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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Dec 1990
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Aug 1990
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Apr 1990
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Isolation of Volatiles from Panax ginseng Root by Vacuum-Distillation with Freeze-Drying
Park, Hoon ; Sohn, Hyun-Joo ; Cho, Byung-Goo ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 3, 1990, Pages 353~356
The isolation of volatile compounds by vacuum-distillation with freeze-drying was tested 1 with fresh ginseng roots. The roots were frozen at-8
; they were dried at-4
tinder vacuum(40 tory), for 24 hours; and the ice condensed at the silrface of condenser in the freeze-dryer was thauved at room temperature. The ether extract of the resulting aqueous solution was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) or a nitrogen-phosphorils detecto(NPD) and by gas : chromatography/mass spectrometry(GC/MS). More than forty peaks were observed in the CG(FID) profile. and more than ten peaks were observed in the GC(NPD) profile. Among them, thirteen components 1including one aldehyde, four hydrocarbons, two esters, folly alcohols, and two vyrazines were identified: six components the molesuiar ions of which were m/z, 204 were estimated to be a series of azulene compounds; and the other components unidentified were estimated to have molecular weights of lower than 254. Therefore, the freeze-drying technicue is thought to be usefu1 for the isolation of volatile compounds of such low molecufilar weights from vegetables, fruits and biological fluids as well as fresh ginseng roots under the tested conditions.
The Effects of Korean Ginseng Components for the Mouse Irradiated 1 by Neutron(Besource)
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 3, 1990, Pages 357~363
When mice irradiated by neutron (Be) are fed with ginseng concentrate, ginseng powder, and adaptagen of which the major ingredient is ginseng alkaloid to neutron (Be source) irradiated mouse, the following results are obtained. 1. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) for the neutron irradiation were 4 days at 600 rad, 7 days at 500 rad, 16 days at 400 rad, 33 days at 375 rad, and 55 days at 350 rad. In thistest, the standard amollntofirradiation was set at 375 rad/8 min. 2. Some spots appeared in the tail of the neutron-irradiated mouse because of blood congestion, and some had its tip tails cut. But the group administered with adaptagen did not show any of these symptoms. 3. The neutron irradiated mouse showed darkening the color of their lung-chloasmas while none of the adaptagen group had this symptom. 4. The lung tissue of the neutron irradiated mouse showed an increase of the karyolysis and cytoplasmic vacuole. 5. When both neutron irradiation and the ginseng sllbstances were given to the mouse at the same day, the 50% lethal days were increased to 29-33 days for the group administered with ginseng extract. 67 days for the group given with the ginseng powder. and 80 days for the groilp arith the adaptagen. 6. The survival rate of those fed with adaptagen for 33 days before the neutron-irradiation was 100%, while the 50% lethal daysofthe group fed with ginsengextract were 39 days and that of the group fed with ginseng powder were 69 days. 7. The serum valued of
-globulin, IgG, and albumin were returned to normal condition in the group fed with adaptagen for 33 days before the neutron-irradiation. But those of the group which were given the irradiation and the ginseng substances at the same day did not show such a recovery.
생쥐 대식세포의 종양세포 치사활성에 미치는 인삼분획물과 지방다당류의 영향
Choe, Sang-Un ; Jeong, No-Pal ; Kim, Se-Chang ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 3, 1990, Pages 364~372
This experiment was performed to investigate the effects of ginseng saponin fractions (total saponin, triol saponin. diol saponin) and lipopolysacrharide (LPS) on the tllmoricidal activity of macrophage. The ginseng saponin fractions had little effect on the tumoricidal activity of macrophage (less than 10%). When the ginseng saponin fractions were treated with LPS, the effects of tumoricidal activation of macrophage increased a relatively high percent, and the total saponin and triol saponin (20-35%) were ulore effectual than diol saponin (15-25%). The effects of ginseng saponin and LPS on the tumoricidal activity of macrophage were mediated by the induction of macrophage-release factor(5) which has(have) the capacity of tumor cell killing. And the quantity of the (actors) was(were) increased by the contact of macrophage with tumor cell.
