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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
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Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Dec 1990
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Aug 1990
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Apr 1990
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Saponin Production in Tissue Culture of Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer)
Choi, Kwang-Tae ; Park, Ji-Chang ; Ahn, In-Ok ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 107~111
Ginseng root explants and calli were cultured on modified Murashine and Skoog's media supplemented with different concentrations of organic or inorganic compounds and plant growth requlators to clarify the effects of chemical compositon and plant growth regulators in the medium on the growth of ginseng calli and the production of ginseng saponin. For optimum growth of ginseng calli, the concentrations of 2, 4-D and sucrose were in the range of 1 to 5 mg/l and 1 to 3%, respectively. And it was clarified that sucrose, nitrogen, phosphate, calcium, magnesium, plant growth regulators and their concentrations influcenced the relative biosynthesis of saponin in tissue cultures of Panax ginseng.
Identification of Ginseng Saponin and Quantitative Determination of
from Crude Drug Preparation Drink
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 112~116
As a part of studies on the quality control of crude drug preparation drinks, ginseng saponins were identified by HPLC. Ginsenoside-Rb1 was determined quantitatively by HPLC. Ginsenoside MeOH/H2O(65:35:10, v/v) on Si-gel plate. Ginsenoside-Rb1 content determined by HPLC on Lichrosorbtract drinks was 57.5-70.4% compared to the content in the red ginseng extract
Effects of Amino Acids and SLlgars on the Maillard Brou'nine Reactions during Extraction and Concentration of Red Ginseng
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 117~121
Browning intensity is a major factor to estimate the quality of red ginseng or red ginseng products. The Maillard type of browning reaction proceeds nonenzymatically during extraction and concentration of red ginseng. The present studies were carried out to investigate the effects of amino acids and sugars on the browning reaction during extraction and concentration of red ginseng. Red ginseng was pulverized to 115 mesh and then tenfold (v/w) of water was added to the powder to make the substrate of red ginseng. Solution (0.1 M) of fourteen amino acids and of folly silgars were added to the substrates of red ginseng powder and these were then extracted and concentrated to examine their browning intensities. Amino acids were more effective than sligars in acrelerating the browning reaction. Acceleration of the browning reaction in the concentrate was in the order of arginine> histidine>glycine>alanine>lysine phenyl alanine>aspartic acid>lelicine>threonine>gllitamic acid>tyrosine>valine>istleucine>methionine for amino acids, and was glucose>frlictose >silcrose, maltose for sugars.
Ethylene Release of Panax ginseng in Relation to Plant Part and Various Conditions
Park, Hoon ; Lee, Myong-Gu ; Lee, Chong-Wha ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 122~125
Ethylene was released from leaf and fruit but root of Panax ginseng. Root callus showed higher ethylene release (ER) than fruit ER increased with leaf senesence. Fruit during ripening showed decreasing ER in the order of green stage, early stage of reddening and fully ripened stage. between leaves from the plant with fruits in different stages of ripening showed similar trend of fruit in ER but it was about 10 times higher in leaves than in fruits. Leaves of P. quinquefolius showed about 200 times higher ER than that of P ginseng on 22 July Fruits from the plant treated with ethephon showed higher ER after 109 days. Forty-five day-old seedlings grown with various growth regulators showed a significant decrease of stem length and significant increase of ER only in Uniconazole (0.1 ppm) and H-9 (0.0, 5 ppm) solution.
Lipid Peroxidation of Ginseng Thylakoid Membrane
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 135~141
In order to elucidate the mechanism of the leaf-burning disease of ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), the relationships between thylakoid membrane peroxidation and chlorophyll bleaching were investigated in comparison with the ones of soybean (Glycine max L). When I measured the rate of lipid peroxidation in the thylakoids of ginseng and soybean by irradiation of light(60 w.m-2), it was identified that, the remarkably lower rate of lipid peroxidation was found in the ginseng thylakoid than the case of soybean. When lipid peroxidation of ginseng thylakoid was induced in the dark, chlorophyll contents of thylakoid was not changed. The results suggest that lipid peroxidation does not affect the chlorophyll bleaching in ginseng thylakoid. Thylakoid membrane peroxidation as well as chlorophyll bleaching was closely related with photosynthetic electron transport. But, according to the quenching experiment active oxygen species induced lipid peroxidation may be different species in the case of chlorophyll bleaching.
