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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Dec 1986
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Jun 1986
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The Interaction of Ginseng Saponin with Secre Tagogues, Inhibitors and Its Relative Agents on Pepsiogen Secretion in Isolates Rabbit Gastric Glands
Kim, Se-Chang ; Jin, Seung-Ha ; Jeong, No-Pal ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 2, 1986, Pages 123~132
The pepsinogen secretion was stimulated by the cholecystokinin, caerulein, isoproterenol, and carbachol, respectively. But it was increased slightly and returned to control level by the combiantions of total saponin with each above the agents. Even though the atropine had the inhibition effect, the pepsinogen secretion was recovered to normal level from depressed condition by the combination of the atropine with total saponin. Propranolol showed the same pattern as atropine, too. On the other hand, the pepsinogen secretion was stimulated by the DBcAMP alone, but decreased to control level by the combination with the total saponin. In the case of DBcGMP, the pepsinogen secretion was decreased by itself, but stimulated the above control level by the combination with total saponin. Histamine alone had little effect on the pepsinogen secretion, but when combinated with total saponin, the pepsinogen secretion was increased. Serotonin alone and with total saponin, had no effect respectively, From the above results, the total saponin may have the normalization action stimulating or decreasing the pepsinogen secretion to the control level.
Effect of Ginseng Saponin on the Proliferation and Viability of Murine Thymocyte, in vitro
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 2, 1986, Pages 133~140
Ginseng saponin had an effect on the proliferation and viability of cultured murine thymocytes. When the thymocytes were cultured in various concentrations of ginseng saponin, the number of thymocytes increased at
% ginseng saponin but decreased at
%. There was little change in the number of thymocytes when cultured in IL 2(Interleukin 2), a factor known for its influence on the proliferation and maturation of thymocytes. When the thymocytes were cultured in various concentrations of IL 2 with
% ginseng saponin, the number of total cells increased at 1.5% or 3% IL 2 when cultured for 9 hours, or at 6% IL 2 for 12, 24, or 48 hours. But there was little change in the number of viable cells. In vitro, ginseng saponin had an effect on the activity of ADA(Adenosine Deaminase), an enzyme known to affect the production of IL 2. There was a 25% increase in the activity of ADA in the presence of
% ginseng saponin.
Inhibitory Effect of Petroleum Ether Extract of Panaz Ginseng Root against Growth of Human Cancer Cells
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 2, 1986, Pages 141~150
This study was attempted to screen the cytotoxic activity of petroleum ether ex- tract from panax ginseng root against human colon cancer cells. Two extracts of panax ginseng root, crude and partially purified, were used for this experiment. The crude extract was prepared by extraction with petroleum ether using Soxhlet aparatus for 12 to 15 hours from panax ginseng and the extract was partially purified by silicic acid column with mixture of petroleum ether: ethyl ether (70 : 30, v/v). Three species of human colon cancer cells, HRT-18, HCT-48 and HT-29, were maintained in DMEM (Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium), and the cells were cultured in DMEM containing serial concentration of the crude or partially purified fraction to observe the cytotoxic activity of the both extracts. The effects of incubation time and concentration of the both extracts in culture medium against the growth of the each cancer cell were determined. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The doubling times of the HRT-18, HCT-48 and HT-29 cells were about 20, 24 and 22 hours, respectively. 2, The inhibitory effects of the crude extract on the growth of cancer cells were increased according to the rise of concentration of the extract and incubation time. 3. The inhibitory effect of partially purified fraction on the growth of HRT-18 cell was about 4 times stronger than that of the crude extract under same experimental condition. 4 The inhibitory effects of the crude and purified fraction on the growth of each cancer cell were shown difference by the kind of the cancer cell. In view of the above results, it could be said that the petroleum ether extract of panax ginseng root inhibited the division of the human colon cancer cell, in vitro.
Effect of Ginseng Components with Pepsinogen Secretion Regulatory Agents on cAMP Content in Isolated Rabbit Gastric Glands
Jin, Seung-Ha ; Kim, Se-Chang ; Jeong, No-Pal ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 2, 1986, Pages 151~158
On the cAMP content in isolated gastric glands from rabbit stomach, the effect of ginseng components (total saponin, diol saponin, triol saponin) with pepsinogen secretion regulatory agents (cholecystokinin, isoproterenol, carbachol, propranolol, atropine, DECAMP, DBcGMP) were studied in vitro. According to the results, ginseng components may have the effect of stimulation or inhibition on cAMP production, and both dial saponin and triol saponin may be reciprocal effect to pepsinogen secretion regulatory agents. It seemed that the ginseng components may have the normalization action to pepsinogen regulatory agents on cAMP content in isolated rabbit gastric glands.
Effects of Growth Regulators on the Germination of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 2, 1986, Pages 159~166
Effects of plant growth regulators on the germination of ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) seeds were investigated. Ginseng seeds germinated more vigorously in the treatments of kinetin and BA, and the promoting effect of kinetic on the germination and the growth of rootlet enhanced in low temperature (
). However, GA did not promote the germination of dehiscent seed. The optimum temperature for germination of dehiscent seed was
and the range of effective concentration of kinetin for germination was 50 to 100 ppm.
Effect of Ginseng on Fat Accumulation in the Obese Rats Induced by High Fat Diet
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 2, 1986, Pages 167~179
Obesity is common disease resultly accumulated excess fat. In the model for obesity induced by high fat diet contains 30% fat, administration of ginseng extract inhibited increment of body weight, epididymal fat pads and enlargement of fat cell size. This was as the result of inhibition of lipogenesis in the liver and fat accumulation in the adipose tissues.
