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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Dec 1992
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Aug 1992
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Apr 1992
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The Antihypertensive Effect of Red Ginseng Saponin and the Endothelium-Derived Vascular Relaxation
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 16, issue 3, 1992, Pages 175~182
Intravenous administration of saponin from the root of Panax ginseng (red ginseng) lowered the blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner (10~100 mg/kg B.W) in anesthetized rats. Therefore, experiments were designed to study whether this lowering of blood pressure is associated with the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Rings of thoracic aorta with and without endothelium were suspended for the measurement of isometric tension in organ chamber. All experiments were performed in the presence of indomethacin (10-5 M). Ginseng saponin (10-5~3
10-4 g/ml) relaxed contractions induced by phenylephrine (10-5 M) in the aorta with endothelium but not in that without endothelium. Treatment of aortic rings with NG_monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA 10-4 M for 30 min), a competive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and methylene blue (M.B., 3
10-7 M for 30 min), an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, diminished the relaxation induced by ginseng saponin. In thoracic aortic rings from rats treated with ginseng saponin for 2 weeks intraperitoneally, the relaxation to acetylcholine was increased compared with non-ginseng treated rings. These data suggest that red ginseng saponin evokes hypotension and that vascular relaxations induced by red ginseng saponin are inediatpd by release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor.
Neurochemical Studies of Standardized Ginseng Extract G115 on the Central Dopaminergic Activity (II)
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 16, issue 3, 1992, Pages 183~189
Effect of the standardized ginseng extract(G115) on the central monoaminergic systems were investigated in comparison with that of halcperidol in rats. Immediately after sacrificed by decapitation, the strlata and frontal cortex were removerl. Concentations of the monoamines dopamine and serctorLin and their metabolites were deterinintd by HPLC-EC. G115 increased the concentration of 5-HIAA and DOPAC/UA ratio in striatum. However, dopaminrrgic neuronal activities were not affected by G115 that decreased the concentratio,Is of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in frontal cortex. G115 in combination with apomorphine significantly irlcreased the concentration of DA and S-HT but decreased the DO PAC/DA ratio and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio only in frontal cortex. These results suggest that G115 like HPD inhibits the activity of nigrostriatal dopamine neuron in striatum. However, unlike HPD it activates central monoaminergic neuron activity in frontal cortex.
Study on the Hypoglycemic Action of Ginseng Saponin on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats (I)
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 16, issue 3, 1992, Pages 190~197
The increased level of glucose, ketone bodies, non-esterified fatty acids and lactate in blood, decrease of glycogen content, phosphofructokinase activities and glucokinase activity and the increased level of glucose-6-phosphatase activity in the liver of streptozotocin injected rats were significantly moderated by ginseng saponin administration. It is not likely, however, that the hypoglycomic action of ginseng saponin might be due to their direct action on enzyme activities, since the saponin effect of servers enzymes in vitro was not enough to explain such an appreciable hypoglycemic activity of the saponin in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats, for which much work have to be done.
Study on the Hypoglycemic Action of Ginseng Saponin on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats (II)
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 16, issue 3, 1992, Pages 198~209
The decreased activities of liver enzymes relating to carbohydrate metabolism such as glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and acetyl CoA carboxylase of streptozotocin injected rats were significantly modified by the intraperitoneal injection of ginseng saponin mixture and/or purified ginsenosides. However, several enzymes such as pyruvate kinase, malic enzyme and glycogen phosphorylase were not modified appreciably by the saponin administration, suggesting that the effect of ginseng saponin might be depend upon individual enzymes. Examination of liver enzymes by liver professing technique using perfusion buffer containing saponin (10-3%) showed that the ginseng saponin might stimulate insulin biosynthesis as well as the related enzyme activities.
Effects of Ginseng Saponin on DNA Strand Breaks and Replication Inhibition by Benzo(a)Pyrene in CHO-Kl Cells
Park, Jin-Kyu ; Park, Ki-Hyun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 16, issue 3, 1992, Pages 210~216
The effect of saponin extracted from Panax grneng CA Meyer on DNA repair and replicative DNA synthesis were examined in CHO-Kl cells cotreated with benzo(a)pyrene and rat liver S-15 fraction. The DNA strand breaks inititated by benzo(a)pyrene metabolites were measured by alkaline election technique. The addition of ginseng saponin to the culture media resulted in decrease of benzo(a)pyrene-induced DNA strand breaks, and restored the suppressed-semiconservative-DNA-synthesis by the carcinogen. DNA repair synthesis in the damaged cells was also elevated by the ginseng treatment when the repairing activites were measured for the (3H)-thymidine incorporation into the carcinogen damaged cellular DNk Comparative analysis of DNA-adduces of benzo(a)pyrene metabortes in microsomes suggested that ginseng saponin treatment in rats reduced the formation of electrophilic metabolites of benzo (a)-pyrene in the rat liver microsomes.
