Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Dec 1989
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Jun 1989
Selecting the target year
The Formation of Anthocyanin and Growth Response of Ginseng Cell Lin in vitro
An, In-Ok ; Park, Ji-Chang ; Choe, Gwang-Tae ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 13, issue 2, 1989, Pages 143~146
In order to clarify the characteristics of anthocyanln-producing cell line selected by in vitro grown cultures of ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), the calli of anthocyanin-Producing strain were cultured on media supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-D and sucrose under light or dark condition. The light was found to be essential for anthocyanin synthesis. Anthocyanin synthesis of ginseng cell line was inhibited by the increase of 2,4-D in the medium. On the other hand, sucrose promoted the anthocyanin-production and the optimum concentration of sucrose for the highest production of anthocyanin was 5%. The growth of anthocyanin-producing tell line was best on the medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D and 5% sucrose.
Characteristics of Third Year American Ginseng Root Yields for Lytton, British Columbia, Canada
Gin, H. ; Bailey, W.G. ; Wong, S.T. ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 13, issue 2, 1989, Pages 147~152
The statistical characteristics of three year old American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium 1.) root yields from Lytton, British Columbia, Canada are presented. Ginseng root yield is related to plant density, with the highest yields generally obtained from the sites with the highest plant densities. However, these higher yields are made up of a larger proportion of smaller roots while the proportion of larger roots remains almost constant throughout the range of plant densities sampled. Further, it is suggested that relatively small samples can provide significant insight into crop performance and growth.
Studies on the Characters of Green-stem Varient Ginseng Plant
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 13, issue 2, 1989, Pages 153~157
The characteristics of the areal parts, photosynthetic and respiration rates and stem color were examined in 1- to 5-year-old Green-stem, Violet-stem and Yellow-berry variant ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer). The top characteristics, photosynthetic and respiration rates were not significantly different among the three variants. Selfed progency of the Green-stems variant plant produced only green stems, while the others produced green and violet stem in the seedling stage. These results showed that most of the top characteristics of the Green-stem variant were similar those of the Violet-stem and Yellow-berry variants with age.
Characteristics of Light Harvesting Chlorophyll-Protein Complex and Singlet Oxygen (
) Quenching in Leaf-burning Disease from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 13, issue 2, 1989, Pages 158~164
In order to determine the relationships between the lea(-burning disease and the light harvesting chlorophyll-protein (LHCP) complex in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, we investigated the chlorophyll-protein (CP) complex of the thylakoid membrane and its characteristics. In P. ginseng four Cp-complex bands determined by non-denaturing SDS-PAGE were identified CP I'(containing reaction center of photosystem I and LHCP I antennae), CP I (reaction center of photosystem I) LHCP II** (oligoform of LHCP II), and LHCP II (photosystem II antennae, CP 26 and CP 29) by Bassis and Dunahay's procedures. Under our experimental condition, the CP I band was only observed in P. ginseng and the band intensity of LHCP II** in P ginseng was higher than in spinach and soybean. There were differences in the absorption and fluorescence spectra and chlorophyll a/b ratio of the CP-complex bands between P. ginseng and other Plants. The Polypeptidr content of P. ginseng thylakoid was lower than in spinach and soybean thylakoid, and the Polypeptide profiles of P. ginseng was low band intensity, especially about 29-35 kD, 55 kD, and 60 kD, compared to spinach and soybean. The inhibitory effects of 2,5-dimethylfuran, specific singlet oxygen (
) quencher, showed that singlet oxygen destroyed 60% of chl.a, 90% of chl.b and 70% of carotenoid in bleaching P. ginseng with leaf-burning disease.
Effect of Light Quality on the Growth of Panax ginseng in a Phytotron With Natural Light
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 13, issue 2, 1989, Pages 165~168
Ginseng plants in the 2nd year were grown under the shade (90-95%) of colored cellophane films at
in a natural light phytotron. Relative root grown (final/initial) was in decreasing order of blue, green, white, yellow and red. The growth of aerial part, especially stem length was poorest in blue light with relative root growth negatively correlated with stem length. In this relation each color showed specific domain. Stem length showed positive linear correlation with leaf area per plant in each and among light though it was not significant in red light. The content and ratio of chlorophyll a and b in leaf were in the decreasing order of White, Blue, Green, Red and Yellow. There is positive correlation between chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, and between total chlorophyll and chl:a/b ratio. Blue color shade is expected to be beneficial for ginseng production.