Photosynthesis and Respiration of Ginseng Leaf and Root in Relation to Senescence of Aerial Part
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 2, 1986, Pages 180~186
Photosynthesis and respiration of leaf and root of field grown Panax ginseng were investigated according to aerial part sensecence. No apparent photosynthesis activity was detected in senescenced leaf(less than 0.7mg total chlorophyll/g FW) and leaf dark respiration was consistent relation with senescence. Leaf respiratory Q
consistently increased with senscence. Root respiration and Q
tended to decrease with aerial part senescence only in the range of optimum temperature of leaf growth. Apparent photosynthesis or respiration of leaf was negatively or positively correlated, respectively with the increase of air temperature. Root respiration with temperature was well accordance with Arrhenius plot which was not consistent with aerial part senescence. Accelerated senescence may be recommendable for better root yield unless any reserve in stem or leaves contributes to root through translocation.
Seasonal Change of Growth Regulator Activity in Panax ginseng Root
Hoon Park ; Kab Sig Kim ; Chong Hwa Lee ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 2, 1986, Pages 187~192
Activity of endogenous growth regulator in 4th year Panax ginseng root was investigated by second leaf sheath test of rice seedling and paper chromatogram of a acidic fraction of methanol extract before (March 28) and after (May 9) emergence of root bud, at the late season (Sept.4) and after leaf fall (November 11). GA
and ABA were used as reference. According to paper and high performance liquid chromatography of samples and authentic growth regulators the presence of insole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA
) and abscisic acid (cis and trans ABA) was confirmed. These three regulators appeared to consist of major system though the existence of other regulators could not be ruled out. IAA activity seemed little changed through out the seasons. GA activity decreased in the later stages while ABA activity increased.
Effect on Stability of Ginseng Saponins by Various Physical and Chemical Treatments
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 2, 1986, Pages 193~199
To investigate the stability of ginseng saponin, various physical and chemical treatments for red ginseng alcohol extract (70% ethyl alcohol) were carried out, and then the variations of ginseng saponin in extract were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Irradiation of
-ray, and ultraviolet ray, sonocatalysis by ultrasonicator, treatment of electronic range, catalytic ozonation did not or slightly affect degradation of ginseng saponins, but they were degraded by heat treatment.
The Effect of Ginseng Saponin Fraction on Several Glycolytic Enzymes of Yeast Cell
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 2, 1986, Pages 200~208
It was attempted in this study to investigate the effect of ginseng saponin on several glycolytic enzymes of yeast cell and the following results were obtained. The amount of
formed during the incubation of yeast cells in medium containing saponin fraction of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer was greater than that of control cells and found that the
formation was greatest when the cells were grown in the medium containing 10
% of the saponin fraction, at which the uptake of inorganic phosphate and glucose consumption were also increased. Radioactivity study of several glycolytic intermediates of yeast cells cultured in the medium containing [U-
C]-glucose showed that the radioactivity of fructose 6-phosphate of test cells was as much as 1.6times that of control group. On the other hand, the radioactivity of pyruvate of test cells was considerably decreased compared to control. Investigation of the effect of ginseng saponin on yeast hexokinase, phosphoglucose isomers, pyruvate kinase and perverted decarboxylase in vitro showed that the maximum activities of the above enzymes were observed when the concentration of ginseng saponin was 10-
% in the reaction mixture. It seemed that the ginseng saponin stimulated both glycolytic enzymes such as hexokinase, phosphoglucose isomers and perverted decarboxylase significantly.
The Effect of Ginseng Saponin on Yeast Alcohol Dehydrogenase
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 2, 1986, Pages 209~217
Yeast alcohol dehydrogenates and ginseng saponin interaction has been investigated to understand the non-specific enzyme stimulating effect of the saponin of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. It was confirmed that several amphiphiles such as sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS), Triton X-100, sodium taurodeoxycholate (Na-TDC) as well as ginseng saponin mixture and purified ginseng glycosides lowered Km values of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) for ethanol and NAD in the presence of the above amphiphiles suggesting that the surface activity of the amphiphiles might play a significant role in the ADH catalyzed reactions. Conformational change of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase in the presence of the above amphiphiles at their optimal concentration for the maximum activity was studied. Circular dichroism (C.D) spectrum of yeast ADH showed that the conformational change of the enzyme occurred in the presence of above amphiphiles. Fluorescence data also showed that the hydrophobic area increased in the presence of above amphiphiles. Examination of the interaction between ADH and ginseng saponin using radioactive saponin showed that there might be a very weak interaction between them. From the above results, it was concluded that the non-specific enzyme stimulating effect of the saponin might be due to the change of polarity of the enzyme solution in the presence of the saponin.
Present and Future on the Processing of Ginseng
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 10, issue 2, 1986, Pages 218~232
In this review quality improvement, new products and processing of ginseng are discussed. Ginseng products are generally classified into two types; the dried product without significant change in original shape of fresh ginseng and various processed ginseng products in liquid or solid types prepared by addition of either ginseng extract of ground powder. The dried ginsengs are generally made 4 years old fresh ginseng roots for production of white ginseng and 6 years old ones for red ginseng. The processed ginseng products, such as ginseng drinks, extracts, teas, powders, capsules or tablets are prepared by addition of extract or powder of the ginseng roots which contain relatively high amount of saponin. At present, more than 200 items of 40 types of products are commercially available in over 70 countries in the world, Since consummers preference on the quality of ginseng products as an health food differs with their cultural background of each country, new products development and quality improvement should be investigated with concerning the particular preference of the consummers of various country. It has been generally found that the Orientals has higher product acceptance on strong ginseng flavor while the Westerners generally prefers the products having mild ginseng odor and taste. Recently consummers are asking for supplemented type of ginseng products with various medical herbs and vital materials instead of ginseng alone. Therefore future work on product development should be emphasized to meet the consummers demand and preference.