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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Malacology
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Journal DOI :
The Malacological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
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Ultrastructure of the Digestive Diverticulum of Saxidomus purpuratus (Bivalvia: Veneridae)
Ju, Sun-Mi ; Lee, Jung-Sick ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 159~165
DOI : 10.9710/kjm.2011.27.3.159
The anatomy and ultrastructure of the digestive diverticulum of Saxidomus purpuratus were described using light and electron microscopy. The digestive diverticulum of dark green color was situated on the gonad and connected to stomach by a primary duct. Digestive diverticulum is composed of numerous digestive tubules. The epithelial layer of digestive tubule, which is simple, is composed of basophilic cells and digestive cells. Basophilic cells are columnar in shape, and the electron density is higher than that of the digestive cell. The cytoplasm has a well-developed endoplasmic reticulum, tubular mitochondria, Golgi complex and membrane-bounded granules of high electron density. Digestive cells are columnar in shape, with development of microvilli on the free surface. Pinocytic vasicles, lysosomes and numerous mitochondria were observed in the apical cytoplasm of digestive cells. The results of this study suggest that basophilic cells and digestive cells in the digestive tubule are specialized in the extracellular and intracellular digestions, respectively.
Effect of Water Temperature, Salinity and Rearing Density on the Egg Development of the Hard Clam, Meretrix petechialis (Lamarck)
Kim, Tae-Ik ; Ko, Chang-Sun ; Hur, Young-Baek ; Jin, Young-Guk ; Chang, Young-Jin ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 167~173
DOI : 10.9710/kjm.2011.27.3.167
This study was performed to describe the effect of water temperature, salinity and density on the eggs development of the hard clam, Meretrix petechialis. Eggs of Meretrix petechialis were turned out to be demersal isolated eggs of
in an average diameter after spawning. The hatching rate of D-shaped larvae by elapsed time after spawning was the highest in fertilization immediately after spawning and distinguished decrease from 1 hour of spawning. The optimum water temperature for development of D-shaped larvae from fertilization was ranged between
. However, D-shaped larvae was not developed at
of water temperature. The required time from fertilization to D-shaped larvae were 37.3 hours in
, 20.8 hours in
, and 15.3 hours in
. Biological minimum temperature for the egg development was estimated to be
in average. The range of salinity for the development of eggs were 20.0-37.5 psu, optimum range was estimated to be 27.5-32.5 psu.
Growth and Survival of the Hard Clam, Meretrix petechialis (Lamarck) Larvae to Food Organisms
Kim, Tae-Ik ; Ko, Chang-Sun ; Hur, Young-Baek ; Yang, Mun-Ho ; Chang, Young-Jin ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 175~180
DOI : 10.9710/kjm.2011.27.3.175
The investigated amounts according to microalgae for stable supply of artificial seed of the hard clam, Meretrix petechialis and also observed the effect according to the repower of the microalgae after the specified period starvation. The stage of specimen used in the test was the D-shaped larva. The microalgae was Chaetoceros calcitrans, Isochrysis galbana and Nannochloris oculata. When the mixture of Chaetoceros calcitrans, Isochrysis galbana and Nannochloris oculata or alone C. calcitrans as food was supplied with 3,000-5,000 cells/ind., it turned to be the most effective. When the food was provided after starvation for some period, the shell length of D-shaped larva was grown to over
at fourth day from the initial feeding. The survival rate tended to be lower, the longer the starvation period.
