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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Dec 1986
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Jun 1986
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Effect of Ginseng Residue Extract on Yeast Growth
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 1, 1986, Pages 1~10
To evaluate the possible utilization of ginseng by-products, chemical components of ginseng residue, reducing ability of DPPH, effect of residue extract on the yeast growth, amino acid contents of yeast cell, increase of residue extract yield by enzyme treatment were studied. Alcohol and water extract residue contained 43-46% total reducing sugar and 14-15% crude protein, while alcohol extract residue had 0.18% n-BuOH extract. Water extract of alcohol extract residue had about 45% reducing ability of DPPH in comparison with that of alcohol extract from ginseng roots. Essential nutrients for the yeast growth were found in extract when Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cultured in Czapeck medium, a compound medium, with the residue. The addition of residue extract to malt medium, a natural medium, enhanced 30-40% yeast growth. And content of each amino acid in yeast cell cultured on malt medium with ginseng residue extract was much more than that of the cell cultured without ginseng extract, but amino acid composition of yeast cell did not differ from one another. The treatment of alcohol extract residue with cellulase increased 250% yield of residue extract.
Effects of Ginseng Saponins on Growth and Synthesis of Aflatoxin by Aspeygillus parusiticus R-716
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 1, 1986, Pages 11~20
The potential effects of ginseng saponin on the growth, aflatoxin production, and physicochemical characteristics of Aspergillus parasiticus R-716 were investigated and the results obtained were summarized as follows. The pH values of culture filtrate were increased with an increase of addition amount of saponins, the amount of mycelium was increased up to l19% by the addition of 0.01% protopanaxatriol saponin (triol). Amount of aflatoxin was increased in proportion as the bright yellow color of chloroform extract of culture filtrate was intensified. There was no difference in sporulation by the addition of 0.02% saponins, however, the sporulation was gradually decreased as the addition concentration of saponins increased. Aflatoxin production was reduced to the level of 8% by the addition of crude saponin, but production of aflatoxin B1 and B2 were inhibited by 56% and 8% with the addition of 0.5% pure saponin. The production of aflatoxin B. was increased by the addition of 0.5% trios saponin, and by the addition of 0.02% biol saponin, aflatoxin G, production reached to the maximum and thereafter it was decreased.
A Simple Isolation Method of Polyacetylene Compounds from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer
Jang, Seok-Gu ; Go, Hun-Yeong ; Sim, Sang-Cheol ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 1, 1986, Pages 21~26
Polyacetylenes (conjugated poly-ynes) were Isolated from the roots of Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer by the low pressure preparative liquid chromatography and characterized by spectral analyses. The advantages of the isolation method are the simplicity of the isolation procedure and the much higher yield of poly-ynes compared to the old method.
Effects of Petroleum Ether Extract of Ginseng Root on Some Enzyme Activity in Human Colon Cancer Cells
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 1, 1986, Pages 27~35
This study was devised to observed the growth inhibition and change of disaccharidase activities of human colon cancer cells cultured in medium containing the ginseng extract. Three species of human colon cancer cell lines, HRT-18, HCT-48 and HT-29, were used for the experiment. The activities of sucrease, lactase, maltase and trehalase in the cancer cells were determined. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1. The doubling times of the HRT-18, HT-29 and HCT-48 were about 20,22 and 24 hours, respectively. 2. The growth rates of the HRT-18 and HCT-48 in culture medium containing the ginseng extract were inhibited gradually according to increase of the concentration of ginseng extract and extension of the incubation time. 3. The activities of disaccharidase in HRT-18 and HCT-48 cultured in the medium containing the ginseng extract were increased compared with control group as follows;
Effect of Different Extraction Procedures on Chemical Composition of Ginseng Extract
U, In-Hui ; Yang, Cha-Beom ; Seong, Hyeon-Sun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 1, 1986, Pages 36~44
Fresh ginseng roots were extracted by different extraction methods to estimate the amount of extracts, and the content of common constituents and ginsenosides for comparison. The results are as follows: 1 The amount of the extract obtained by water as a solvent was about five times higher than those by ethanol or pressing process. 2. Water extraction at 70-
gave highest value in saponin yield, which was reduced by half by boiling, 3. The saponin yield by pressing process was shown to be about 52% of total saponin; saponins belonging to protopanaxatriol-ginsenosides being extracted better than those belonging to proto-panaxadiol-ginsenosides . 4. The contents of total sugar, reducing sugar, crude protein and total amino acids in the water extract were revealed to be higher compared to those in an ethanol extract. 5. The extract obtained by press had the highest ash content.