Some Physiological and Biochemical Aspects of Saponin Fraction of Panax Ginseng S.A. Meyer
Joo, Chung-No ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 143~156
Biological Activities of Non-saponin Compounds Isolated from Korean Red Ginseng
Hiromichi Okuda ; Lee, Sung-Dong ; Yukinaga Matsuura ; Yinan Zheng ; Keizo Sekiya ; Takeshi Takaku ; Kenji Kameda ; Kumi Hirose ; Kazuhiro Ohtani ; Osamu Tanaka ; Toshiie Sakata ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 157~161
We have been isolating various physiologically active substances from non-saponin fraction of Korean Red Ginseng. These are adenosine, pyre-glutamic acid, dencichine and acidic polysaccharide. Adenosine and pyre-glutamic acid are known to inhibit epinephrine-induced lipolysis in fat cells and stimulate the insulin-mediated lipogenesis. In addition to these actions, adenosine was found to inhibit both norepinephrine- and histamine-induced aorta constriction, and pyre·glutamic acid inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme. Dencichine stimulated histamine-induced aorta constriction. Finally, acidic polysaccharide was found to inhibit both lipolytic and anorexigenic actions of Toxohormone-L. Based on these experimental results, I presented a briefreview on these compounds isolated from non-saponin fraction of Korea Red Ginseng.
Clinical Effectiveness of Korea Ginseng on Climacteric Bisturbances and Its Possible Mechanism of Action
Ogita, Sacchio ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 162~166
The climacterium is that phase in the aging precess during which a woman passes from the reproductive to the non-reporductive stage. The signals, such as hot flashes, vaso-motoric disturbances, perspiration, stiff shoulders, emotinal symptoms, are refered to as climacteric disturbances. Treatment of climacteric symptoms centers around estrogen replacement and transfuilizers, but there are many problems to be solved to use these hormones/drugs as far as dossage, duration and complications are concerned. The care of women during the climacteric years should provide relief of distressing symptoms with as high a degree of safety as possible. From this view point, we used red ginseng powder to those patients with high menopausal index successfully. We studied its mechanism of action and proved that red ginseng improved the micro-circulation system via improvement of erythrocyte reformability which enhanced sex steroidgensis consequently.
The Effect of Ginseng Saponins and Phenolic Acids on the Biosynthesis of Prostaglandins
Park, C.-W. ; Lee, S.-H. ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 167~170
Further Evidence in Support of Psychotropic Action on Red Ginseng
Hiroyuki Yoshimura ; Kimura, Naoto ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 171~177
Using an ethopharmacological technique, we demonstrated that saponin fraction from red ginseng root possessed a potent psychotropic actions on either intermale or maternal aggression models. A series of experiments clearly indicated that one of psychoactive ingredient is ginsenoside Rbl. Although a drug-induced debilitation of motor performance remains a possible cause of the antiaggressive affect of the drug. ginsenoside Rbl did not alter the locomotor activity of the mice during agonistic confrontations. Thus. one can eliminate the possibility that the psychotropic effect of ginsenoside Rbl might be concealed by a drug-induced impairment of motor performance. More recently, we developed a nevi model for copulatory disorder and introduced into the behavioral analysis of drug action. Male mice which has been housed individually from weaning for 5 weeks failed to manifest copulatory behavior when they encountered with the sexually receptive females. Daily administration of crude ginseng saponin during isolation housing period prevented the development of copulatory disorder, whereas both ginsenoside Rbl and Rgl were ineffective. A further experiment may be needed to explore active ingredient of ginseng saponins. Keywords Panax ginseng, Korean red ginseng, psychotropic action, saponin, ginsenoside Rb 1
Antinarcotic Effect of Panax ginseng
Hack Seang Kim ; Ki ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 178~186
