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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Malacology
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Journal DOI :
The Malacological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Dec 2003
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jun 2003
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The Influence of Water Temperature and Salinity on the Filtration Rates of the Short-necked clam, Ruditapes philippinarum
Shin, Hyun-Chool ; Lim, Kyeong-Hun ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 1~8
The present study was performed to describe the influence of water temperature and salinity on the filtration rates of the short-necked clam, Ruditapes philippinarum. The clams were collected at tidal flat near Yeosu city, Cheollanamdo, Korea, from July 2001 to August 2001. Diatoms, Phaeodactylum tricornutum (KMCC B-128), were indoor-cultured by f/2 medium, and were used to measure the filtration rate of the clams. Filtration rates of the clams were measured by indirect method. Cell concentrations of food organisms were determined by direct counting cells using the hemacytometer under the light microscope. The filtration rate of the clams increased with temperatures up to the optimum temperature, circa 25
. Above this optimum temperature, the filtration rate decreased drastically. Also the filtration rate of the clams increased with salinity up to 35 psu. The maximal filtration rates of the clams were recorded at 20-25
, similar to be known as the optimal temperature for their growth, and 25-35 psu, respectively. The minimal filtration rates of the clams were recorded at 5
and 15 psu. At the similar temperature and salinity, the filtration rate of the younger clams was higher than that of the older ones. Thermal coefficient, Q
values at low temperature range were much higher than those at high temperature range. These results indicate the short-necked clam is more sensitive in cold water. As they grow up, they become more stronger against their ambient environmental changes, such as thermal-shock, salinity changes.
Sexual Maturation and the Sex Ratio of the Jedo Venus, Protothaca jedoensis (Bivalvia: Veneridae)
Kim, Ji-Hyun ; Chung, Ee-Yung ; Kim, Yong-Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 9~17
The gonad index (GI), reproductive cycle with gonad developmental phases, first sexual maturity and the sex ratio of the jedo venus, Protothaca jedensis, on the coastal waters of Boryeong, Korea were investigated by histological study. Samples were collected from the subtidal zone of Boryeong, Korea from January to December, 1999. Monthly changes in the gonad index in femal and male clams gradually increased from February and reached the maximum in May, and then the values rapidly decreased from June and reached the minimum in November as seen in variations of the reproductive cycle. The spawning period of this species was once a year between May and July, there was a spawning peak between June and July when seawater temperature was over 20
. The reproductive cycle of this species in female and male clams can be classified into five successive stages: early active stage (December to March), late active stage (February to June), ripe stage (April to July), partially spawned stage (May to July) and spent/inactive stage (July to January). Percentages of first sexual maturity of female and male clams of 30.1-35.0 mm in shell length were 52.6% and 60.0%, respectively, and 100% for the clams over 45.1 mm in shell length. The sex ratio of individuals > 30.1 mm in shell length was 1:1 (X
= 0.40, p > 0.05).
Artificial Spawning, Larval and Spat Developments of the Bay Scallop, Argopecten irradians
Oh, Bong-Se ; Jung, Choon-Goo ; Kim, Sook-Yang ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 19~24
Artificial spawning, larval and spat developments of the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians, which was transplanted from China on 16 August 1996, were investigated monthly until August 1997 in the Deukyang Bay, Jangheung-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea. Sufficient amount of cultured microalgae supplemented seawater were supplied as food (6 kinds of phytoplankton) for fully grown adult individuals at 17.1-23.2
for 44 days. A total of 45,320,000 eggs were spawned by way of 2 times of artificial spawning inductions such as exposure stimulus to the air and thermal shock (with water temperature) on 29 January and 31 January in 1997. Artificially fertilized eggs were developed to D-shaped larvae (77.5
and metamorphosed to larvae (191.8
181.2 m) in the attached larval stage on the collectors. A total of 110,000 spats (average 3.04 mm in shell length) were produced at 22.8-26.3
and 31.0-34.4 psu in the indoor rearing tank from 14 February through 7 May in 1997. In case of Argopecten irradians, if the attached larvae in the attachment stage are detached from the collector, they could not live. Accordingly, it is assumed that survival (%) of the attached larvae of A. irridians showed very low because of weak power attached to the collector due to the small number of the byssuses of the attached larva, not the short attachment period by the byssus as seen in other scallops such as Argopecten balloti.
