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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Malacology
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Journal DOI :
The Malacological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Dec 2006
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Jun 2006
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Genetic Differences and Variation in Two Purple Washington Clam (Saxidomus purpuratus) Populations from South and North Korea
Yoon, Jong-Man ; Park, Su-Young ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 22, issue 2, 2006, Pages 97~108
Genomic DNA samples isolated from geographical purple Washington clam (Saxidomus purpuratus) were obtained from two different regions in Korean Peninsula: Gunsan (Gunsan population; GSP), and Haeju (Haeju population; HJP), a collection area in the vicinity of the West Sea. The seven arbitrarily primers, OPA-07, OPA-09, OPA-18, OPA-20, OPC-03, OPC-06 and OPC-09 were shown to generate the total loci, loci observed per primer, shared loci by each population, specific, and polymorphic loci which could be clearly scored. We also generated the unique shared loci to each population and shared loci by the two populations in purple Washington clam. The size of the DNA fragments also varied wildly, from 50 to 2,400 bp. Here, 304 total loci were identified in the GSP purple Washington clam population, and 282 in the HJP: 91 polymorphic loci (29.9%) in the GSP and 47 (16.7) in the HJP. 198 shared loci, with an average of 28.3 per primer, were observed in the GSP population. The decamer primer OPA-07 generated the shared loci by the two populations, approximately 1,000 bp, between the two Saxidomus populations. The oligonucleotide primer OPC-03 also generated the shared loci by the two populations, approximately 500 bp and 1,000 bp, in GSP population from Gunsan and HJP population from Haeju. The other primer, OPC-06 generated the shared loci by two Gomphina populations (approximately 400 bp). The dendrogram, generated by seven reliable primers, indicates three genetic clusters. The dendrogram obtained by the seven primers indicates three genetic clusters: cluster 1 (GUNSAN 01-GUNSAN 02), cluster 2 (GUNSAN 03-GUNSAN 11), and cluster 3 (HAEJU 12-HAEJU 22). The genetic distance between the two geographical populations ranged from 0.043 to 0.506. Especially, the longest genetic distance displaying significant molecular differences, 0.506, was found to exist between individuals GUNSAN no. 11 of Gunsan and HAEJU no. 17 of Haeju.
Bioinformatic Analysis of NLS (Nuclear Localization Signals)-containing Proteins from Mollusks
Lee, Yong-Seok ; Kang, Se-Won ; Jo, Yong-Hun ; Gwak, Heui-Chul ; Chae, Sung-Hwa ; Choi, Sang-Haeng ; Ahn, In-Young ; Park, Hong-Seog ; Han, Yeon-Soo ; Kho, Weon-Gyu ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 22, issue 2, 2006, Pages 109~113
Subcellular localization of a protein containing nuclear localization signals (NLS) has been well studied in many organisms ranging from invertebrates to vertebrates. However, no systematic analysis of NLS-containing proteins available from Mollusks has been reported. Here, we describe in silico screening of NLS-containing proteins using the mollusks database that contains 22,138 amino acids. To screen putative proteins with NLS-motif, we used both predict NLS and perl script. As a result, we have found 266 proteins containing NLS sequences which are about 1.2% out of the entire proteins. On the basis of KOG (The eukaryotic orthologous groups) analysis, we can't predict the precise functions of the NLS-containing proteins. However, we found out that these proteins belong to several types of proteins such as chromatin structure and dynamics, translation, ribosomal structure, biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanism. In addition, we have analysed these sequences based on the classes of mollusks. We could not find many from the species that are the main subjects of phylogenetic studies. In contrast, we noticed that cephalopods has the highest number of NLS-containing proteins. Thus, we have constructed mollusks NLS database and added these information and data to the mollusks database by constructing web interface. Taken together, these information will be very useful for those who are or will be studying NLS-containing proteins from mollusks.