The analgesic effect of morphine was antagonized and the development of tolerance was suppressed by the modification of the neurologic function in the animals treated with ginseng saponins The activation of the spinal descending inhibitory systems as well as the supraspinal structures by the administration of morphine was inhibited in the animals treated with ginseng saponine intracerebrally or intrathecally. The development of morphine tolerance and dependence, and the abrupt expression of naloxone inducted abstinence syndrom were also inhibited by ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2, Rg1 and Re. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rbl, Hbs, Rgl and Re are the bioactive components of panax ginseng on the inhibition of the development of morphine tolerance and dependence, and the inhibition of abrupt abstinence sindrome. In addition, further research on the minor components of Pnnnxkinsenl should be investigated. A single or daily treatment with ginseng saponins did not induce any appreciable changes in the brain in level of monoamines at the variolls time intervals and at the various day intervals, respectively. The inhibitory or facilitated effects of ginseng saponins on electrically evoked contractions in guinea pig ileum (
-receptor) and mouse vats deferens (
-receptor) were not mediated through opioid receptors. The antagonism of a
receptor agonist, U-50, 488H was also not mediated through opioid receptors in the animals treated with ginseng saponins, but mediated through serotonergic mechanisms. Ginseng saponins inhibited morphine 6-dehydrogenase which catalyzed the production of morphinone from morphine, and increased hepatic glutathione contents for the detoxication of morphinone. This result suggests that the dual action of the above plays an important role in the inhibition of the development of morphine tolerance and dependence.
Protective Effects of a Ginseng Component, Malto1(2-Mlethyl-3-Hydrox)-4-Pyrone) against Tissue Damages Induced By Oxygen Radicals
Jae-Gook Shin ; Jon ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 187~190
Maltol(2-methyl-3-hydroxy-r-pyrone), a component known to be present in Korean Ginseng root showed an antioxidant action but its potency as an antioxidant was low: about 1150th that of other antioxidants such as pphenylenediamine, BHA and BHT. However, maltol was able to protect the oxidation damages in biological systems such as adriamycin-induced membrane damage in isolated cardiomyocytes, paraquat-induced toxicities in isolated hepatocytes and reperfusion injury in isolated hearts. The antioxidant action of maltol was also shown to be effective in vivo. The antioxidant action of this compound was probably due to the removal of hydroxyl radicals. In view of the roles of oxygen radical in various pathological proceises, Korean Ginseng root which contains several antioxidants including maltol is expected to have beneficial effects on the oxygen radical-involved processes. Keywords Maltol, Oxygen free radicals, Lipid peroxidation, Reperfusion injury and Korean ginseng
Effects of Flavonoids of Ginseng Leaves on Erythrocyte Membranes against Singlet Oxygen Caused Damage
Soo-Nam Park ; San ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 191~199
It has been well known that extended exposure to reactive oxygens causes severe damage to susceptible biomolecules. In this study, the effects of flavonoids including trifolin and kaempferol from Ginseng leaves on singlet oxygen induced photohemolysis of erythrocytes and free radical scavenging activities were investigated. Each flavonoid aglycone (5-50
M) such as kaempferol, quercetin or baicalein exhibited a high protective effect against the photohemolysis. They protected the cells by scavenging 1O2 and free radicals Although the free radical scavenging activities of the flavonoid glycosides were not much lower than those of their corresponding aglycones, their insolubility into lipid bilayers of membrane made them less effective in preventing the photohemolysis induced by 1O2. The 1O2 and free radical scavenging activities of flavonoids were estimated by the decomposition of the flavonoid by 1O2 and the bleaching of free radicals by the flavonoid, respectively. The solubilization of the flavonoid into micells or erythrocytes was deduced from spectrophotometric and microscopic observations. The cooperation of L-ascorbic acid and a flavonoid, and a possible involvement of lipoxygenase or cyclooxygenase in the photohemolysis mechanism were discussed. Keywords Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, ginseng leaves, flavonoids, singlet oxygen, photohemolysis