Formation of Crown Gall Tumor in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 1, 1986, Pages 45~54
These studies were carried out to obtain the basic information about transformation of ginseng plant by potential vector system, utilization of opine compound by Agrobacterium sap. , and initiation of crown gall tumor callus. Crown gall tumors were induced from stem of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer by infection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Therefore, it was clarified that transformation of ginseng by Ti plasmid was possible. The crown gall tumors induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens isolated. from the soil were different in a shape, size, and growth rate. Especially, infection of ginseng by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Y104 led to the amorphic tumor, Tumor tissue derived from stem crown gall could not be continuously cultured on the medium which did not contain phytohormone, and did not form the callus even on the medium supplemented with 2,4-D. On the other hand, the root crown gall tumors formed the calli but the formation rate of callus was quite low. As for the utilization of octopine and nopaline, it was found that 3 strains of Agrobacterium app., Y104, Y110 and C58, utilized nopaline only, Y109 utilized octopine, and Y101 failed to utilize either compound.
Regulatory Effects of GMP on the Action of Ginsenoside
to the Activities of Guanylate Cyclase
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 1, 1986, Pages 55~65
Effects of various nucleotides including GMP, glnsenoslde
, and redoxidants on the activities of both particulate and soluble guanylate cyclase from rat brain have been studied. At the low concentra狀onto of GMP, AMP, ADP, and ATP the activity of guanylate cyclase is not substantially affected, whereas the inhibitory effects of these nucleotides on the enzyme activities are increased with the increasing concentrations of the nucleotides. Similarly, the activity of the soluble guanylate cyclase is inhibited with the increasing concentrations of the nucleotides. Inhibitory effects of GMP, AMP, ADP, and ATP on the activities of particulate guanylate cyclase and soluble guanylate cyclase is reduced in the presence of ginsenoside
. It is apparent broom this finding that there are seperate binding sites on the guanylate cyclase molecule specific for nucleootides and for ginsenoside
shows no significant effect on the activities of particulate guanylate cyclase, whereas NADH inhibits the activities of the enzyme. The activity of particulate guanylate cyclase is slightly inhibited by iodine, whereas that of soluble gllanylate cyclase is strongly inhibited.
Influences of Fusurium sozani and Phytophthoya cactorum on the Changes in Saponin Components of Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer)
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 1, 1986, Pages 66~75
Influnces of Fuiarium solani and Phytophthora cactorum infection on the changes in saponin components of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer)roots and some of the biology of those fungi in relation to ginseng root were investigated. Mycelial growth of F. solani was decreased as increasing concentration of the water extracts of fresh ginseng roots, while that of P. cactorum was increased as increasing the concentration of the water extracts and crude saponin. Mycelial growth of F. solani, however, was increased as increasing concentration of crude ginseng saponin upto 20 ppm, while it was tended to be decreased when the concentration was higher than 50 ppm. Nystatin also suppresed the growth of F. solani as increasing its concentration, but it did not affected on the growth of p. cactorum. Ginsenoside Ra and Ro components were not detected in ginseng roots inoculated with F. solani or P. cactorum. Panaxadiol gisenosides were increased by 3.0%, whereas panaxatriol ginsenosides were decreased by 34.9% in ginseng roots inoculated with F. iolani. In ginseng roots inoculated with P. cactorum panaxadiol ginsenosides were increased by 21.1%, but panaxatriol ginsenosides were decreased by 23.5%. PD/PT ratio in ginseng roots inoculated with F. solani or P. cactorum were equally increased by 58.4% in spite of differences in the change of panaxadiol and panaxatriol ginsenosides. The total saponin components of ginseng roots inoculated with F. solani or P. cactorum were decreased by 17.8% and 2.5%, respectively.
Variation in the Inflorescence of Cultivated American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.)
Proctor, J.T.A. ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 1, 1986, Pages 76~79
Variation in the inflorescence of Oriental ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) have been placed in 6 groups; only 2 of these groups, a complete simple hemispherical terminal umbel, and a simple umbel with several branched pedicels below it on the peduncle were found in cultivated American ginseng. Apical peduncle reflexing and associated peduncles shortening were observed in a few plants.