Change of Reproductive and Histological Biomarkers of Ruditapes philippinarum (Bivalvia: Veneridae) Exposed to Nonylphenol
Park, Ji-Seon ; Lee, Jung-Sick ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 181~190
DOI : 10.9710/kjm.2011.27.3.181
This study was investigated to find out the change of reproductive and histological biomarkers of Ruditapes philippinarum exposed to nonylphenol (NP). Experimental period was 16 weeks. Experimental groups were composed of one control condition and three NP exposure conditions (0.05, 0.1,
). Gonad index was higher in exposure group than control in female and higher in control than exposure group in male. Intersexuality in the NP exposure group was 14.56% with male exhibiting higher ratio than female. Histological analysis of organ system illustrated expansion of hemolymph sinus, loss of striated border of inner epidermis and degeneration of mucous cell in the mantle. In the gill partially disappearance of frontal and lateral cilia, degeneration of mucous cell were observed. Also, hyperplasia of epithelium and disappearance of striated border were observed in the foot. As the concentration of NP increased, the accumulation of lipofuscin increased in the digestive gland. The results of this study suggest that NP induces reduction of survival rate, histopathology and intersex of R. philippinarum. Furthermore, it is indentified that NP functions as an estrogenic effector on the reproduction of R. philippinarum.
Unrecorded Pulmonate Snail, Onchidium hongkongensis (Systellommatophora, Onchidiidae) from Korean Waters
Kil, Hyun-Jong ; Lee, Jun-Sang ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 191~192
DOI : 10.9710/kjm.2011.27.3.191
Pulmonate snail, Onchidium hongkongensis from muddy flat of Muan-gun was recorded as new to the Korean molluscan fauna. Shell-less body light-gray or reddish-gray in colour, oval shaped with numerous pustules on dorsal surface usually covered with mud. Black pair of tentacles with terminal eyes. Including the new record in this study, the family Onchidiidae 2 genera and 2 species in the Korean waters.
A Study on the Mortality of Korean Scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis Affected Critical Changed Water Temperature at Indoor Tanks
Oh, Bong-Se ; Jo, Q-Tae ; Lee, Jeong-Yong ; Kwon, Mun-Gyeong ; Lee, Chu ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 193~198
DOI : 10.9710/kjm.2011.27.3.193
We examined the effect of an artificial change of water temperature on the survival rate of Korean Scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis. As for the change of water temperature, the aspects appearing on the eastern coast of Korea during spring and summer were artificially prepared in the rearing aquarium in the laboratory. The survival rate of Scallop, due to the stimulus of a low water temperature in spring, was an average of 51.6%. Medium-sized scallops averaged 4.4%, which is lower than that of small-sized ones (85.82%) and large-sized ones (55.0%). The survival rate of Scallop, due to the stimulus of water at a high temperature in summer, was an average of 43.3%. As for small-sized scallops, they averaged a 46.7% survival rate which is lower than that of medium-sized scallops (60.0%). In general, the survival rate was lower in summer than in spring. Such results show that the death of Scallop, has close relevance to the change of water temperature. The low survival rate of medium-sized ones. Alternatively, medium-sized scallops have to get through winter, even if they cannot grow enough compared with large-sized ones. This is because large-sized scallops have already been adapted to the change of water temperature by getting through winter twice.
Survival and Growth of the Purplish Washington Clam, Saxidomus purpuratus Spat Sowed in bottom and intermediate culture
Jin, Young-Guk ; Oh, Bong-Se ; Jung, Choon-Koo ; Kim, Tae-Ik ; Park, Min-Woo ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 199~204
DOI : 10.9710/kjm.2011.27.3.199
We studied possibility of the sowing culture at the bottom after intermediate culture as a method for raising the survival of the Purplish Washington clam, Saxidomus purpuratus. The pearl net (
) for S. prupuratus spat during the period of intermediate culture (hanging culture) from April to October in 2010. The pearl net (100 inds./net) was installed at two stations (Namhae and Pohang) being about 3-4 m in water depth. After hanging culture, S. prupuratus spat sowed in the bottom of the Gangjin Bay. The survivals (%) of intermediate culture of this species at Namhae station and Pohang station were 73% and 74%, respectively. Daily growth rate of mean shell length and mean weight in Namhae station were higher than those in Pohang station. After sowing at the bottom of the Gangjin Bay, its survival (%) showed 73.98% in January 2011. These results suggested the possibility of the intermediate culture as hanging culture for raising survival rate of S. prupuratus.