Inductive Effects of Ginseng Saponins on the Rat LDH A-gene and the Synthetic rate of Hepatocyte DNA in Regenerating Rat Liver Cells
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 200~206
The effects of ginseng saponins, SRbl and G-Rc on the rat liver LDH A-gene transcriptional activity was investigated during prereplicative phase of rat liver after partial hepatectomy. Changes in LDH A-mRNA levels in regenerating rat liver after intraperitoneal administrations of G-Rbl or 'G-Rc were tested by slot blot hybridization methods. The results showed that G-Rbl (1 mg/100g B.W) and G-Rc (1 mg/100g B.W) caused marked increases of LDH A-mRNA contents by respectively 1.9- and 1.5-fold in rat liver at 5-hours after partial hepatectomy Dose dependent elect of G-Rbl and G-Rc (1-25 mg/ 100g B.W) on the LDH A-mRNA levels on regenerating rat liver were also analyzed. The maximal increases of liver LDH A-mRNA levels were observed with the doses of 1 mg for G-Rbl and 5 mg for G-Rc. However, when the administration doses of G-Rbl and G-Rc were increased to 20 mg, G-Rbl caused a marked decrease of LDH A-mRNA level to 61% of those in sham-operated rat liver. In contrast, G-Rc slightly decreased the liver LDH A-mRNA contents by 30% as compared to those of the maximum value but still maintained 22% higher LDH A-mRNA levels then those of sham-operated rate liver. On the basis of these experimental results, we conclude that ginseng saponin, G-Rbl and G-Rc have stimulatory effect at the lower concentration (1 mg/ 100g B.W) and inhibitory effect at the higher concentration (20 mg/ 100g B.W) on the LDH A-gene transcription during regeneration of rat liver. Additionally we also investigated the stimulatory effects of ginsenosides on the protein and DNA sinthetic activities in hepatocyte primary cell cultures isolated from regenerating rat liver. Both of G-Rc and -Re increased the synthetic rates of hepatocytes proteins and DNA at the administration doses of 50 us and 100
/3 ml/dish respectively representing 1.3-1.6 fold increases. From these results we postulate that G-Rc and -Re may have a mitogen ehincer activity for the hepatocyte proliferation during rat liver regeneration period.
Chemical Synthesis and Cloning of Panax ginseng Peptide Gene
Zhang, Hong-Ying ; Chen, Dong-Song ; Zhang, Jin ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 207~209
The sequence of ginseng peptide gene was designed and synthesized by the solid phase phosphoramidiate method. Synthetic segments were isolated, pllrified and joined to the plasmid pUC19. E.icherichiu coli JM101 cells were transformed with above hybrid plasmids. AmpiciIBin resistant transformants were screened and identified by in situ colony hybridization and Southern blot techniques. Finally the gene sequencing was done by the Sanger dideoxy method using primer extension.
Effects of Korea Red Ginseng on Substance Metabolism and Endocrinic Funciton in Animals
Zhou, Z.M. ; Li, Z.L. ; Nie, S.Q. ; Li, L.X. ; Sun, X.M. ; Wang, Y.L. ; Liang, E.H. ; Li, G.Q. ; Yang, L.X. ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 210~212
Effect of Gensenosides on GABA
Ho, I.-K. ; Kimura, T. ; Saunders, P.A. ; Kim, H.-S. ; Rheu, H.-M. ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 213~216
Lignan Components from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer
Han, Byung-Hoon ; Huh, Bong-Hee ; Lee, Ihn-Ran ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 217~220
Two lignanes, Comp.-I, mp 108-1
and Comp.-II 50-52
were isolated from Korea ginseng extract by repeated column chromatographic purification. Comp.-I was identified as gomisin-N and Comp.-II as gomisin-A by spectrometric analysis, both of which have already been described as the anti-hepatotoxic lignan components of Schizandra chinesis Bail.
