31 photographic measurements were taken from each subject. The data were reduced to 7 factors. The factor score composing the lateral body shapes was classified into 3 clusters. As the result the lateral body shapes of the males were classified into I, S, types.
An Exploratory Study on Relations between Fashion Life Style & Consumer Behavior at Decline Stage of the Fashion Life Cycle
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 280~291
This study was to apply FLC(Fashion Life Cycle) concept with extended PLC(Product Life Cycle) theory of marketing for a basis. This article was particularly analyzed relations between demographic variables and fashion lifestyle toward consumer's behavior at decline stage of FLC empirical study was to target women's formal dress. Data were collected from the adult females residing in Youngnam district. Sampling were peformed pretest and main survey. Total 386pcs of answers were used for final analysis. The results of analysis were as follows. First, Hypothesis 1 & 4 were showed meaningful differences between fashion lifestyle patterns and consumer's behavior at decline stage of FLC according to demographic characteristics. Second, Hypothesis 2 also was adopted meaningful differences of consumer's hoarding behavior at decline stage of FLC in accordance with fashion lifestyle patterns. Third, Hypothesis 3 of fashion lifestyle patterns which has related consumer's recycling behavior at decline stage of FLC was rejected. In conclusion, This article discusses implication of fashion marketing strategies and summaries..
A Study on Characteristic of Consumer and Clothing Purchase Orientations according to Internet Shopping Mall Type
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 292~302
The purpose of this study was to research on Characteristic of Consumer and Clothing Purchase Orientations according to Internet Shopping Mall Type. The results were as follows; First, the clothing purchase orientations consisted of 5 dimension; product recondition, consumer service, shopping experience, risk of functional recognition, and of economical recognition. Second, the analysis of items of 5 dimension on clothing purchase orientations according to Internet shopping mall type produced as follows; 1. Product recognition - Variety of products appeared to be important elements and the average of specialized shopping mall was higher than that of general shopping mall. 2. Consumer service - Reliability of product information appeared to be more critical than others and the average of specialized shopping mall was bigger than that of others 3. Shopping experience - The item of convenience over time and space, the hard sell and over-service were found critical elements. Especially convenience over time of Mall of Malls, the convenience a far from hard sell element of department style shopping mall, and convenience over space of specialized mall were higher than that of others. 4. Risk element of functional recognition - No specific distinction appeared according to shopping mall type. 5. Risk element of economical recognition - Mending and additional cost arising from bad choice were found being critical element.
Classifications of Skin Colors on Korean Elderly Women and their Preference Colors
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 303~314
The colors of apparel have become an important element to be used strategically in order to give differentiated character at the level of fiber and fabric production. The colors of apparel have a close relationship with the skin colors of consumers and their preference colors. This study was carried out to classify the skin colors of Korean elderly women into several similar skin colors and to analyse their preference colors. Sample size was 471 Korean elderly women. With color spectrometer, JX-777, we measured 4 points of the body; cheek with removing cosmetics off, forehead, rear neck and arm on the interior part near elbow. All subjects had been shown with 40 color chips and answered the preference colors of apparel and the preference colors. Data weirs analysed to classify skin colors using K-means Cluster Analysis and Duncan test. Independent variables for Cluster Analysis were 12 variables out of L value, a value and b value of 4 points. In doing so, we used SPSS WIN 10 statistical package. Findings were as follows: 1) The skin colors of the Korean elderly women were composed of skin colors of YR, R, and Y. 2) 355 subjects were classified into 4 kinds of skin color groups. 3) The average face color of type 1 was 6.7YR 5.1/4.3 and 56 observations out of 355 subjects were composed of Type 1 and of Type 2 was 6.1YR 6.1/4.5 and 166 observations out of 355 and of 3 Type 6. YR 4.8/4.2 and 75 observations out of 355 and of Type was 6.17 YR 5.7/4.7 and 58 observations out of 355. 4) The average skin color of Type 1 was 7.0YR 5.9/4.4 and of Type 2 was 7.2YR 6.3/4.2 and of Type 3 was 7.0YR 6.2/4.2 and of Type 4 was 7.6YR 5.4/4.2 respectively. 5) The mean values of 12 variables between the 4 classified face color and skin color groups showed significantly different except H value of skin color. 6) All 4 groups showed that the most preference color of apparel and the most preference color were 2.5R 5/14 respectively.