Variation in physiological energetics of blood cockle Scapharca subcrenata (Bivalvia: Arcidae) from Yeoja bay, South coast of Korea
Shin, Yun-Kyung ; Lee, Won-Chan ; Kim, Sung-Yeon ; Jun, Je-Cheon ; Kim, Eung-Oh ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 205~211
DOI : 10.9710/kjm.2011.27.3.205
This study presents physiological rates of oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion, feeding rates, O/N ratio and assimilation efficiency of the blood cockle, Scapharca subcrenata, determined from specimens collected in Yeoja bay on the south coast of Korea. Physiological parameters were measured monthly under static, laboratory controlled conditions with ambient conditions, and measurements were performed seasonally in order to estimate scope for growth and its probable sources of variation. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates have been increased as temperature increased with the highest value of August, 2008. Feeding rate was the highest during April whereas the lowest was during August which is a period of gametogenesis with minimum biomass of phytoplankton around sampling area. Assimilation efficiency was not significantly different seasonally and O/N ratio decreased during July to August. The scope for growth was negative during high temperature months(July to August), reflecting the high temperature and low feeding rate, and had its highest positive values during spring and autumn. Data on the physiological parameters and scope for growth of Scapharca subcrenata obtained in this study will be used to assess the carrying capacity for blood cockle cultivation.
Ultrastructural Changes in the Mantle of the Equilateral Venus, Gomphina veneriformis (Bivalvia: Veneridae) Exposed to TBTCl
Park, Jung-Jun ; Kim, Seok-Ryel ; Park, Myoung-Ae ; Lee, Jung-Sick ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 213~221
DOI : 10.9710/kjm.2011.27.3.213
Equilateral venus, Gomphina veneriformis exposed to tribultyltin chloride (TBTCl) for 36 weeks was showed ultrastructural changes of the mantle. The fine mantle had 4-folds and its epidermal layer consisted of simple columnar epithelial cells and ciliated cells and secretory cells. Inner and outer epidermal layer covered connective tissue. The mantle exposed to TBTCl at 12 weeks was decreased cilia in the inner epidermal layer, and observed extension of the hemolymph sinus and destruction of the septum. At 20 weeks, it revealed vacuole formation and pycnosis in the cytoplasm, and scattered muscular fiber. After 28 weeks of exposure, the mantle revealed partially degenerative changes in the epidermal layer. In the ciliated cells, basal body was isolated from the cilia and rootlet complex and basal foot were scattered. The sarcolemma had debris fiber. At 36 weeks, it observed degenerative cells that it revealed disappearance of the cilia, atrophic nucleus, poorly membrane and destruction of the cresternae in the mitochondria, and increasing heterophagosome. The outer epithelial cell had necrotic nuclus, numeous lysosome and disappearance of the microvilli. Therefore, results of this study suggested that chronical TBTCl exposure in the Gomphina veneriformis induced the disorders of shell growth and physiological function with histopathological changes of the mantle.
Prismatic shell repairs by hemoctyes in the extrapallial fluid of the Pacific Oyster, Crassostrea gigas
Cho, Sang-Man ; Jeong, Woo-Geon ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 223~228
DOI : 10.9710/kjm.2011.27.3.223
To understand the role of hemocytes in the shell repair process, a hole was drilled in the right valves of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, and the repair process was observed. Histological observations suggested that the exterior surface of the shell was repaired by aggregated hemocytes. The nuclei of the hemocytes were cleary stained in the regenerated shell while appearing fragmented after calcification at the
day. Globular calcium granules were genegenerated from the hemocytic monolyer after 6 days of incubation which were morphologically and chemically identical with those from prismatic shell. Our finding suggested that the repaired prismatic shell was composed by aggregated hemocytes and that their endogenous calcium component might support the nucleation of calcium biomineralization during shell repair.