Partial Purification and Characterization of a Glycoprotein Factor from Fresh Ginseng
Kong, Yun-Cheung ; Fong, Wing-Ping ; Song, Myung-Eun ; Ng, Kam-Hung ; Ho, Dan-Dan ; Ng, Ping-Chung ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 221~227
The aqueous extract of fresh ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) contains a macromolecular fraction that showed mitogenic and co-mitogenic activities in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Purification of the crude extract by size (ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-200) and charge (DEAE-cellulose, DEAE-Sepharose) yielded a semi.purified fraction (DS-3). This fraction contains at least three subgroups of anionic macromolecules with apparent molecular weight greater than 600 kilodaltons. It is a glycoprotein with a large amount of glucuronic acid. It acts as a mitogen in both T and B cells of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. It could also potentiate the mitogenic action of Concanavalin A in lymphocyte T cells. Such potentiation is not due to increased binding of Concanavalin A to the cell surface. Its mitogenic and co-mitogenic effects do depend on the presence of extracellular Ca2+.
Studies on the Physico-Chemical and Biochemical Evaluation of Ginseng Spp., the Related Crude Drugs and the Ginseng Preparations
Namba, T. ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 228~228
Separation and Determination of the Volatile Oil of the Parts of the Ginseng Growing on the Ground
Zhang, Huixiang ; Sun, Yunxiu ; Mao, Kunyuan ; Jang, Wenpu ; Li, Fengwen ; Wang, Manxia ; Wenmin Zhou ; Zongguang Sun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 229~236
Preventive Effect of Ginseng Intake on Various Human Cancers: A Case-Control Study
Yun, T.-K. ; Choi, S.-Y. ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 237~237
Induction of Phenotypic Reverse Transformation by Ginsenosides in Cultured Cancer Cells
Ota, Takahide ; Yamamoto, Kohzaburo-Fujikawa ; Kohno, Hiroyuki ; Odashima, Shizuo ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 238~243
Anti-tumor Substance from Panax Kin.ienk Roots
Hiroshi Yamamoto ; Mitsuo Katario ; Hisashi Matsunaga ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 244~252
Antitumor polyacetylenic alcohol, panaxytriol (Cl7 H26O3), was isolated and purified from a powder of the root of Pnnnx tin.1.encl C.A. Meyer. Panaxytriol possesses unusual property of being soluble in both water and organic solvents. Panaxytriol inhibited the growth of various kinds of human cultured cell lines in dose-dependent fashion in vitro. The in vivo effects of panaxytriol were tested against C57BL/6 mice transplanted with Bl6 melanomas. Panaxytriol (8 and 40 mg/kg) administered intra-muscularly(im) produced significant tumor growth delays in mice. Although a detailed mechanism of growth inhibition by panaxytriol is unknown, preliminary results appear to implicates a surface membrane site of action. And its action seems to be more dose-dependent than time-dependent. Finally, panaxytriol pharmacokinetics was evaluated in mice given single 8 mg/kg doses intraperitoneally (ip) or im. Serum panaxytriol content was measured using both tumor growth inhibitory assay and a gas chromatographic method. The maximum serum panaxytriol content after ip and im administration was 35.0 and 1.6
g/ml respectively. These results indicate that the compound may act as cytotoxic substance even in patients.