HPLC Analysis of Free Malonaldehyde in Nine Ginseng Polyacetylene-Treated Liver Microsome
Kim, Hye-Young ; Kim, Shin-Il ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 3, 1990, Pages 373~378
Free malonaldehyde was determined in nine kinds of ginseng polyacetylene-treated micro- some by HPLC analysis. Antioxidant activities of some phenolic compounds and ginseng saponin were also drtermined both by a new HVLC method and by THA method. A new HPLC system separaterl malonaldehyde at a retention time 5,6 min and showed a linear relationship between the peak are a and malonaldehyde concentration. Panaxnol showed the strongest activity among nine polyacetylenes and the addition of either chlorine or aletyl group reduced polyacetylene's own activity. Since C14-polyacetylenes such as panaxyne and panaxyne-epoxide had little or no antioxidant activities, S17-structure should be preserved to exert a radical-scvenging or trapping activity. The antioxidant activities of chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid and catechol were much weaker than those of C17-polyacetylenes. Ginseng saponin showed no antioxidant activity. Since TBA reactive substances and malonaldehyde contents were almost the same in peroxiedized microsome. TBA value seems a good indicator for lipid peroxidation in this particular Fe+3 ADP/NADPH system.
The Effect of Ginseng Extracts on the Photooxidation of Liposome I. The protective effect of the formation of hydroperoxides
Baek, Tae-Hong ; Kim, Yeong-Ho ; Lee, Jun-Hong ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 3, 1990, Pages 379~384
In order to study the lipid peroxidation caused by light and the protective action it in biological memberane, reverse-phase evaporation liposome (REV) was employed as a model memberance and the effect of several antioxidants and ginseng water extracts were tested. In the presence of photosensitizer, liposome was oxidized easily and the oxidation index dut to the peroxidation was increased. The oxidation index of liposome was increased according to the increase in temperature. When dl-
-carotene or L-ascorbic acid was added into the reaction mixture, the photooxidation of liposome was inhibited. Ginseng water extract and crude saponin inhibited the rate of oxidation index of liposome in low concentration but increase in high concentration. On the other hand, when lipid hydroperoxide of liposome was tested by ferrothiocyanate method, ginseng water extract and crude saponin acted as antioxidants.
The Effect of Ginseng Extracts on the Photooxidation of Liposome II. The effecton the changes of fluidity and lysis
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 3, 1990, Pages 385~390
To investigate the effect of ginseng extracts on the changes of flllidity and lysis of liposome reverse phase evaporation vesicle (REV) was employed as model membrane and methylene blue was used as photosensitizer. Fluoresence polarization (P vaule) that represented fluidity of liposome was increased by photooxidation. All of the ginseng saponin inhibited the increasing rate of P value; the order of effect was ginseng water extract>biol saponin>triol saponin>crude saponin. In trapped G-6-P% measurement for lysis of liposome, ginseng water extract and crude saponin promoted the lysis of liposome. Therefore, we thought that ginseng extracts acted as both antioxidant and detergent.
Actions of Korean Ginseng and Benzoyl Peroxide on Inflammation Relevant to Acne
Kim, Hye-Young ; Jin, Sung-Ha ; Kim, Shin-Il ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 3, 1990, Pages 391~398
The intradermal injection of Propionibacterium acnes (ATCC 6919) into the ears of female Sprague-Dawley rats produced a chronic inflammation with the formation of acneiform lesions. Inflammation was characterized by more than four times of ear thickness and 2.8 times of ear weight at day 21. Histologically, massive infiltration of neutrophils, macrophage and lymphocytes, hyperplastic epidermis, comedones containing keratin mass and inflammatory materials were observed. Both ginseng saponin and extract from Korean red ginseng significantly redliced the ear thickness and their effects were similar to that of benzoyl peroxide. Ginseng samples and beneoyl peroxide modified lipid constituents of P. acnesinjected rat ear tissues. Even though no marked histological changes in inflammatory lesions were observed in ginseng-treated ear tissues, Korean red ginseng showed a possibility of reduce in the risk of acne development.