Community Structure of Macrobenthic Invertebrates of Fishing grounds in the coastal waters of Jeju Island
Ko, Jun-Cheol ; Koo, Jun-Ho ; Lee, Seung-Jong ; Chang, Dae-Su ; Jo, Sung-Hwan ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 229~246
DOI : 10.9710/kjm.2011.27.3.229
This study was performed to know and compare the community structures of macrobenthic invertebrates of eight fishing grounds in the coastal waters of Jeju Island from September to October 2008. A total of 166 species was identified. Mollusks comprised 77 species (46.4%); Arthropods 24 (14.5%), Cnidarians 18 (10.8%); Poriferans 16 (9.6%); and the others including Echinoderms 33 (17.7%). Density and biomass were estimated to be 6,905 ind./
and 113,100.7 gwwt/
, respectively. Gastropods was the most dominant taxon in terms of abundance (3,311 ind./
) and number of species as well, and Gastropods was predominant in biomass (55,789.2 gwwt/
). The dominant species were Omphalius pfeifferi, Astralium haematragum, Turbo cornutus, Ergalatax contraacta, Lithophaga cura, Anthocidaris crassispina, Herdmania monus in 5-15 m. Based on the cluster analysis, the study area could be divided into two station groups. The biodiversity, evenness and richness index appeared as follows: H' = 1.59-2.95, E' = 0.38-0.87, R = 3.3-10.4. The dominance index were highest in Daepo and lowest in Woljeong.
-Ray Irradiation on the Color of Pearl Nucleus
Kim, Hea-Yeon ; Min, Bong-Ki ; Jeong, Woo-Geon ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 247~252
DOI : 10.9710/kjm.2011.27.3.247
The effect of
-ray irradiation on the color of nucleus and cultured pearls was investigated. After (
-ray irradiation on the pearl nucleus, its color was altered from brownish to blackish brown or gray depending on irradiation dose. It was clearly found that the all samples are composed of aragonite. ESR spectra were based on the measurement of the paramagnetic species
-radicals by the interaction with the
-ray irradiation in
. In this study, we investigated optimal detection method of
-ray irradiation to establish destructive or non-destructive test for pearl nucleus.
Observations of Boring Behaviour and the Drilling Mechanism of Lunatia fortunei (Gastropoda: Naticidae) in Western Korea
Chung, Ee-Yung ; Kim, Sung-Han ; Back, Yong-Hae ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 253~259
DOI : 10.9710/kjm.2011.27.3.253
Boring behaviour and drilling mechanism were investigated by visual observations. In this study, of two kinds of holes (the outer and inner holes) which are formed by drilling of boring gastropod Lunatia fortunei (Naticidae), the diameters of the outer holes are broader and larger than those of the inner holes, and their holes look like the crater in shape, as seen in all valves of bivalves bored by Naticidae species. Two kinds of glands (the accessory boring gland and accessory salivary gland) on the foots of boring gastropods have been investigated. Of them, it has been confirmed that only the accessory salivary glands on the foots secreted sulphuric (acidic) components in the mucus (secretion), while the accessory boring glands on the foots did not secrete their components. In this study, we confirmed that L. fortunei possess the accessory boring gland on the foot, as seen in most species in Naticidae. Accoeding to the results of the experiment of the blue litmus paper tests of the mucus (secretions) secreted from the accessory boring gland the color of the blue litmus paper did not turn red in color because chemical components of mucus (secretion) secreted from the accessory boring gland on the foot of L. fortunei (boring gastropod) were not acidic components. It is supposed that the mucus, which is secreted from the accessory boring gland, contained gelatin-like substances or enzymes without acidic components, as already reported in Naticidae species. Therefore, these substances may be involved in softening the surface of the valves of M. veneriformis. Consequently, it is assumed thar L. fortunei bores holes through the shells of molluscs by means of following 3 methods: (1) a softening of the calcareous shells of M. veneriformis with chemical secretions (including gellatin-like substances or enzyme except for acidic components) from the accessory boring glands, (2) mechanical rasping with the radula, (3) a combination of both. In this study, particularly, acidic components, which are involved in softening the surface of the shells, are not associated with the boring mechanism of L. fortunei because chemical acidic components were not detected in the mucus (secretion), as found in Naticidae species.
