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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 11, Issue 2 - Dec 1987
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Jun 1987
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Investigation on the Photooxidation of Pigment in Leaf-Burning Disease of Panax ginseng 1. Phenomenological observation and analysis on the chlorophyll bleaching phenomenon
Yang, Deok-Jo ; Yu, Hui-Su ; Yun, Jae-Jun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 11, issue 2, 1987, Pages 91~100
This study was investigated and analyzed the side of phenomenological of the chlorophyll bleaching phenomenon on the leaf burning-disease of the Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) leaf. Red light (660-700 nm) was confirmed as one which induced the bleaching phenomenon and blue light (400-500 nm) did not at all. Temperature as 1 environmental factor had not any influence on chlorophyll bleaching phenomenon at all. Therefore, simple burning (thermal damage) hypothesis was perfectly ruled out by the result of this study. And, low pH accelerated chlorophyll bleaching velocity. A primary factor of chlorophyll bleaching phenomenon may be peculiar structural difference of the Ginseng leaf compared with other plant.
Investigation on the Photooxidation of Pigment in Leaf-Burning II. Investigation and analysis of physiological reaction mechanism on the chlorophyll bleaching phenomenon
Yang, Deok-Jo ; Yu, Hui-Su ; Yun, Jae-Jun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 11, issue 2, 1987, Pages 101~110
This study was investigated and analyzed the physiological reaction mechanisms and the factors of the chlorophyll bleaching phenomenon on leaf burning-disease of the Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer). Chlorophyll bleaching phenomenon was mainly caused by the photooxidation of singlet oxygen and the autooxidation of hydrogen peroxide(
) accumulation resulted from inactivation of catalase and peroxidase. Chlorophyll bleaching phenomenon was remarkably accelerated by addition of saponin.
Study on the Forulation of Dormancy Bud and Inflorescence in Young Ginseng Plant
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 11, issue 2, 1987, Pages 111~117
The phase and times on the development of dormancy bud in seedling, and those of flower organs in 2-year-old ginseng are different to those of over 2-,3-year-old plant, respectively. The growing aspects of dormancy bud in seedling were investigated from rooting stage (April, 8) to Mid-June, and those of flower organs in 2-year-old plant had done once in two days late in April after compound leaves were unfolded. Firstly, the formation of dormancy bud in seedling was begun on Mid-late in March. This is early about one month compare with those of over 2-year-old plant. Fine bud in seedling was formed between cotyledons, at W spot under young shoot. Secondly, development of flower organs in 2-year-old plant was completed from late of April to early of May after compound leaves of transplanted plant were unfolded. In tare, this is very different characteristics because plants of any other ages form the flower organs one year ago. Thirdly, flower organs of ginseng plant, over 3-year-old plant, always develop in the rhizome formed one year ago, but those of 2-year-old plant develop in apical shoot meristem.
Content Comparison of Proximate Compositions, Various Solvent Extracts and Saponins in Root, Leaf and Stem of Panax Ginseng
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 11, issue 2, 1987, Pages 118~122
This study was carried out to investigate the effective components, especially saponins, in aerial parts of Panax ginseng. The contents of methanol and ethanol extracts in ginseng leaf were 35.9% and 27.3%, much higher than 15.4% and 8.37% in ginseng root and 21.7% and 16.3% in ginseng stem. And ginseng stem showed as high content of crude fiber as 39.2% which is very high compared with other two parts of ginseng. The contents of total crude saponin were 4.78%, 2.38% and 19.58% in ginseng root, stem and leaf, respectively. In ginseng leaf seven root ginseno-sides-ginsenoside-Rgl(3.32%), -Re(3.24%), -Rd(2.32 %), -Rc(0.65%), -Rb2(0.92%), -Rbl(0.29%), and -Rf(0.11%)-were analyzed by HPLC, Seven gisneno- sides-ginsenoside-Rgl(0.28%), -Re(0.3%), -Rd(0.05%), -Rf(0.01%), -Rc(trace), -Rb2(trace) and -Rbl(trace)-were detected in ginseng stem. Ginseng leaf contained high percentage of saponin and especially of ginsenoside-Rgl, -Re and -Rd. Therefore, ginseng leaf was good resources for ginsenoside-Rgl, -Re and -Rd.
Effects of Panax Ginseng on the Development of Morphine Tolerance and Dependence -on antagonisms of morphine analgesia by ginsenosides-
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 11, issue 2, 1987, Pages 123~129
Antagonisms of the analgesic effect of morphine in mice by ginsenoside Rbl, Rb2, Rgl and Re were investigated in these experiments. These ginsenosides antagonized the analgesic effect induced by morphine in mice and the administration of 2,4-dihy-droxyphenylalanine or 5-hydroxytryptophan reduced the antagonisms of morphine analgesia by the ginsenosides. Possible mechanisms involved in the antagonistic actions of the ginsenosides on morphine analgesia were described.