Yield and Red Ginseng Quality of Super-aged Root of Panax ginseng
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 13, issue 2, 1989, Pages 169~173
Seven year old ginseng was investigated for yield , the relationship between yield and percent missing plant and red ginseng quality. Yield was 2.06 kg/kan (3.3 m2) and percent missing plant was 27.1%. The highest yield plot showed 3.58 kg/kan and potential yield appeared to be 4.5 kg/kan. Yields of 1st, End and 3rd line showed significant negative linear correlation with percent missing plant. Potential yield without missing plant was in decreasing order of 1>2)3>5) 4 and negatively correlated with unit yield decrease per percent missing plant. Potential yield of 1st line was 6.56 kg/tan. Soft X-ray absorbtion characteristics was not different from that of 6 year old ginseng. Red ginseng grade and percent occurence of red ginseng quality factors were not different from those of 6 years old ginseng. The weight of red ginseng per root was much greater than that of 6 years ginseng. In view of yield and quality of fresh and red ginseng the production of red ginseng from 7 years old ginseng appears to be economically feasible.
Oviposition Preference of the Larger Black Chafer (Holotrichia morosa Waterhouse) Damaging Ginseng Plants
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 13, issue 2, 1989, Pages 174~177
The ovipositional preferences of Holotrichia morosa were investigated to defermine several environmental factors related to its incidence in ginseng fields. H. moroia paid no eggs in naked soil without ground color plants, and shouted ovipositional preference among weed plants in the order to Aurmisin prinrcps var oripntnlis, Epigrren canadensis Diuitarin sanguinalis, and Porttulaca oleracea. More oviposition was observed in the denser vegetation of D. sanguinalis and in soft soil. The egg-laying females were seldom attracted to fresh rice straw mulched on soil surface or decayred rite straw mixed into soil. The number of eggs laid by a female decreased considerably when the soil moisture content was below 5% or above 35%.
Saponin and Ginsenoside Content in Korean Red Ginseng Products
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 13, issue 2, 1989, Pages 178~182
Red ginseng products manufactured by the Korea Ginseng and Tobacco Corporation were analyzed to determine the crude saponin , total saponin and ginsenoside contentents by gravimetry, spertrometry and HPLC, respectively, to see if effective quality control of the components in the products can be achieved. Medicinal powders, powders, tablets and capsules which were made from ginseng powder showed similarity in saponin content, the ratio of PD to PT saponin, and the ginsenoside content and composition, while extract powder, extract, extract tea, extract pills and tea, which were made of ginseng extract, showed difference in saponin content, ratio of PD to PT saponin, and the content and composition of ginsengside. It is, accordingly, believed that ginseng products which are uniform in contents and saponin composition can be produced by carrying out strict quality control throughout the processes of making raw red ginseng into final products.
Determination of the Concentration of Panaxynol, Panaxydol and Panaxytrio1 by Capillary-GC(FID)
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 13, issue 2, 1989, Pages 183~188
A gas chromatographic method was developed for determination of the concentration of three major polyacetylene compounds in ginseng roots---panaxynol, panaxydol and panaxytriol. The column and the detector used were an SPB-1 fused silica capillary (0.2mm i.d.
30m, Supelco) and a flame ionization detector (FID). The column oven temperature was kept at
isothermally The retention times of panaxynol, panaxydol and panaxytriol peaks were 4.2,5.1 and 6.9 min before TMS-derivatitration and 4.5,5.4 and 7.4 min after TMS-derivatization, respectively. The minimum determinable concentrations of panaxynol, panaxydol and panaxytriol before TMS-derivatiEation were at the 20, 50 and 100 ppm levels, while the concentrations of panaxydol and panaxytriol as well as panaxynol after TMS- derivatisation could be towered to the 5 ppm level. The panaxynol, panaxydol and panaxytriol contents in red ginseng were determined by use of this method after TMS-derivatization : the amounts obtained were 724, 721 and 71
A Study on the Hydrolyzed Ginseng Saponin-Quaternary and its Application in Cosmetics
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 13, issue 2, 1989, Pages 189~197
A new quaternary ammonium compound, hydrolyzed ginseng-saponin quaternary (HGSQ), from Korean ginseng saponin and 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride has been developed as a conditioning agent in cosmetics. This structure has a hydrophobic group from the aglycone of ginseng saponin which is biologically active and considered to be the most important component of the Korean ginseng. Its properties : surface tension, critical micelle concentration (CMC), eye irritation, sorption onto hair, force reduction(%) and moisture retention effect were studied. Its cationic character allows the molecule to be more substantive than ginseng saponin. HGSQ had good physical properties and was safe. enough as a cosmetic raw material. Also half-head tests of HGSQ-containing shampoo were carried out to compare the conditioning effects in shampoos. HGSQ was an excellent conditioning agent in shampoo..