Gametogenic Cycle by Quantitative Statistical Analysis and the Biological Minimum Size in Protothaca (Notochione) jedoensis (Bivalvia: Veneridae) in Western Korea
Park, Kwan-Ha ; Chung, Ee-Yung ; Lee, Chang-Hoon ; Kim, Sung-Han ; Kim, Sung-Yeon ; Seo, Won-Jae ; Ryu, Dong-Ki ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 261~271
DOI : 10.9710/kjm.2011.27.3.261
The gametogenic cycle, the spawning season and the biological minimum sizes in female and male Protothaca (Notochione) jedoensis were investigated by quantitative statistical analysis. In females, monthly changes in the percents of the follicle areas to the ovarian tissue areas and the percents of the oocyte areas to the ovarian tissue areas increased in February and reached the maximum in April, and then gradually decreased from May to July, with the spawning peak between June and July. In males, monthly changes in the percents of the testicular tissue areas to total tissue areas and the percents of the spermatogenic stage areas to the testicular tissue areas increased in February and reached the maximum in April, and then showed a rapid decrease from May to July. From these data, it is apparent that the number of spawning seasons in female and male P. (N.) jedoensis occurred once a year, from May to July. Therefore, P. (N.) jedoensis in both sexes showed a unimodal gametogenic cycle during the year. Compared the gametogenic cycle by quantitative statistical analysis in 2007 with the previous qualitative results of this species, the results of the gametogenic cycle calculated by quantitative statistical analysis showed some differentiations in the spawning seasons evaluated by the gonad index by qualitative histological analysis. The intervals of the beginning of two spawning seasons showed one month between the results of quantitative and qualitative analyses. The biological minimum sizes (considering to 50% of group sexual maturity) in female and male clams by quantitative analysis of this species are 32.01 mm in shell length in females and 30.58 mm in males, respectively. According to the mean shell length fitted to von Bertalanffy's equation, 30.58 and 32.01 mm in shell length were considered to be two years old. Therefore, we assume that both sexes of this population begin reproduction from two years of age.
Germ Cell Differentiations During Spermatogenensis and Taxonomic Values of Mature Sperm Morphology of Pinctada martensii (Bivalvia, Pteriomorphia, Pteriidae)
Kim, Jin-Hee ; Kim, Sung-Han ; Lee, Ki-Young ;
The Korean Journal of Malacology, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 273~282
DOI : 10.9710/kjm.2011.27.3.273
The ultrastructural characteristics of germ cells during spermatogenesis and mature sperm morphology in male Pinctada martensii were investigated by transmission electron microscope observation. The morphologies of the sperm nucleus and the acrosome of this species are the oval shape and cone shape, respectively. Spermatozoa are approximately
in length including a sperm nucleus (about
in length), an acrosome (about
in length), and tail flagellum (about
). The axoneme of the sperm tail shows a 9+2 structure. In P. martensii in Pteriidae, a special substructure showing a thick and wide triangular shape which is composed of electron-dense opaque material (occupied about 50% of all, the upper part of the acrosomal vesicle), appeared in the upper region (part) of the acrosomal vesicle, while the lower region (part) of the acrosomal vesicle is composed of electron-lucent material. Thus, this special structure, which exist in the upper part of the acrosomal vesicle in P. martensii, is somewhat different from those of other subacrosomal vesicle in other families in subacrosomal vesicles. Therefore, we assume that the existence of a special substructure showing a thick and wide triangular shape in the acrosomal vesicle of the spermatozoon can be used as a key characteristic for identification of P. martensii or other species in Pteriidae in subclass Pteriomorphia. The number of mitochondria in the midpiece of the sperm of this species are five (exceptionally sometimes four), as one of common characteristics appear the same number of mitochondria in the same families of superfamilyies. This species in Pteriidae does not contain the axial rod and satellite fibres which appear in the species in Ostreidae in subclass Pteriomorphia. These characteristics can be used for the taxonomic analysis of the family or superfamily levels as a systematic key or tools.