Changes of Sugars and Nitrogeneous Compounds in Ginseng Extracts by Extracting Conditions
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 1, 1986, Pages 80~93
The tail portion of dried 6-year old white ginseng was extracted and sugars and nitrogen compounds were also evaluated for chemical properties depending on varying conditions of extractions. The factors studied were extraction temperature in the range of 70-
, ethanol concentration of 0-90% and the times of extractions which was taken 8 hours per each extraction in water at
. For the effect of ethanol concentration in the extraction solvent, it was found that the amounts of free, reducing and total sugars and starch recovered in extract were almost linearly decreased along with the increase of concentration and the nonprotein nitrogen accounted over 84% of total nitrogen in extract. As ethanol concentration became increased, extractions of total nitrogen and water souluble nonprotein nitrogen were decreased especially in 90% ethanol. For the extraction temperature, all the sugar fractions with water and 70% ethanol except free sugar have tended to increase along with the temperature raised from 70 to
and it was found there is little changes of nitrogen compounds in the temperature range except a rapidly increase in water soulble protein at
. For the times of extractions, showed that most of extractable compounds were extracted in 3 times of extractions with water at
. It was shown that more than 95f) of sugars and 80% of nitrogen compounds were yielded with water extraction. Accordingly it was efficient to extract with water or 70% ethanol in 3 times in terms of !actor and energy consumption.
Effect of Extracting Conditions on the Color and Sensorial Properties of Red Ginseng Extract
Seong, Hyeon-Sun ; Kim, U-Jeong ; Yang, Cha-Beom ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 1, 1986, Pages 94~100
Korean red ginseng tails was extracted with solutions having various ethanol concentration at the temperature range of 70-
, Extraction was carried out for 1-5 times of 8 hours at given condition. Sensory properties and color of RG-Ext. were found to be significantly affected by conditions of extraction. Absorbance at 490nm was decreased as the ethanol concentration increased, the increase in ethanol concentration also showed an increase in the Hunter's values of "L" and "b", and a decrease in "a" value indicating the color of RG-Ext. was changed to yellowish with less in darkness. Increase in extraction time and temperature caused darker brown color which is indicates a typical phenomena of non-enzymatic browning reaction. The flavor and bitternes of RG-Ext. were found to be significantly increased as the ethanol concentration increase, the generally responses of acceptance range of ethanol concentration was 30-70%.
Relationship among Ginsenosides of Panax ginseng Root under the Variation of Mineral Nutrients
Lee, Mi-Gyeong ; Min, Jin-Suk ; Park, Hun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 1, 1986, Pages 101~107
Relationships among ginsenosides, panaxadiol(PD), panaxatriol(PT), and total saponin(TS) in Panax ginseng root (2nd Year) grown with culture solotion different in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium level were analyzed by simple correlation, multiple regression and standard partial regression coefficient. The closeness between ginsenosides by simple correlation was closely related with the similarity of molecular structure. The content of PT was much attributed to Re and Rg1. The contribution order of ginsenosides for PD was Rb1>Rb2
Rd>Rc. There was significant positive correlation between PT and PD but PD increased more rapidly than PT. Thus total saponin depended much on PD and PT/PD decreased with the increase of total saponin content. All ginsenosides, especially Re showed decreasing tendency with the increase of root weight.
Absorption of Ginseng Saponin in Rats
Ju, Chung-No ; Lee, Hui-Bong ; Kim, Jae-Won ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 1, 1986, Pages 108~113
Ginseng saponin absorbed in rat blood and liver were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The amount of saponin was estimated from peak area of the corresponding fraction and the specific radioactivity was then calculated, The radioactivity of the methanol-water extract of blood serum and livers of ginseng saponin administered rats decreased rapidly during the first four hours after the saponin administration. However, the radioactivity disappearance rate was relatively slow when the radioactivity was below a certain level. It seemed that the glycosides of panax ginseng were absorbed partly in the undissociated form and the saponin level of the liver might be maintained at 10-6% - 10-5% for a considerable period of time in ginseng administered rats.
Effect of Saponin Fraction of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer on Blood Serum Lipoprotein Distribution of Cholesterol Fed Rabbits
Gang, Bang-Hui ; Gu, Ja-Hyeon ; Ju, Chung-No ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 1, 1986, Pages 114~121
Effect of saponin fraction of ginseng C.A. Meyer on blood serum lipoprotein distribution of high cholesterol fed rabbits for two to four weeks was investigated. A. significant increase of very low density lipoprotein(VLDL) and low density lipoprotein(LDL) occured while high density lipoprotein(HDL) were decreased in the blood of both groups which were fed high cholesterol diet with (test group) and/or without ginseng saponin(control group) for 2-4 weeks. However the degrees of VLDL and LDL increase and HDL decrease were relatively small in ginseng administered group compared with control group. This suggests that the hypocholesterolemic action of the saponin might be brought about by decreasing the raised VLDL and LDL level and increasing the lowered HDL level.