Antifatigue Studies of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius
Chang, Y.-S. ; Chang, I.-M. ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 248~248
Effect of Panax ginseng Extract on Growth Responses of Human Intestinal Bacteria and Bacterial Metabolism
Ahn, Y.J. ; Kim, M.J. ; Kawamura, T. ; Yamamoto, T. ; Fujisawa, T. ; Mitsuoka, T. ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 253~264
The growth responses of a variety of human intestinal bacteria to extracts of Panax ginseng and five other oriental medicinal Araliaceae were elraluattd in vitro and in vivo. The extracts enhanced the growth of Brifidobnnerilrm breve and B. longlim in media with or without carbon sources, suggesting that bifidus factors) might be involved in the phenomenon. This effect was most pronounced with water extract of P. ginseng, the growth of 27 bifidobacteria strains belonging to B adolescentis, B. longum, B. brim and B. infantis being greatly stimurated, whereas seven B. bifidum strains and other bacteria such as clostridia and Escherichin soli had little or no ability to utilise it for growth. Methanol extracts of p. ginseng were found to selectively inhibit growth of various clostridia including bifidobacteria. Paraputrificum, but this effect was not observed on other bacteria including bifidobacteria. The effect of ginseng extract intake (600 mg/day for two weeks) on the faecal microflora, pH, volatile fatty acids, ammonia, putrefactive products, and -glucuronidase, -glucosidase and nitroreductase activities, and on the blood components (triglyceride, total cholesterol and ammonia) were investigated using seven healthy human volunteers. The total concentration of faecal microflora including Bifidnkaderiifm app. during the period of ginseng extract intake %twas significantly unaffected from the preceding and subsequent control peroids. However, the frequency of occurrence of subjects having C. perfringens was significantly decreased. The faecal pH value was also significantly decreased, suggesting that the intake might increase the activity of Bifidobncterium spry. Other biochemical properties in faeces did not changed significantly. The levels of ammonia and triglycerid in blood were decreased with ginseng extract intake. These results may be an indication of at least one of the Pharmacological actions of p. ginseng as an adaptogen.
Application of Ginseng Saponin on Cutaneous Disorder, Hyperkeratosis
Kim, Hye-Young ; Jin, Sung-Ha ; Kim, Shin-Il ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 265~273
Protective Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Against Dichromate Toxicity
Kim, Eun ; Hyun, Hak-Chul ; Na, Ki-Jung ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 274~278
The metabolic disturbance and nephrotoxicity induced by sodium dichromate (20 mg/kg, SC) have been diminished by the administration of Korean red ginseng extract (100 mg/kg, PO). Red ginseng has a powerful potency on the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) increment shown in the early 2h after dichromate intoxication. It normalized the dichromate induced hepatic glycogenolysis. The effect of red ginseng on dichroamte induced nephrotoxicity was investigated by hematological analysis, and urinalysis. Ginseng treatment significantly reduced the increases in the urinary excretion of protein and glucose. These effects were dose dependent. Ginseng protected the accumulation of BUN and creatinine in the blood, caused by dichromate intoxication. Unlike CaEDTA, ginseng did not change the urinary excretion of chromiilm and it could not convert hexavalent chronlium to trialvalent chromium. These results suggest that ginseng treatment is effective in decreasing the metabolic disturbance, one of the earliest signs of dichromate toxicity, resulting in the protective effect of dichromate induced renal damage.
Mechanisms of the Radioprotective Activity of Ginseng Protein Fraction
Kim, Choo-Mi ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 279~283
Studies on the Ginseng Polypeptide-Decreasing Blood Sugar and Hapatic Glycogen.
Jin Zhang ; Hongying Zhang ; Wenyun Du ; Dawei Wang ; Benxiang Wang ; Ming Yang ; Yulian Jin ; Zhiyong Cui ; Yan Wang ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 285~290
Ando et al found the root of Ginseng contained an active peptide which had anti-lipolysis funrtion when they studied effective components of Ginseng to cure diabetes mellitus in 1980. In recent years we were making lots of the researches on the Ginseng polypeptide. We obtained a 14 peptide which could decrease levels of blood sugar and hepatic glycogen. However, amino acid composition of the peptide differs from one reported by Ando et al. The results of its purification, structure and functure and function were reported in this paper.