Comparative Studies on Methods of Extracting Polyacetylene Compounds from White Ginseng
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 13, issue 2, 1989, Pages 198~201
The amounts of panaxynol and panaxydol, which are major polyacetylone compounds In white ginseng were determined by capillary-GC (FID), and the extraction efficiencies when using varictus extraction solvents (petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ether, ethyl acetate, acetone, acetonitrilr and methanol) and various extraction methods (shaking, Soxhlet and reflux) were compared . The GC column was SPB-1 fused silica capillary (0.25 mm id x30 m, Supelco), and the column oven temperature was programmed to rise from 200 ℃ to 300 ℃ at the rate of 4 ℃ per minute. The extraction efficiencies for panaxynol and panaxydol according to extraction souvtints were the highest in methanol and decreased in the order of dichloromethane, acetone, ether, ethyl acetate, acetonitrile and petroleum ether. The extracttion efficiencies for panaxynol and panaxydol according to extraction methods were the highest for reflux and the lowest for shaking, and those with Soxhlet were almost equal to those for reflux. The analytical amounts of panaxynol and panaxydol obtained by reflux with methanol %mere 4.2 and 6.4 mg/g, respectittely in white ginseng. Keywords polyacetylene, panaxynol, panaxydol, capillary-GC (FID), extraction efficiency
Effect of Ginseng Saponins on the Biosynthesis of Prostaglandins
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 13, issue 2, 1989, Pages 202~210
The effects of Ginseng saponins on the in vitro biosynthesis of prostaglandins were examined in order to identify the role of some Ginseng components on the regulation of arachidonic arid metabolism. The productions of prostaglandin
) and 6-ketoprostaglandin Fl (6-Keto-PGF1) from [3Hl-arachidonic acid were evaluatpf by radiochromatographic analysis with rabbit kidney microtome, human platelet homogenate and bovine aortic microsome. The amounts of the total prostaglandins produced by cyclooxygenase activity and malondialdehyde from arachidonic acid didn't show significant changes in the presence of Ginseng saponins. Both of panaxadiol and panaxatriol didn't affect the production of PG
while the formations of PG
( and TX
( were nearkedly reduced and the production of prostacyclin was increased. The formation of TXBE was reduced by ginsenoside
, Rc, and Re, however the production of 6-Keto-PGF1 was increased dose dependently up to 1 mg/ml. Moreover, platelet aggregations induced by arachidonic acid and U46619 (9.11-methanepoxy PG
mimetics, were also inhibited by three ginsenosides. The effect of G-Re on prostacyclin synthetase was inhibited by tranylcypromine, prostacyclin synthetase inhibitor. These results suggest that Ginseng saponins may not directly act on cyclooxygenase but affect on the divergent pathway from endoperoxide.
Growth Promoting Activity of a Macromolecular Fraction from Fresh Ginseng
Eun, Song-Myung ; Hung, Ng-Kam ; Nam, Leung-Kwok ; Cheung, Kong-Yum ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 13, issue 2, 1989, Pages 215~222
A macromolecular fraction from fresh ginseng root containing mainly polysaccharide showed mild mitogenic activity in human cord blood lymphocytes. 2) When lymphocytes were transformed by Con A or PHA, this fraction could greatly enhance the activity of these lectin mitogens, thus showing a potentiation effect. 3) Although this macromolerular fraction contains saponin and is susceptible to trypsin digestion, it is probably a peptido-glycan in nature on account of its important carbohydrate content and thermal stability. 4) This fraction could not support cancer cell (EAT, K562) growth : its inhibitory effect on these cells remains to be explored.
The Effect of Ginseng Saponin Fractions on NK Activity in Mice
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 13, issue 2, 1989, Pages 223~228
Natural killer (NK) cells are a heteroguneous subpopulation of lymphocytes that spontaneously exhibit cytotoxic activity against various virus-Infected and neoplastic target cells without prior exposure to a specific antigen. It was thought that NK calls play an important role in immunosurvrillanre against viral agents and tumors, and in prevention of metastasis. Recently, several reports have indicated evidence that ginseng extracts show a significant stimulatory effect on the humoral and cellular immune responses. This evidence gives support to the suggestion that the anticarcinogenic effect of ginseng may be due to the effect of ginseng on the immunological system. Treatment with total, diol, and triol saponin resulted in an increase in NK cytotoxic activity, but no enhancement of the lytic activity due to the natural killer cytotoxic factor (NKCF). Therefore, these results suggest that the augmentation of NK activity by ginseng saponin fractions may not be due to the activation of NKCF lytic activity.
Effects of Phytohormones and Light on Polyamine Content and Arginine Decarboxylace Activity in Ginseng
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 13, issue 2, 1989, Pages 229~233
The effect of some phytohormones and light on the growth, ADC activity and polyamine content in ginseng was studies. In seedlings, the growth, ADC activity and putrescine content were in creased by Ghs treatment. ADC activity ann putrescine content were slightly slightly derreased by ABA, but not changed by kinetin. Light treatment increased ADC activity and putrescine content greatly. In two year ginseng leaves treated by GA3, the ADC actin
its reached maximum and the spermidine content reached maximum 2 days faster than in the control. Thtse results suggest the possibility that these regulators are closely related to growth and polyamine cotent. UeVo'ordsEPanaxgineng C.A. Meyer, Polyamine, Putrescine spermidine, arginine decarboxylose, GA3 kiiletin , ABA.