Effects of the Red Tide and Toxic Dinoflagellates on the Survival and Growth of Larvae of the Mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis
Lee, Chang-Hoon ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 25~32
To know the effects of the red tide and toxic dinoflagellates on survival and growth of larvae of the mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, laboratory experiments were conducted by incubating larvae with either unialgal culture of 4 dinoflagellate species (Amphidinium carterae, Prorocentrum triestinum, Gymnodinium impudicum, or Akashiwo sanguinea) or a standard food (Isochrysis galbana) for 10 days. The survival of larvae was higher than 80% when the food was A. carterae, G. impudicum, or A. sanguinea. The lowest survival (20%) was found when the food was P. triestinum. When the food was P. triestinum, the survival of larvae rapidly decreased from 87% at day 4 down to ca. 50% at day 6, and 20% at day 10. This implies that the larval population of M. galloprovincialis can seriously be affected if they are exposed to the red tide water dominated by P. triestinum for more than 4 days. Shell length of larvae either increased or decreased according to the food species. When the food was A. carterae, G. impudicum, or A. sanguinea, shell length of larvae increased. But, it decreased when the food was P. triestinum. Though shell length increased in 3 treatments, the daily increments (0.63
m for A. carterae, 0.46 m for
G. impudicum, and 1.10 m for
A. sanguinea) were smaller than that of the standard food (3.79 m for
I. galbana). Correlation analyses chowed that the change in shell length was not significant when the food was A. carterae or G. impudicum. Therefore, all of 4 dinoflagellates affected the growth of M. galloprovincialis larvae: growth was negative for P. triestinum, nil for A. carterae and G. impudicum, and positive but lower than standard food for A. sanguinea. These imply that the dinoflagellates are less valuable as foods for M. galloprovincialis larvae. So, decreased growth rate of larvae is expected during red tides, which will consequently cause delayed metamorphosis or failure to recruitment to the adult populations. In considering the harmful effects of red tides on the aquatic ecosystem, not only the effects on adult populations of fish and shellfish, but also the effects on larval populations should be included.
Optimal Conditions for Artificial Fertilization, Embryonic Development, and Larval Growth of the Purple Clam, Saxidomus purpuratus from Southern Coast of Korea
Choi, Jin-Woo ; Kim, Su-Kyoung ; Choi, Yong-Suk ; Lee, Chang-Hoon ; Lee, Woo-Jin ; Ryu, Tae-Kwon ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 33~40
To obtain the basic information on culture conditions for the larvae of Saxidomus purpuratus, experiments were conducted on the population from southern coast for (1) the success in fertilization and development from artificial fertilization among different months of a year, (2) the viability of sperms after exposure to seawater, (3) and the effects of temperature, salinity, and food organism on the survival and growth of larvae. Gametes obtained from dissection showed high rate of fertilization at all months. But the rate of development was higher only May-July. Developmental success seemed to be related with the quality of eggs at the time of fertilization. Developmental times for 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, blastula, trochophore larva, and veliger larva at 20
were 1.5, 2, 4, 18, 24, and 32 hr, respectively. Sperms could survive for more than 8 hr, however, actively swimming sperms could be found within 1 hr after exposure to seawater. It is recommended that sperms should be used for fertilization as soon as possible when they are exposed to seawater. At temperature of 35
, all the larvae died during 48 hr. Larval survival decreased when salinity was either lower than 20 psu or higher than 40 psu, and was 0% when salinity was 10 psu. Optimal range of temperature and salinity for rearing larvae of S. purpuratus were 20-25
and 20-40 psu, respectively. Larvae grew from 111.5 to 235.3
m during 21 days. Larvae fed mixed diets grew faster than unialgal diets. The fastest growth was observed when larvae were fed on the mixture of Isochrysis galbana and Nannochloris oculata.
바지락, Ruditapes philippinarum의 생식소 발달 단계에 따른 폐각근 조직과 내장낭 조직의 생화학적 성분 변화
Chung, Ee-Yung ; Kim, Jong-Bae ; Moon, Jae-Hak ; Hur, Sung-Bum ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 41~51
Reproductive cycle with the gonadal development of Ruditapes philippinarum can be classified into five successive stages by histological observations: early active stage (January to March), late active stage (February to May), ripe stage (April to August), partially spawned stage (May to October), and spent/inactive stage (August to February). Changes in total protein contents in the adductor muscle tissues reached the maximum in the early and late active stages (February) and appeared the minimum in the ripe and partially spawned stages (May), while changes in their contents in the visceral mass tissues reached the maximum in the ripe and partially spawned stages (June) and gradually decreased in the partially spawned stage (June to October). On the whole, changes in total protein contents showed a negative correlationship between the adductor muscle and visceral mass tissues (r = -0.292, p < 0.05). Changes in total lipid contents in the adductor muscle tissues reached the maximum in the inactive and early active stages (January) and sharply decreased in the early and late active stages (February), while their contents in the visceral mass tissues reached the maximum in the ripe and partially spawned stages (April) and gradually decreased in the partially spawned stage (to October). On the whole, changes in total lipid contents showed a negative correlationship between the adductor muscle and visceral mass tissues (r = -0.699, p<0.05). Changes in glycogen contents in the adductor muscle tissues reached the maximum in the late active and ripe stages (April) and rapidly decreased in the partially spawned stage (May to October), while their contents in the visceral mass tissues reached the maximum in the early and late active stages (February) and rapidly decreased in the late active stage (March). Thereafter, their levels gradually increased in the ripe and partially spawned stages (April to July). On the whole, changes in glycogen contents appeared no correlationship between the adductor muscle and visceral mass tissues (r = 0.062, p > 0.05). These results indicate that the adductor muscle and visceral mass tissues are an important energy storage and nutrient supply organ in the Manila clams, and the nutrient contents of the adductor muscle and visceral muscle tissues change in response to gonadal energy needs.