The Effect of Sensibility Elements and Screen Composition Elements of Internet Fashion Shopping Mall on Purchase Intention
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 315~324
The purpose of this study was to fed out the effects of sensibility elements and screen composition elements on purchase intention on the internet fashion shopping mall. A total of 200 responses were collected from a Questionnaire survey. The sensibility words were used for sensibility elements analysis. Screen composition elements were divided into 5 factors by factor analysis; product property, convenience of shopping, service, design, and promotion. The study showed that the satisfaction of sensibility elements and screen composition elements led to a positive purchase intention.
Color Development of combination Dyeing of Indian Indigo and Turmeric Extracts, Gardenia Extracts
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 325~336
This study investigated color change of combination dyeing silk fabrics dyed with Turmeric extracts and Gardenia extracts after dyeing of Indian indigo. Experimental variables include the condition of dyeing time and concentration of Turmeric extracts, Gardenia extracts, arid dyeing cycle of Indian indigo. Surface color of silk fabrics dyed with Turmeric 77tracts after one cycle dyeing, two cycles dyeing, four cycles dyeing of Indian indigo was changed from 5.1GY to 0.3GY, 1.5G to 3.5GY and 6.5G to 5.8GY by increase of concentration of Turmeric extracts. On the other hand, Surface color of silk fabrics dyed with Gardenia extracts after one cycle dyeing, two cycles dyeing, four cycles dyeing of Indian indigo was changed from 7.5Y to 3.9Y, 1.2GY to 6.7Y and 4.0GY to 8.6GY by increase of concentration of Gardenia extracts. Its range of surface color was changed to green and yellowish green by increase of dyeing time with concentration of Turmeric extracts. On the other hand, its range of surface color was changed to yellowish and yellow by increase of dyeing time with concentration of Gardenia extracts.
Development of Cleanroom Garment Design in Semiconductor Industrial Environment
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 337~348
Based upon literature survey and questionnaire survey, this research tries to develop four new Cleanroom Garment in semiconductor industrial environment. The designs emphasize to minimize workers disconmfort so that they can not only cover human body fully but also reduce dust as much as possible during work hour in clean room. The new designs characteristics and results from both function test and dust emission test are as follows: 1. In order to reduce dust-emission, we develop new designs with hood, kimono sleeve, and back zipper. The designs with hood face positive test results in term of motion suitability and dust-omission. The design with seam in front, in particular, is effective to control dust-emission. 2. For the purpose of reducing dust-emission, we also emphasize to minimize ease of dust-proof wear, with reference to previous research and clothing experiment. The experiment participants report that the new wears are not so comfortable as existing ones, but they accept the new wears positive as effective in reducing dust-emission owing to reduced ease of Cleanroom Garment and sleeves. 3. A1so to reduce dust-emission in inner wear, we put inner wear in both Cleanroom Garments and inner wear, resulting to remove discomfort of wearers when changing clothes and of tight waist due to inner-trousers. 4. We develop new designs with elastic bands in both waist through the side lines and with velcro only at the back side. To remove twist in front contributes to reduce emission arising out of friction, also to free the appearance minding woman workers from worrying about exposed stomach. The new designs need to be accepted as a valuable alternative of Cleanroom Garment, in that they are highly effective to reduce dust-emission, which is the most important factor in the wear, in spite of some drawbacks in terms of motion-suitability, ease and appearance as shown in wearing test.