The Effect of Ginseng Extracts on Photooxidation in Serum Lipid
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 13, issue 2, 1989, Pages 234~238
In the presence of a photosensitizer, rose bengal, phooxidatlon in serum total lipids has been studied and the effects of ginseng water extract and saponins on it have reviewed. In the presence of rose bengal, serum total lipids undergo photooxidation and produce lipid hydroperoxides. On the other hand, ginseng water extract and dial saponins largely inhibit photooxidation and decrease the amount of lipid hydroperoxides in serum total lipids.
Effect of Ginseng Total Saponlns on the Development of Acute and Delayed Types Tolerance to Morphine
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 13, issue 2, 1989, Pages 239~241
Naloxone partially antagonized the analgesic effect of a large dose of morphine and inhibited the development of an acute type tolerance. Ginseng total saponins did not antagonize the analgesia of a large dose of morphine but inhibited the delrelopment of acute and delayed types tolerance. The morphine analgesia and the development of acute type tolerance were affected by the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, but the development of acute type tolerance was not. Ginseng total saponins partially inhibited the development of the delayed type tolerance that was not inhibited by naloxone, but also partially suppressed the development of the acute type tolerance that was completely inhibited by naloxone. These results imply that the partial inhibition of the development of the acute and delayed types tolerance by ginseng total saponins is not mediated by the opioid receptors.
Effect of Panax ginseng and Sodium Ascorbate (Vitamin C) Treatment on Cancer Cell Growth I. Synergism of Combined Panax ginseng and Vitamin C Action in vitro
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 13, issue 2, 1989, Pages 242~247
The effect of ginseng extract and sodium ascorbate (vitamin C) administered separately or in combination on the some cancer cells cultured in vitro have been examined. Mouse leukemic cells (L1210 and P388), human rectal cancer cells (HRT-18) and human colon cancer cells (HCT-48) were used for the experiment. When given separately, the growth rate for each kind of cancer cell was inhibited In proportion to the concentration of ginseng extract or vitamin C. The inhibitory effect on the growth rate of the cancer cells was stronger in ginseng extract than in vitamin C except for the HCT-48 cells. Based on the cytotoxic activity, combined administration of ginseng extract and vitamin C demonstrated a synergistic inhibition of cancer cell growth. The cytotoxic activities of ginseng extract and vitamin C on the mouse leukemic cells were more sensitive than on human colon cancer cells. And the sensitivity of cytotoxic activity was somewhat different in different cancer cell lines.
Effect of 13-cis-Retinoic Acid and Ginseng Saponin on Hyperkeratinization of Guinea Pig Skin
KIm, Hye-Young ; Jin, Sung-Ha ; Kim, Shin-Il ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 13, issue 2, 1989, Pages 248~253
The effects of 13-cis-retinoic acid and ginseng saponin iron Korean red ginseng on hyperkeratinization of guinea pig skin were investigated by means of enzymatic analysis and light microscopic observation. To induce hyperkeratinization, hexadevance It was topically applied to the dorsal skin of female guinea Pigs every other day for eight days and 13-cis- retinoic acid or ginseng saponin solution was administered orally or topically applied daily during the experimental period. As a result, both topical application of ginseng saponin and oral administration of 13-cis-retinoic acid showed prepentive effects on hyperkeratinization while topical application of 13-cis-retinoic acid inhibited normal epidermal cell proliferation and reduced epidermal enzyme activities such as LDH. ICD and GSPDH below the levels in a normal epidermis. It is suggested that topical application of ginseng saponin and oral administration of 13-cis-retinoic acid may have beneficial efforts against hyperkeratinization possibly by controlling epidermal proliferation and enzyme activities related to epidermal energy metabolism.
Further Purification of Radioprotective Ginseng Protein Fraction by Gel Filtration
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 13, issue 2, 1989, Pages 254~259
A radioprotective ginseng protein fraction was obtained from Korean white ginseng powder by the following isolation and purification procedures: Tris-HCI buffer extraction, 70% ammonium sulfate fractionation, CM-rellulosr column chromatography, heat inactivation and Sephadex G-75 column chromatography. This fraction was further purified by Sepharose 4B and Sephadex G-150 column chromatographies. Three fractions obtained were subjected to Native-PAGE and SDS-PAGE using gradient gels and the silver staining method. Molecular weights of the native proteins and their subunits were estimated.