A Study on the Molluscan Fauna in the Freshwater of Asan Area
Shim, Yoon-Bo ; Shin, Hyun-Chul ; Jeong, Kye-Heon ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 53~70
In order to understand freshwater molluscan fauna in Asan area, a survey was conducted on the watersheds of this area during the period of October 1999 to August 2000. For the purpose of easy overlook of the molluscan fauna in Asan area, present survey was undertaken on a total of 101 sampling sites of 4 major watersheds connected along Onyang River, Gokgyo River, Sapgyo Lake, and Asan Lake. The collected freshwater mollusks were analysed based on the environment of their habitats. The freshwater mollusks collected through out the present survey were 27 species, 12 families, 5 orders, and 2 classes. Of these, gastropods were 18 species, 10 families, 3 orders; and bivalves were 9 species, 2 families, and 2 orders. The dominant gastropods in this area were Radix auricularia coreana, Cipangopaludina chinensis malleata, Hippeutis cantori, Physa acuta, Gyraulus convexiusculus and Austropeplea ollula and the dominant bivalves were Anodonta arcaeformis, Anodonta arcaeformis flavotincta, and Anodonta woodiana. Dominant species in rice fields were Fossaria truncatula, Segmentina hemisphaerula and Physa acuta, dominant species in rivers were Radix auricularia coreana, Physa acuta, and Hippeutis cantori. Dominant species in reservoirs were Cipangopaludina chinensis malleata, Radix auricularia coreana, Austropeplea ollula, and Fossaria truncatula. Dominant species collected in lakes were Cipangopaludina chinensis malleata, Hippeutis cantori, Cipangopaludina japonica, and Radix auricularia coreana. Radix auricularia coreana, Cipangopaludina chinensis malleata, and Austropeplea ollula were dominantly inhabiting on the muddy bottoms. Anodonta woodiana, Cipangopaludina japonica, and Corbicula fluminea occurred mainly in the gravel areas. Radix auricularia coreana, Cipangopaludina chinensis malleata, and Hippeutis cantori were dominant in the muddy rock areas. Rock-dominant species were Radix auricularia coreana, Semisulcospira forticosta and Koreanomelania paucicincta. Sand-dominant species were Physa acuta, Radix auricularia coreana, and Hippeutis cantori. Sand gravel-dominant species were Physa acuta, Radix auricularia coreana, and oreanomelania paucicincta. Hippeutis cantori, Cipangopaludina chinensis malleata, and Gyraulus convexiusculus occurred in the sand-muddy areas. Cristaria plicata, appointed as an endangered species from the "Natural Environmental Conservation Law", was collected from 5 sampling sites (site Nos. 45, 47, 48, and 52). For the endangered species found in this survey should be make appropriate protection.
Anaesthetic Effects of Lidocaine-HCl as an Anaesthetic on the Webfoot Octopus, Octopus ocellatus
Kim, Byung-Gyun ; Jun, Je-Cheon ; Chung, Ee-Yung ; Sim, Doo-Saing ; Seo, Hyung-Chul ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 71~79
After the juvenile octopus individuals being discharged, it is hard to separately capture them because they attach strongly to the wall of the aquarium by the suckers on the arms. Therefore, anaesthetics (MS-222 or lidocaine-HCl) are usually used for capture from attachment. The anaesthetized time of the octopus by lidocaine-HCl was more faster 1.6 to 4.5 times under 200 ppm and 6.0 to 6.5 times in 300 to 500 ppm than those in MS-222. In the anaesthetized and recovery rates (%) by the exposed time, the juvenile octopuses were anesthetized by lower concentrations of lidocaine-HCl within the short time, and rapidly recovered from anesthesia. In the secondary anesthesia of the juvenile octopuses exposed with lidocaine-HCl by the elapsed time after the primary anesthesia, the anesthetized time was later in case of lower concentrations and long elapsed times, However, the anesthetized time was faster when their concentrations were higher and the elapsed time after anesthesia were shorter. Recovery from the secondary anesthesia was faster when the elapsed time was long in lower concentration, and was later when the elapsed time was shorter. In case of Octopus ocellatus, anaesthetic effects by lidocaine-HCl concentrations were better than those of MS-222. Doses of lidocaine-HCl and critical time for works at the indoor laboratory were proper in concentration of 100 ppm within 15 min.