Pattern-Analysis of Panax ginseng Polysaccharide
Han, Yong-Nam ; Kim, Sun-Young ; Lee, Hee-Joo ; Hwang, Woo-Ik ; Han, Byung-Hoon ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 16, issue 3, 1992, Pages 217~221
Total polysaccharide contents in Panax ginseng roots were evaluated by a spectrophotometry, utilizing the complex formation of ginseng polysaccharide with alcian blue dye in 50 mM ammonium biphosphate, pH 4.2. The total polysaccharide content in red ginseng was about three times higher than that in fresh ginseng when both were extracted with water, and was increased about two times when red ginseng was extracted with an alkaline solution. The determination of total polysaccharide in various parts of ginseng revealed that main roots contained the component more than fine roots. Fresh ginseng sections stained by the dye showed polysaccharide mainly found in cortex and cambium but not in epidermis. Pattern-analysis on total and acidic polysaccharides from fresh and red ginsengs exhibited that the chemical compositions of the polysaccharides extracted from both ginsengs quite differed from each other.
Effect of Ginseng Saponin on Alcohol Metabolism in the Animal Body
Joo, Chung-No ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 16, issue 3, 1992, Pages 222~227
Unlike carbohydrats and fats, alcohol is essentially foreign to the body and it is known that the body get rid of it by oxidizing alcohol maily in the liver. Acetaldehyde is produced during ethanol metabolism and is known to be oxidized mainly by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). ALDH activity was found mainly in the mitochondrial fraction but a significant ALDH activity was also present in microsomal and cytosol fraction. Wistar rats (150~200 g, male) were given freely with 12% ethanol (Control) and/or 12% ethanol containing 0.1% ginseng saponins (Test) instead of water for 6 days and the liver was analyzed. ALDH activities of both control and test group were lower than that of normal group but test AkDH was less inhibited than control. ADH activies of both control and test were slightly higher than that of normal group but our previous data showed that it became gradually steady after prolonged ethanol feeding. MEOS activities of both control and test group were much higher than that of normal group. MEOS enzymes are inducible but the activity of test group was greatly higher than that of control. Ethanol containing [1-i4C] ethanol (5
Ci) was injected to the above three groups and 30 min later, the distribution of radioactivity of hepatic lipids was investigated. Radioactivities of hepatic lipids of both control and test group were higher than that of normal group, however, that of test group was much lower than that of control. Analysis of individual lipids showed that phospholipid biosynthesis was significantly impaired and fatty acid and triglycerides biosynthesis were greatly stimulated. However, it was realized that the saponin prevented phospholipid biosynthesis depression and the increase of triglyceride biosynthesis considerably. It seemed that the saponin might stimulate ADH, ALDH and MEOS and the acetaldehyde formed would be removed faster. The excess hydrogen can be shunt more quickly into lipid biosynthesis. Electron microscopic observation showed that the hepatic cell of control group was si gnificantly damaged. Mitochondria were swollen and rough endoplasmic reticulum were dilated, however, hepatocytes of test group were not damaged.
Chemical and Biochemical Studies on Non-saponin Constituents of Korean Ginseng
Han, Byung-Hoon ; Park, Myung-Hwan ; Han, Yong-Nam ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 16, issue 3, 1992, Pages 228~234
There has been general tendency to explain the traditional ginseng efficacy through the pharmacological and biochemical activities of ginsenosides. However, when we analyze the pharmacological and biological data on ginseng reported yet, we can easily arrive at the conclsion that most of the data on pharmacological and biological activities must have been obtained using impure ginsenoside samples, which should contain some non-saponin constituents as impurities. Based on the above back-ground, the non-saponin constituents of ginseng were studied in our laboratory. Phenolic substances including Maltol, Vanillic Acid, Salicylic Acid, Ferrulic Acid and Caffeic acid and impure ginsenoside samples were found to show strong antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities, while pure ginsenosides were devoid of the activities. Maltol, one of antioxidant components In Korean red ginseng drew a special interest due to its very low pro-oxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of ginseng may be considered as scientific basis for the antiageing activity which was described in traditional medicinal material book as "long-term medication of ginseng will improve bio-efficiency and extend life-span" The lignin components, another non-saponin consitutents, isolated from ginseng extract In our laboratory may eplain the hepato-protective activity of ginseng which has been repeatedly rtaimed as one of the efficacies of ginsenosides. The P-carboline alkaloids isolated in our laboratory as one of the non-saponin constituents of ginseng may play some pharmacological activities which should also be investigated. Present paper will include chemistry and biochemical aspects of the non-saponin constituents of ginseng with special interests for the explanation of traditional ginseng efficacy on modern scientific basis.fic basis.
Effects of the Physical and the Chemical Characters of Soil on Ginseng Quality and Yield
Chang, Wei-Chun ; Zha, Libo ; Cao, Xiuying ; Zhang, Lianxue ; Kong, Xiangyi ; Zhao, Shoujing ; You, Wei ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 16, issue 3, 1992, Pages 235~260