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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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Volume & Issues
Volume 3, Issue 2 - Nov 1979
Volume 3, Issue 1 - May 1979
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A Study on Angels' Costumes in Religious Paintings
Kim Hae Jon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 3, issue 1, 1979, Pages 1~11
This is a study on angels' costumes in religious paintings, especially as this relates to the questions of concepts and theological symbolism. Angels, as spiritual creatures in Christian thought, play the role of praising God's glory, as messengers of God, the role of guarding Israel and the Church, and protecting or punishing human beings. Sometimes the angels appear in incarnate form. They display no sexual differences and are not able to procreate. The angels' funtional classification being thus; nevertheless, they are pictured in various costumes and appearances according to characteristics of the paintings. The angel Michael appears as a man of dignity when pictured as a guard; the angel Gabriel in the annunciation is often portrayed as a woman of mystical beauty. Under the Renaissance, the mighty cherubim and seraphim at Yahweh's throne are degraded as plump child-angels, or winged child-heads looking alike Eros or Cupid. They have become playful and all too obviously non-heavenly chrubs, accepted features of the Temple decorations. However, cherubim are often depicted as naked or wrapped around with a piece of cloth and accompanied with wind, which symbolizes the Glory of God. The angels, costumes without seam are hung over or wrapped around the body, and when sewn they are simple and ample enough that they fall in a great many folds. However, by the 14C. angels are mostly dressed in costumes common to all Europe, and after that angels gradually appear in folk costumes; for example Italian, Flemish, etc. Dalmatic, the typical costume of Byzantine often shows up as angels' dresses even after the period. Originally the dalmatic was the Roman tunic to which Eastern influences added. The Roman clavus on the tunic had gradually lost distinction until, by the Imperial epoch, it was worn by the lowest servants. It was proudly therefore, as 'The servants of God', that the early Christians are shown wearing the clavus on their wide, ungirdled, sleeved dalmatics. In addition to their costume, angels have some other distinct charateristics. First, angels have a halo around their head; this symbolizes their holiness. Second, angels wear a narrow diadem or a queen's crown that seems to denote their glorious status close to God's throne. Third, the cloth band across the breast resembles a priest's stole, which suggests the sacred role of a priest and symbolizes the grace santified. Fourth, lilies in the annunciations are symbols of Mary's virginity. chastity, innocence and heavenly bliss. Angels hold palms or olives in their hands. The former denote prosperity. beauty and the Christians' reward after death; the latter represent peace and amity. the imperial crown made of olives means victory. Fifth, angels in paintings always have a pair of wings, which can be traced to scripture where cherubim and seraphim are described as having pairs of wings. Angels' wings often have colors of the rainbow, and the rainbow is compared to God's glory. Sixth, generally artists paint angels' costumes as white, blue, green, gold and purple. Other colors such as red rarely appear. According, to scriptures it is believed that angels should be depicted 'as white as snow'. According to the biblical expressions of angels as lightning, sun or a pillar of fire, angels should be described as creatures of light. Nevertheless being a form of art, religious paintings may differ in their presentation according to an artist's inspiration and intention. Since religious paintings illustrated above were almost all done before the Reformation, symbols of colors used in the Catholic Church will also be mentioned. The white color symbolizes chastity, purity, brightness, delight and divinity. Green represents new birth, eternal life, spiritual revival and the expectance of the grace of God. Blue, the color of sapphires, denotes chastity and truth. Red, the color of rubies, represents divinity, love and religious passion. Violet is the color of dignity, indicating the sovereign, royal or imperial power and the great Sacrifice of Christ. As mentionad above, angels' costumes were expressed in accordance with contemporary patterns or as indicated in the Bible, and accesories and colors correspond with Christian symbols. Therefore these facts should be taken into consideration when it comes to the study of costume history.
The study of the soil removal in cationic cotton fabrics.
Shin Yong Son ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 3, issue 1, 1979, Pages 13~18
Many researches have found that the anionic surfactants are effective when the anionic soil is attached to the cotton fabrics. However, this research investigated the relationship of the super soil removal and surfactants when the anionic and cationic soil was attached to the cationic cotton fabrics. The result is that the cationic surfactants are vary effective for soil removal in the cationic cotton fabrics. The processing and nature of cationic cotton fabrics are treated and investigated as follows: Cotton fabrics are heated in the presence of ethylenimine and acetic acid dissolved in benzene to contain a significant amount of fixed nitrogen. Some polymer was formed but removal by washing with benzene and water. The optinium molor ratio of acid-to-ethylenimine seemed to be in the range 1: 10. The treated cotton fabrics dyed with acid Orange II dyes, and nitrogen content in the treated cotton fabrics were determined by the Kjeldahl method.
-A Study on Dalmatic of Early Christian Epoch-
Koo In Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 3, issue 1, 1979, Pages 19~24
1. In the late second century A.D. the dalmatic, which originated in Orient, came into fashion in the Roman world. 2. It was first introduced as a vestment in public worship by Pope Sylvester I (314-335A.D.) who ordered it to be worn by the deacons. 3. The dalmatic was cut like a tunic, but wider, and with wide short sleeves. It was worn without belt, and was characteristically decorated by the clavus. Its shape, which is the form of a cross, refer to the passion of Christ. It symbolizes joy, salvation and justice. 4. In early christian epoch, colors was found in the Bible. 5. Clavus running from the shoulders to the hem in front and back represented as 'The servant of God', and symbolized the Blood of Christ. With time, clavi change from simple stripes to decorative ones.