Dye Adsorption Ability of Chitin in Reactive Dyebath
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 349~354
In order to decolorize the reactive dye wastewater, we investigated the dye-adsorption ability of chitin, which was natural polymer obtained from shrimp shell. Chitin particle(less than 250
n) was prepared from shrimp shells in the processes of decalcification in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution and deproteination in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. The particle size of chitin was controlled to less than 250
. Three tripes of the reactive dyes-C.I. Reactive Red 120, C.I. Reactive red 241 and C.I. Reactive Black 5-were used. Dye adsorption ability of chitin was investigated by dipping the particle in the dyebaths of concentration of 0.0l%, 0.03% and 0.05% for various periods of time(1,3,5, 10,20,40,80,160minutes). The influence of addition of salt(Na
) and alkali to the dyebaths on dye-absorption was also investigated. We obtained the following results fur the dye-absolution ability of chitin in the dyebaths of three types of reactive dyes. 1) The amount of dye uptake by chitin was increased by addition of salt to the dyebaths. 2) As the concentration of alkali became higher than 3g/I, the amount of dye uptake by chitin was increased. Chitin showed good dye-adsorption ability, when the alkali concentration was high. 3) Chitin showed equal dye uptake in the three types of dyebaths when the dye concentration was 0.0l%. Over 90% of dyestuffs was adsorbed from the dyebaths in ten minutes. When the dye concentration was higher, better adsorption ability was showed in a dye bath of Reactive black 5 than in the others. When the dye concentration was 0.03%, 90% of Reactive red 120 and Reactive red 241 was adsorbed in 40 minutes and the same of Reactive black 5 in 10 minutes. When the dye concentration was 0.05%, 9()% of Reactive red 120 was adsorbed in 80 minutes, and Reactive black 5 in to minutes.
Effect of Structure and Surface Characteristics of worsted Wool Fabrics on the Subjective Hand - Women's Spring -Fall Suit Fabrics -
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 355~363
The purpose of this study was to investigate how the weave type, yarn twist fabric count and fiber content of the worsted fabrics affect the subjective sensation of the hand. Thirty worsted fabrics that were mainly used for the spring and fall ladies'suits at national brands were selected. Variables were such as four different kinds of weave types, plain, twill, satin and decorative; two levels of yarn twist, normal and high; various fabric counts; two different fiber contents, pure wool and Lycra contained. Image analysis and wavelet transform techniques were used to quantify the surface fiber, For surface characteristics, MIU, MMD and SMD were measured by KES-FB system. The Questionnaires with 23 adjectives were used for the subjective hand evaluation. Panels were So specialists of fashion or fabric designers and merchandizers. By Factor Analysis, six factors that represent the subjective hand were extracted. The relationship between these factors and structural variables were analyzed. Yarn twist was significantly related to the surface characteristics and resilience. Weave structure affected surface characteristics, volume/warm-cool feeling and resilience. Fabric counts showed relations with volume/warm-cool feeling and the fiber contents with volume/warm-cool feeling, resilience and elastic properties. MIU, MMD and SMD showed no relations with the surface fibers. Subjective sensation of surface characteristics was affected by SMD and surface fibers.
A Comparative Study of Dissatisfaction towards Imported and Domestic Clothing
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 364~375
The purpose of this study is to identify the differences between married women's dissatisfaction towards imported and domestic clothing and to test the role of socioeconomic variables on dissatisfaction. Two-piece formal suit was selected as the item, and country of origin of imported suit was not controlled. Sample selection criteria included married women living in Seoul, Korea, between ages 30-59. The data were analysed using factor analysis, paired t-test, and one-way ANOVA. The results indicate, in the Korean clothing market, both international and Korean marketers should be prudent with their price policies and should implement differentiated marketing strategy based on their target market's demogrophic profile. Higher dissatisfaction towards domestic clothing in terms of most factors, under the rapidly globalizing market environment suggests the Korean marketers will be forced to face full-scale harsh competition from international marketers.