Study on the Response of Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) to the Herbicide 2,4-D Application
Jo, Jae-Seong ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 291~296
Various rates of 2,4-D were sprayed on 2 and 3 year old ginseng plants as foliar spray to define the critical concentration. No apparent plant injury was noticable for those ginseng plants when application concentration of 2,4-D doubled the recommended dosage (70 ml/10a). Neither abnormal foliar change occurred nor any inhibition in leaf and stem growth was resulted for the plants treated with 2,4-D concentrated two times of the recommended dosage. When the rates of 2,4-D application were increased greater than this level, injury ratings increased linearly with the rates of 2,4-D application and plant you was inhibited. Ethylene gas was not produced from the ginseng plant treated with 2 times concentrated 2,4-D, however the ginseng plants produced 0.03 to 0.09 ppm ethylene gas when the rate of application were increased 3 and 4 times, respectively. On the other hand the soybean treated with the recommended amount of 21-D produced ethylene gas of 10-20 times higher compared with ginseng plants and died. Photosynthesis ability of the ginseng leaf was significantly decreased by 2,4-D foliar application but it was recovered 4 weeks after 2,4-D foliar treatment. The herbicide 2,4-D was applicated to 2,3 and 4 years old ginseng plants as foliar spray with the rates of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 times of the recommended dosage to define the effects of 2,4-D on the plant growth and root yield of the ginseng. There were no significant differences in the leaf and stem growth between untreated and 2,4-D treated plant. Berry maturing of 3 and 4 year old ginseng was not influenced by 2,4-D. The root weight of 4 years old ginseng plant was not reduced by application of 2,4-D concenrated 2 times of the recommended dosage, Application time of the herbicide 2,4-D had no effects on the leaf or stem growth of 2,3 and 4 year old year old ginseng plants. When the ginseng seedling was treated with 2,4-D, detrimental phenomena as stem bending and docoration of seedling leaf margin occurred, but stem bending was recovered in a few day s. Keywords Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, 2,4-D , herbicide.
The Adaptation of Ginseng Production of Semi-arid Environments : The Example of British Columbia, Canada
Bailey, W.G. ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 297~309
Ginseng is renowned for both its medicinal and herbal uses and successful cultivation of Panax ginseng in Asia and Panax Vtiinvtiefolilim in North America has until recently taken place in the native geographical ranges of the plants. As a consequence of the potential high capital return and anticipated increases in consumer consumption, commercial cultivation of American ginseng now occurs well outside the native range of the plant in North America. In fact, the region of greatest expansion of cultivation is in the semi-arid interior region of British Columbia, Canada. Linked with this expansion is the potential domination of the ginseng industry by agricultural corporations. In the interior of British Columbia, the native decidous forest environment of eastern North America is simulated with elevated polypropylene shade and a sllrface covering of straw mulch. The architecture of these environments is designed to permit maximillm machinery useage and to minimize labour requirements. Further, with only a four-year growth cycle, plant densities in the gardens are high. In this hot, semiarid environment, producers believe they have a competitive advantage over other regions in North America because of the low precipitation rates. This helps to minimize atmospheric humidity such that the conditions for fungal disease development are reduced. If soil moisture levels become limited, supplemental water can be provided by irrigation. The nature of the radiation and energy balance regimes of the shade and much environment promotes high soil moistilre levels. Also, the modified environment reduces soil heating. This can result in an aerial environment for the plant that is stressful and a rooting zone environment that is sub-optimal. The challenge of further refining the man modified environment for enhanced plant growth and health still remains.