Effects of Ginseng Total Saponin on Caffeine-induced Stimulation of Locomotor Activity and the Related Brain Catecholamine Contents in Mice
Hack Seang Kim ; Seo ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 3, 1990, Pages 399~403
This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ginseng total sapoin (GTS) on locomotor activity that had been increased by caffeine. Catecholamines, noradrenaline and dopamine, possible mediators for the locomotor activity, were measllred in the mouse whole brain, cortex and the re- mainder. The locomotor activity was measured in circlllar activity cages equipped with six light sources and photocells. The catecholamine contents in the mollse brain were determined by HPLC-fluorescence detection. GTS (50 and 100 mg/kg) reduced the increased locomotor activity by caffeine (25 mg/kg) dose-devendently. Caffeine increased the norevinephrint and dopamine in mouse whole brain and cortex dose-dependently. GTS reduced the norevinevhrine in the remainder, and reduced the dopamine in the cortex which had been increased by caffeine.
Effect of Ginseng Fraction Components on Plasma, Adipose and Feces 1 Steroids in Obese Rat Induced by a High Fat Diet
Bae, Man-Jong ; Seong, Tae-Su ; Choe, Cheong ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 3, 1990, Pages 404~415
This study is conducted to evalute the effect of ginseng fraction component (ginseng extract solution, GES; ginseng protein, GP; ginseng saponin, GSA; ginseng residue, GR) upon hyperlipidemia and fatty liver induced by high fat administration. In doing so, the serum, liver and epididymal adpoid tissue have been examined for lipid components level and lipoprotein fraction. Feces bile acid and neutral sterol excretion have been also measured. 1'he results obtained from this study are as follows. 1. Serum, liver, epididymal lipid components of GP and GSA group were significantly lower than the controlgroup. 2. During the feeding experiment, VLDL and LDL increase while HDL decrease in all group. However the degree of VLDL and LDL increase and HDL decrease were signficantly small in GP and GSA group compared with control group. 3. In the excretion of bile acid and neutral sterol, all experiment group showed increased excretion in the comparison of control group
Ultrastructural Feature and Photobleaching of ginseng Chloroplasts
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 3, 1990, Pages 416~420
Ultrastructural and anatomical features of the leaf were studied in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer(ginseng). The ginseng leaf poorly developed palisade tissue and the size of mesophyll cell was larger and the chloroplast density was lower than that of Glycine max (soyben). Ginseng chloroplast was filled with highly stacked grana and condensely-arrayed thylakoid, so the stroma space was hardly absorbed. However, ginseng mesophyll tissue and chloroplast array did not reduce light energy entering the mesophyll chloroplast, and the high LHCP/CP ratio of ginseng thylakoid resulted in the absorption of excess photon. It is reasonable to assume that 1O1-photogenearation by excess light energy partially resulted from the anatomical and ultrastructural characteristics of the ginseng leaf.
Life History, Ginseng Damage and Chemical Control of the Field Slug, Deroceras varsans A, Adams
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 3, 1990, Pages 421~426
Field and laboratory works were conducted to Investigate the life history, ginseng damage and chemical control effect of the field slug, Deroceras varians A. Adams. D. varians laid eggs from April to June, but a small number of eggs were also found from July to September in the field. Most young slugs grew through the slimmer months to maturity by October. overwintered beneath the moist soil surface, and began feeding and egg-laying in the following April. indicating that D varians have a life cycle in a year. Damage of ginseng plants by D. varina occurred mainly from late April to mid May in the 3rd to 5th year ginseng fields with rice-straw mulching. It seems that this damage is caused by the adults in oviposition periods and related to rice-straw mulching of ginseng fields. In the experiment, ethoprop 5% granule and metaldehyde 6% bait showed relatively high effectiveness in the control of D. varians adults. Bordeaux mixture was more effective when the chemical was sprayed after infestation of the slug than before the infestation and when the 6-12 mixture was used.