Ultrastructure of Germ Cells during Spermatogenesis and the Reproductive Cycle in Male Meretrix petechialis on the West Coast of Korea
Chung, Ee-Yung ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 22, issue 2, 2006, Pages 115~124
Gonad index, spermatogenesis and the reproductive cycle of Meretrix petechialis were investigated by cytological, histological observations. Monthly changes in the gonad index coincides the gonadal development. The morphology of the spermatozoon had a primitive type and is similar to that of other bivalves having a short mid-piece with five to six mitochondria surrounding the centrioles. The morphology of the sperm nucleus type and the acrosome shape of this species were cylindrical type and cap-like shape, respectively. The spermatozoon was approximately 40-45
in length including the sperm nucleus length (about 1.50
), acrosome length (0.60
) and tail flagellum. The axoneme of the tail flagellum consisted of nine pairs of microtubules at the periphery and a pair at the center. The axoneme of the sperm tail showed 9 + 2 microtubular arrangement. The spawning period was from June to September and the main spawning occurred from July to August when seawater temperatures were higher than
. The reproductive cycle of this species could be categorized into five successive stages: early active stage (February to March), late active stage (February to May), ripe stage (April to July), partially spawned stage (June to September), and spent/inactive stage (September to February).
Changes in Biochemical Components of Several Tissues of the Hard Clam, Meretrix petechialis, in Relation to Gonad Developmental Phases
Kim, Yong-Min ; Park, Kwan-Ha ; Chung, Ee-Yung ; Kim, Jong-Bae ; Lee, Chang-Hoon ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 22, issue 2, 2006, Pages 125~134
We investigated the reproductive cycle of the hard clam, Meretrix petechialis with its gonadal development by histological observations. The seasonal changes in biochemical component of the adductor muscle, visceral mass, foot muscle and mantle of the clam were studied by biochemical analysis, from January to December, 2002. The reproductive cycle of this species can be divided into five successive stages: early stage (January to March), late active stage (February to May), ripe stage (April to August), partially spawned stage (July to August) and spent/inactive stage (September to January). Total protein content in the visceral mass was over two times higher than that in the adductor muscle. Monthly changes of total protein content in the adductor muscle were not statistically significant (ANOVA, p = 0.071), while the changes in the visceral mass were significant (p < 0.001). Total protein content in visceral mass was higher during the early active, late active, and ripe stages (from January to May), while the lowest in July. Glycogen content in the adductor muscle was higher than that in the visceral mass. Monthly changes in glycogen contents were statistically significant in both adductor muscle (F = 237.2, p < 0.001) and the visceral mass (F = 64.04, p < 0.001). Glycogen content in the adductor muscle was the highest in the ripe stage (April). Its content was lower in the partially spawned and the spent/inactive stages (June-September). Glycogen contents in the visceral mass were relatively lower until the early active stage, while the highest in the late active stage. RNA content was higher in visceral mass than that in the adductor muscle. Monthly changes in RNA contents were significant in both adductor muscle (F = 195.2, p < 0.001) and visceral mass (F = 78.85, p < 0.001). RNA content in the adductor muscle was high in the early active stage (January-February), and then it decreased rapidly in the late active stage (March-April), thereafter, slightly increased during the partially spawned stage (June-July). RNA content in the visceral mass reached a maximum during the ripe stage (May), and then it decreased rapidly during the partially-spawned stage (June-July). There was significant positive correlation in total protein contents between adductor muscle and visceral mass (r = 0.715, p = 0.020). However, there was no correlation between adductor muscle and visceral mass in glycogen (p = 0.550), while a negative correlation was found between the adductor muscle and visceral mass in RNA (p = 0.518) contents. Especially, changes in RNA content showed a negative correlation between the adductor muscle tissue and visceral mass. Therefore, these results suggest that the nutrient content of the adductor muscle, visceral muscle and foot muscle changed in response to gonadal energy needs.