The Characterization of Mitochondrial DNA of Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer)
Lim, Yong-Pyo ; Park, Kwang-Tae ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 310~316
This study was focused on the characterization of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) for molecular 9enetical approach of energy Production related mechanism in Panax ginseng. The simple and efficient method of mtDNA isolation from ginseng has been developed by modification of recently advanced methods. This procedure can successfully apply to mtDNA isolation of several plants. mtDNA of etiolated shoot and one-year root were digested with restriction endonucleases, but that of 6-year root not. Any difference was not observed in the restriction endonuclease digestion patterns among the ginseng variants. Molecular size of ginseng mtDNA was estimated at least 159 kb by the restriction endonuclease fragment analysis. The 4.5 kb extra band at the lane of EcoRII treatment could be observed in restriction patterns digested with the methylation sensitive endonucleases, BstN I and EcoRII. For construction of mitochondrial genomic library of ginseng, mtDNA was partially digested with EcoRl, and packaged with EMBL4 phage vector. Genomic library was screened and purified for further research including restriction mapping of ginseng mtDNA, and cloning of the genes. The gene of ATP synthase A subunit was cloned from the purified EMBL4 library clone No. 16. Now, clone No. 16 is subcloned for structure gene sequence analysis.
Nitrogen Compounds of Korea ginseng and Their Physiological Significance
Park, Hoon ; Cho, Byung-Goo ; Lee, Mee-Kyoung ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 317~331
Nitrogen compounds of Panax ginseng and their biological activities in plant and animal were reviewed. Major nitrogen combounds found in P. ginseng are free amino acids, Water soluble teins, insoluble proteins and peptides. Minor nitrogen compounds are dencichine. glycol)roteins. amines, alkaloides, methoxy or alkyl pyrazine derivatives. free nucleosides and nllrleir arid bases. 4-me- thymi-5-thiazoleethanol and pyroglutamic acid. The contents of total nitrogen and protein in root increased until 13 years old rvhich was the highest age tinder investigation. Soluble protein content increased With the root weight and was higher in xylem pith than cortex-epidermis indicating the rlosc relation with root growth. Arginine which covered 58% of total free amino aroids may serve as a storage nitrogen. Arginine seems to be changed into proline in rhizome, threonine in stem and again threoning and arginine in leaf. The greater the root weight the higher the polyaminc content. Polyamine stimulated the growth of root callus. Physiological roles of other minor nitrogen compounds are unknown although dencichine content is relatively high (0.5% d.w.). biochemical and pharmatological activities of some nitrogen compounds for animal were more investigated than physiological roll iota plant itself. Radiation and U.V. protective function (heat stable protein), insulin-like activity in lipogenesis and lipolysis (adenosine and pyroglutamic acid), depression of blood sugar content (glycopeptide). hemostatir and nellrotoxic activity (denrichine) and. sedative and hypnotic activity (4-methyl-5-thiazoleethilnol) are reported. Heat stable protein increased with root age. The traditional quality critsria appear to be well in accordance with biological activities of nitrogen compounds. Chemical stlldies of nitrogen compounds seem relatively rare, probably dole to difficulty of isolation, subsequently the investigations of biological activities are little.
General Situation of Ginseng Cultivatio and Research in China
Rongsheng Wang ; Haozhe Lian ; Fengyang Liu ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 332~337
Studies on the Hypoglycemic Effect of ginseng Polypeptide
Wang, B.X. ; Yang, M. ; Jin, Y.L. ; Cui, X.Y. ; Wang, Y. ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 2, 1990, Pages 338~342
The ginseng Polypeptide (GPP) Isolated from the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer was domonstrated to decrease the levels of blood sugar and hepatic glycogen when injected intravenoilsly to rats at a doses of 50-200 mg/kg without affecting blood total lipid. When mice were injected slibclitaneollsly daily at a dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg for 7 successive days. GPP was also found to decrease blood sligar and hepatic glycogen. In addition, GPP was found to decrease variolls experimental hypergly cemias induced by injection of adrenaline, glilcose and alloxan. GPP exhibited inhibiting effect on the glut rogen enhancement indllced by glucose, but strenthening effect on the glycogen decrease indliced by adrenaline. When the levels of blood total lipid and lilrer glycogen were increased by T alloxan. GPP was shown to inhibit these changes except its lowering blood sugar. The toxicity of GPP is very low, LD50 was found to be 1.62
0.130 g/kg for iv.