Effect of the Application of Several Organic Materials on Ginseng Growth
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 3, 1990, Pages 427~431
To search for substituents of greens, several organic materials such as rice straw, barley straw, corn stem and manufactured compost were applied in a ginseng cultivating field. The yields of six year old ginseng harvested in the rice straw, barley strait and corn stem treated field were similar to or higher than that of the greens treated one. The varied amount of applied substituents resulted in a yield change, but statistical linearity was not found. The growth of ginseng aerial part and soil physicochemical property in the field fortified with these substituents showed similar results to those of the greens treated one. So, it is though that these organic materials can substitute for greens.
Effect of Seeding Epth on Severity of Damping-off Ginseng Seedlings Caused by Rhizoctonia solani
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 3, 1990, Pages 432~436
Incidence of damping-off callsed by Rhizoctonia solani was 0.6-10.9% at "Yangjik" seedbed in Pocheon, Korea. The seedbeds where the lengths of etiolated stems (underground portion) of ginseng seedlings were 0.78-1.25 cm showed 0.8-3.2% of the disease, while 6.9-10.9% disease incidence was observed at the seedbeds with the longer etiolated stem (1.89-2.26 cm). The pathogen produced a typical girdle symptom on the etiolated portion of ginseng stems close to the soil surface. The deeper the seeds were sown, the more the disease occurred in pot soil inoculated with the pathogen, AG 2-1, showing 18.4, 27.4 and 32.9% of damping-off at the seeding depth of 1, 2 and 4 cm, respectively. Cuticle layers of colored stems (over ground portion) were well - developed to be 42.8, 58.0, and 55.0 um in thickness compared to the etiolated stems with 8.5, 15.0 and 8.0um for seedling, 2 year-old, and 3 year-old ginsengs, respectively, when the disease occurred. In the seedling and 2 year-old ginseng, the colored stems were more rigid than the etiolated. There was however, no difference in rigidness of the stem of the 3 year-old ginseng where the disease is not severe as in seedlings and 2 year-old ginseng plants.ng plants.
Isolation and Identification of Adenosine in Fresh Ginseng
Lee, Mi-Gyeong ; Im, Seon-Uk ; Park, Hun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 3, 1990, Pages 437~441
The investigation of UV absorbing compounds in saponin fraction of Pnm.1. Kiairnk root was carried out by thin layer chromatography, semipreparative HVLC. l3C, 1H-NMR, mass spectrometry and chemical characteristics in searching plant for growth regulatony substances such as phenolic glycoside. Drying of fresh ginseng at 15
decreased not only number but also size of UV absorbing sports on TLC. One of the relatively large spots in fresh ginseng was isolated and identified as adenosine, which is subjected for growth stimulatory activity Detection of phenolic glycosides failed in dried root bolt was highly probable in fresh ginseng even with the insufficient amount of sample.
Identification of Ginger Components and Quantitative Determination of 6-Gingerol from Crude Drugs-Drink Preparations
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 14, issue 3, 1990, Pages 442~446
As a part of studies on the quality control of crude drug-drink preparations, ginger components were identified by TLC and 6-gingerol was determined quantitatively by HPLC. Ginger components were identified by TLC with benzene/acetone (4:1, v/v, on silica gel plate by spraying a vanillinsulfuric acid reagent. 5-Gingerol contents were determined at 280 nm by HPLC on Lichro CART RP-18 column with acetonitrile/wate(38:62, v/v). Its transfer rate in the 3 types of crude drug extract drinks was 65.4-85.1% compared to the content in the ginger extract.