Shell Height Frequency using of Age and Growth of Blood Cockle, Tegillarca granosa (Linnaeus) in Yeoja Bay, Southern Coast of Korea
Chang, Dae-Soo ; Moon, Tae-Seok ; Jung, Min-Min ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 22, issue 2, 2006, Pages 135~141
This paper describes relative age and growth pattern of the blood cockle, Tegillarca granosa (Linnaeus) in Yeoja Bay, southern coast of Korea. The young shell of blood cockle that spawned from July to August reached 5.60 mm
in shell height in October. Slow growing season was estimated to be from October to the next May with water temperature under
. With warm water temperature in July to September, the growth was fast. The young shells reached 29 percentage of asymptotic shell height 11-15 months after spawning. Growth was estimated by von Bertalanffy growth function as follows.
Reproductive Biology of the Pen Shell, Atrina(Servatrina) pectinata on the Boryeong Coastal Waters of Korea
Chung, Ee-Yung ; Baik, Seong-Hyeon ; Ryu, Dong-Ki ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 22, issue 2, 2006, Pages 143~150
The gonad index, condition index, reproductive cycle and spawning of the pen shell Atrina (Servatrina) pectinata were investigated using samples from the subtidal zone of Nokdo on the Boryeong coastal waters of Korea. Samples were collected monthly by SCUBA divers for one year from January to December, 2001. A. (Servatrina) pectinata is dioecious and oviparous. The spawning season of this species occurred once a year from June to August, with the main spawning occurring between June and July when the seawater temperature was around
. Ripe oocytes were about 60-65
in diameter. The reproductive cycle of this species could be classified into five successive stages; early active stage (November to March), late active stage (February to May), ripe stage (April to July), partially spawned stage (June to August), and spent/inactive stage (August to October). Monthly changes in the gonad index reached a maximum (4.6) in May (ripe stage), thereafter, the GI values gradually decreased from June to August when spawning occurred continuously. Therefore, monthly changes in the GI values showed a similar pattern to the gonadal phase. The condition index (CI) of the meat part without the posterior adductor muscle reached the maximum in June (ripe and partially spawned stage) and the minimum in September (spent/inactive stage), Accordingly, monthly changes in the condition indice of the meat part without the posterior adductor muscle coincided with the gonadal phases.
Proportion of Surviving and Physiological Changes of Granular ark, Tegillarca granosa to Air Exposure
Shin, Yun-Kyung ; Moon, Tae-Seok ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 22, issue 2, 2006, Pages 151~155
Proportion of Tegillarca granosa surviving after 2-6 hrs air exposure with 12 hrs interval at
for 20 days showed 85-100%, 80-100%, respectively. The survival rate was somewhat lower at high temperature but not significant (p < 0.05). Subsequent exposures for 7-9 days showed survival rate of 8.0-24.1% at
. Oxygen consumption rates and filtration rates were significantly higher for 4 to 6 hrs exposures, compared with the preceding exposures. On the other hand, at
, oxygen consumption rates in adult granular ark for 6 hrs exposure during 20 days had significantly decreased. Filtration rates in study groups increased a little over extended period of exposure, compared with those in control groups, and were similar irrelevant to the time of exposure and size of experimental animals. It is concluded, in view of their viability and oxygen consumption rate during air exposure, that ark shells have quite a high resistance to air exposure with their limited range of responses.
Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Ruditapes philippinarum
Lee, Yong-Seok ; Jo, Yong-Hun ; Byun, In-Sun ; Kang, Se-Won ; Cho, Eun-Mi ; Han, Yeon-Soo ; Choi, Sang-Haeng ; Park, Hong-Seog ; Kho, Weon-Gyu ; Ahn, In-Young ; Jeong, Kye-Heon ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 22, issue 2, 2006, Pages 157~165
The present study was conducted to confirm that a bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum can be used as a biomarker for the monitoring of the heavy metal pollution in the silt of the marine environment. The clams were collected from the silt of Cheonsu-bay, Buheung-ri, and Tan-island of the West Sea, Korea. To observe the normal structures of the target organs (hepatopancreas and gill), they were dissected out for the immunohistochemical study and the electron microscopy with TEM, SEM, and SEM-EDS. The immunohistochemical study showed that the interdiverticular connective tissues of the hepatopancreas, and the outer epithelium of the gill lamellae was strongly reacted to anti-metallothionein (MT), indicating the presence of MT, a metal-binding protein, involved in metal detoxifying process. According to the examinations under the TEM, the epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas of the clams collected from polluted area (Tan-island) showed certain changes such as swollen rER, swollen nuclear envelope and inclusion bodies in the nulcei. In the SEM-EDS analysis, tissue of the hepatopancreas showed relatively higher concentration of S, Zn, and Cd. These elements are supposed to be concerning with the MT-reaction in the hepatopancreas. Considering that the coastal bivalve R. philippinarum showed immediate subcellular responses to heavy metal pollution in the overall experiments conducted, this species might act as one of efficient biomarkers for the heavy metal contamination in the marine environment.
Effect of Heavy Metals on Embryonic Development in the Mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis
Sung, Chan-Gyoung ; Kim, Gi-Beum ; Lee, Chang-Hoon ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 22, issue 2, 2006, Pages 167~173
The embryos of marine bivalves have been commonly used in bioassays for quality assessments of marine environments. Although several standard protocols for the developmental bioassay of bivalves have been proposed, only a few trials for application of these protocols in environmental assessments or for the development of a new protocol with Korean species have been conducted. As such, there is a strong need to establish standard bioassay protocols with bivalves commonly found in Korean waters. To determine the sensitivity of Mytilus galloprovincialis to establish a standard bioassay, their fertilized eggs were exposed to six metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn). The order of biological impact was Ag > Cu > Ni > Zn > Cr > Cd and their lowest observed effective concentration were 5, 16.4, 25.4, 142, 187 and 1,500
, respectively. The proportion of normal larvae appeared to decrease linearly with the logarithm of each toxicant concentration within the tested range. The average values of median effective concentrations
from the triplicate experiments for Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn were 6.8, 1,797, 786, 16.6, 68.1, and 139.2
, respectively. There was a more than 100-fold difference in
values of Cu and Cd. The value of
or median lethal concentration of Cu was within the range observed for other bivalve developmental bioassays. The overall sensitivity of M. galloprovincialis in the present developmental bioassay was also similar to that of other marine organisms commonly used in aquatic bioassays (e.g. sea urchins, oysters). Hence, the bioassay using the embryo of M. galloprovincialis is considered to be a useful tool to monitor and evaluate the quality of marine aquatic environments.
Effect of Temperature on Induced Sexual Maturation of the Ark Shell, Scapharca broughtonii (Schrenck) Broodstock
Kim, Byoung-Hak ; Min, Kwang-Sik ; Lee, Seung-Ju ; Park, Ki-Yeol ; An, Chul-Min ; Min, Byeong-Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 22, issue 2, 2006, Pages 175~182
Artificial induction of maturation by heating of the ark shell, Scapharca broughtonii (Schrenck) broodstock was investigated from 10th March to 21th May in 2004. Maturity at the fixed water temperature group of
was 60.5％, and it was the highest in maturity among experimental groups cultured for seven weeks. The proportions of organism surviving to start of S. broughtonii in the raised water temperature experimental groups (20 and
) were over 90.5％, as similar to the control group (natural water temperature, 84.8％). But, the proportions of organism surviving to start of S. broughtonii in the fixed water temperature experimental groups (20, 23, and
) were decreased with the increasing of the water temperature. In the fixed water temperature experimental groups of
, the survival was 18.1％. Base on these results, the fixed water temperature of
(accumulated water temperature;
) was the best condition for artificial induction of sexual maturation.