The Effect of Ginseng Saponin on the Mouse Immune System
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 11, issue 2, 1987, Pages 130~135
To detect the effect of ginseng saponin on the immune response, mice were immunized with a protein antigen (gamma-globulin of chick). Blood was then drawn from them twice, after 10 days of the first immunization and after 10 days of the second immunization respectively, and measurements were made by ELISA method of the antibody titer in antiserum. In addition, mice that has been immunized with the same antigen were treated with immunosuppressor to suppress the immune system of the mice. After the immune system was suppressed, the effect of ginseng saponin on the recovery of immune response was measured by the same method. The experimental groups those were given ginseng saponin (10 mg/kg/day) showed a little variance between-individuals, however showed much higher antibody titer than the control groups those were given the saline solution. Moreover, there was a little recovery from the immune suppression. Although the mechanism of the effect of ginseng saponin on immune response was not well loom, it is believed that ginseng saponin has the effect of increasing the synthesis of serum protein together with its action as one of the immunostimulators.
Biosynthesis of Saponins in Panax ginseng
Hong, Seok-Ju ; Lee, Yong-U ; Ju, Chung-No ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 11, issue 2, 1987, Pages 136~144
Biosynthesis of saponins from acetate, mevalonate and squalene using root slices of panax ginseng C.A. Meyer was investigated. The sliced roots (2g) were incubated with the reaction mixture containing 20 M sodium acetate (
]-acetate),10 mM mevalonate (
]-mevalonate) or 10 mM swidme (
]-squalene) respectively at
for 72 hours. Biosynthesis of labelled ginseng saponine from [U-l4C]-acetate, [2-
]-mevalonate and [4,8,12,13,17,21-
]-squalene was confirmed by autoradiography. Analysis of the products from [U-
]-acetate by T.L.C. showed that the % radioactivities in panaxadiol, panaxatriol, squalene and mevalonate were found to be 2.1%, 2.7%, 2.6% and 0.2% respectively. Some of the sugars were also highly labelled. Analysis of the products from [2-
]-mevalonate by T.L.C. showed that squalene was highly labelled and the products from [4,8,12,13,17,21-
]-squalene showed that panaxadiol, panaxatriol and sterol were highly labelled. From the above results, it was suggested that saponine might be synthesized from acetate via mevalonate-squalene route as expected in ginseng root.
Studies on Selective Modulators and Anti-anorexigenic Agents in Korean Red Ginseng
Hiromichi Okuda ; Keizo Sekiya ; Hiroshi Masuno ; Takeshi Takaku ; Kenji Kameda ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 11, issue 2, 1987, Pages 145~252
Isolated rat adipocytes are well known to possess opposite pathways of lipid metabolism: lipolysis and ipogenesis. Both of the metabolism respond to various biologically active substances such as epinephrine, ACTH and insulin. Epinephrine and ACTH stimulate lipolysis and insulin accelerates lipogenesis. Recently, Korean red ginseng powder was found to contain adenosine and an acidic poptide which inhibited epinephrine-induced lipolysis and sl imulated insulin-mediated lipogenesis from added glucose. The acidic peptide is consisted mainly of glutamic acid and glucose. Ginsenosides Rb1 and Re inhibited ACTH-induced lipolysis in isolated rat adipocytes, while they did not affect insulinstimulated lipogenesis, Thus, all these substances extracted from Korean red ginseng exhibited selective modulations toward the opposite metabolic pathways in rat adipocyte; They inhibited the lipolysis but not the lipogenesis. We call these substances"selective modulators". Recently, we isolated a toxic substance named "toxohormone-L " from ascites fluid of patients with various malignant tumors. The toxohormone-L stimulated lipolysis in rat adipocytes and induced anorexia in rats. Both the lipolytic and the anorexigenic actions of toxohormone-L were found to be inhibited by ginsenoside Rb2 in Korean red ginseng. Based on these results, physiological signifi¬cances of these substances in Korean red ginseng were discussed. Pan ax ginseng is a medicinal plant long used in treatment of various pathological states including general complaints such as head ache, shoulder ache, chilly constitution and anorexia in cancer patients, There have been many pharmacological studies on Panax ginseng roots. Petkovllreported that oral administration of an aqueous alcoholic extract of ginseng roots decreased the blood sugar levtl of rabbits. Saito2lreported that Panax ginseng suppressed hyperglycemia induced by epinephrine and high carbohydrate diets. These findings suggest that Panax ginseng roots contain insulin-like substances. Previously, we demonstrated that gin¬seng roots contain an insulin-like peptide which inhibits epinephrine-induced lipolysis and stimulated insulin-mediated lipogenesis. In 1984, we suggested that such an insulin-like substance should be called a selective modulator4). Present investigation describes the details of the selective modulators in ginseng roots. During progressive weight loss in patients with various neoplastic disease, depletion of fat stores have been observed. The depletion of body fat during growth of neoplasms is associated with increase in plasma free fatty acids. Recently, we found that the ascites fluid from patients with hepatoma or ovarian tumor and the pleural fluid from patients with malignant lymphoma elicited fatty acid release in slices of rat adipose tissue in vitro. The lipolytic factor, named"toxohormone-L". was purifed from the ascites fluid of patients with hepatoma. The isolated preparation gave a single band on both disc gel electrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS)-acrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of
-mercaptoethanol. Its molecular weight was determined to be 70,000-75,000 and 65,000 by SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis and analytical ultracentrifugation, respectively. Injection of toxohormone-L into the lateral ventricle of rats significantly suppressed food and water intakes. There was at least 5 hr delay between its injection and appearance of its suppressive effect. In the present study, we also tried to find a inhibitory substance toward toxohormone-L from root powder of ginseng.
고려인삼의 폴리아세틸렌 성분
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 11, issue 2, 1987, Pages 253~272