A study on the Byzantine Costume -An analysis of constructional elements of the Costume Form-
Kim Ok Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 3, issue 1, 1979, Pages 25~30
Le propos de la presente consideration est de deceler Ie probleme du costume au niveau de probleme de l'art pur qui, comme dit Hegel, repond a un besoin primitif qui consiste a exterioriser et a concretiser les representations et les idees nees dans I'esprit humain. II va de soi que c'est une sorte de problemes appartenants a la theorie generale du costume. Mais il nous semble que chez nous on a neglige d'analyser les elements du costume sous l'angle de cette exteriorisation de l'idee esthetique que nous avons essay de souligner. Nous avons pris cette fois, pour un modele de ce sujet, les costumes sous Justinien (527-565) de l'Empire byzantin.
A Study on the "Kea Ju", "Goon Bok" and "Yoong Bok"
Im Myung Mi ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 3, issue 1, 1979, Pages 31~47
1. The old Korean costume had two different kind of dress, one was a military uniform (Goon bok) for military only and the other was uniform (Yoongbok) for civilian and militarian. 2. The military uniform (Goonbok) were dressed under armour, was for war time. And the civilian and military uniform were dressed under Mo (Hat) and Po (Coat dress), was for War time or emergent case. 3. Armour were made of leather in ancient times but later they were made of metal. 4. In generally, armour is classified; 1) To protect neck 2) To protect shoulders and arms 3) To protect breast 4) To protect both legs 5) To protect hands 5. Armour and military uniform (Goonbok) for military only. at the time of three Nations (Ko-kuryo, Bakje. Silla) 1) Armour-a) Identified by found relics or ancient wall picture. b) They had improver! armour. c) Armour of three Nations were resembled each other. 2) Military uniform(Goonbok) a) The Jeogori reached to hip area was called Jangyoo. b) The pants were tight trousers. 6. Armour and military uniform (Goonbok) for military only at Koryo Dynasty. 1) They had improved armour like three nation's age. 2) They were made of iron. leather, paper or cloth 3) The color was white. puple. red. 4) Military uniform(Goonbok) a) Hat-(1) Banggak (2) Josamoja (3) Ibgak (4) Jakwan (5) Sabgak (6) Sumale (7) Jaragwan (8) Kummoja (9) Mubyunkwan (10) Pyungyunchek b) Dress-(l) Jayeisokade (2) Bosanghwa Gayendae (3) Hongbeja Rokrahansam (4) Jag- ongbok Hongeung (5) Jagongbok Jogeung (6) Kumyeisokdae (7) Bilapeja Rokrahansam (8) Jasupoto (9) Kumyei Honggung (10) Kumyei Dokuyeunsokdae (11) Bibosunghwa Dongokumdae (12) Bidaesuyei Kayeundae (13) Jasosulansam (14) Biyeiko (15) Chung-yei Dongsim Sokdae 7. Armour and military uniform of Lee Dynasty 1) Armour-a) the Helmets were attached with visor ar without visor, and later it was added the neck protecter. b) dresses were given various names according to the materials used. for example, Suiejakap or Kyungfunkap. 2) The military uniform (Goonbok) were composed by molip, Hyunchungsakpuja, Jundae, Soowhaja. 8. Military uniform (yoongbok) for civilian and militarian 1) The unifom was developped through Imjin war, Byungja war since the middle of Lee Dynasty. 2) The military uniform (Goonbok), (Yoongbok), armour were by the established dress reg-ulation of imperial ordinance dated April 8th, 1895 which falls 35th year of Kojong. the dress regulation was based upon the western uniform.
Detergency of Woven Fabrics in Relation to the Detergents and Washing Temperature
Cho Sung Kyo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, volume 3, issue 1, 1979, Pages 49~56
To investigate detergency of various woven fabrics in relation to the detergents and washing temperature. cotton, polyester/cotton (p/c), nylon, acetate, and polyester were soiled in aqueous artificial (
) soil. Each fabric was washed with soap, alkaline and neutral synthetic detergents at
respectively. The results obtained may be summerized as follows; 1. In soap, ascension of temperature had the most important effect upon washing efficiency and the higher the temperature was, the higher the washing efficiency was showed in all fabrics. And in case of alkaline synthetic detergent, nylon and p/c fabrics were much more difficult to clean at higher temperature and also acetate and polyester had the best efficiency at
. Detergency of neutral detergent was good but the effect of temperature in neutral detergent was less than in soap. 2. Washing efficiency of cotton was less than that of others. 3. The higher the temperature was, the higher the washing efficiency of cotton in all detergents, and the best was in soap. In p/c, detergency of neutral detergent was good but effect of ascension of temperature was lower than in soap. In nylon, washing efficiencies of alkaline synthetic detergent and neutral detergent were excellent at 30°C but detergency of soap at
was best. In case of acetate, detergency of all detergents was about the same at
but that of soap at
was best. In polyester at
, efficiency of neutral detergent was excellent but that of soap was more excellent at higher temperature and the best detergency of alkaline synthetic detergent showed at
. In general. the higher the temperature is, the higher the washing efficiency of soap is. But when synthetic fibers of nylon and polyester are washed with synthetic detergents, washing at lower temperature is advisable.