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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Dec 1993
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Aug 1993
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Apr 1993
Selecting the target year
Hypoglycemic Action of the Fat Soluble Fraction of Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 17, issue 2, 1993, Pages 101~108
This study was made to understand a hypoglycemic action of the fat soluble fraction of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats by determining the activities of several enzymes related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as several blood component levels such as glucose and ketone bodies, and non-esterified fatty acids. Albino rats (Sprague Dawley, 170-200g, 3) were injected once with 70mg streptozotocinhg body weight intraperitoneally and fed with ordinary diet for 7 days, and then the fat soluble fraction (5 mg~20 mg/day/rat) was injected intraperitoneally once a day for three days to rats having high blood glucose level over 340 mg/100ml. After a final injection of the fat soluble fraction, rats u.ere starved for 16 hours followed by the analysis of blood serum and liver enzymes. It was found that increased levels of glucose, ketone bodies and free fatty acids in streptozotocin induced rats were decreased appreciably by administration of the fat soluble fraction. However, the amount of administered fat soluble fraction did not show any significantly different hypoglycemic action. Decreased activities of glucokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and acetyl CoA carboxylase of the liver of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were greatly modified suggesting that a hypoglycemic action of the fat soluble fraction was also appreciable as ginseng saponin fraction. We also compared a hypoglycemic action of the fat soluble fraction prepared from American ginseng and Chinese ginseng with that of Korean pain ginseng. 핀o significant difference of the hypoglycemic activity was observed between the above ginseng fat soluble fractions, suggesting that a study of the fat soluble fraction might be one of the most interesting subjects relating to diabetic hyperglycemia in the near future.
Effects of Ginseng Total Saponins and U-50,488H on Electrically Induced Twitch Responses of Mouse Vas Deferens
Kim, Hack-Seang ; Seong, Yeon-Hee ; Kim, Sun-Hye ; Kim, Suk-Chang ; Choi, Kang-Ju ; Oh, Ki-Wan ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 17, issue 2, 1993, Pages 109~113
The effects of ginseng total saponins (GTS) on the action of U-50,488H, a
-opioid receptor agonist, on the electrically induced twitch responses of mouse vats deferens were studied. U-50,488H (
M) inhibited the twitch contractions in a dose-dependent manner, which were caused by adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) released from the stimulated sympathetic nerve, and this effect was antagonized by naloxone (
M). GTS, which itself induced the inhibition of the twitch contractions, acted additively to U-50,488H, GTS and U-50,488H had no effect on the tension of the unstimulated organs. The contractions elicited by ATP were not affected by U-50,488H, but inhibited by GTS. These results suggest that U-50,488H suppressed the twitch contractions by the inhibition of neurotransmitter release from presynaptic nerve terminals via action on opioid receptor, but G75, by inhibiting the action of the neurotransmitter on the smooth muscle.
Cellular Distribution and Metabolism of Ginsenosides in Rat Liver
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 17, issue 2, 1993, Pages 114~122
0.5 mg of natural ginsenoside mixture and 0.8
Ci of synthesized 14C-ginsenosides were administered orally to a rat and killed at one hour after the ginsenoside administration and the liver was fractionated into nuclear fraction, mitrochondria microsomes and cytosol fraction. Radioactivity distribu lion in subcellular fractions of the liver showed that 32o1c of total radioactivity absorbed in the liver was in cytosol fraction but a significant portion of the radioactivity was also found in mitochondria (26.6%) and microsomal fraction (18.l%). 5.8% of the total radioactivity was recovered from the nuclear fraction as well. This suggested that ginsenosides might be distributed into all subcellular fractions. Activities of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase of the liver of rat at two hours after the ginsenoside administraion were found appreciably stimulated, suggesting that the ginsenoside concentration in the liver might be around 10-5%, since optimum concentrations for most enzyme catalyzed reactions in vitro were known to be 10-6% 10-4%. A significant portion of the radioactivity recovered from subcellular fractions of the liver was found in protein fractions, suggesting that proteins might interact with ginsenosides. Examination of protein-ginsenoside interation by gel filtration, equilibrium dialysis and amonium sulfate precipitation technique suggesting that proteins and ginsenosides do not bound covalently but weakl\ulcorner combined. When purified ginsenoside Rbl and Rgl were incubated with rat liver cytosolic enzymes for 20 min, the above ginsenosides were hydrolyzed quickly, suggesting that ginsenosides might be rapidly hydrolyzed and metabolized in the liver. It was also observed in vitro that the ginsenosides such as Rbl and Rgl were easily hydrolyzed by rat liver cytosol preparation suggesting that absorbed ginsenosides might be quickly hydrolyzed and metabolized in the liver.
Increase in Hepatic DT-Diaphorase Activity by Chronic Administration of Panax ginseng Extract to Mice
Lee, Kang-Mee ; Wie, Myung-Bok ; Song, Dong-Keun ; Kim, Yong-Sik ; Kim, Yung-Hi ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 17, issue 2, 1993, Pages 123~126
Effects of chronic administration of ginseng extracts (30 or 150 mg/kg/day for 52 days, p.o.) to mice on the activities of DT-diaphorase and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the liver and the brain were studied. The DT-diaphorase activity in the liver was increased over 2-fold at the dose of both 30 and 150 mg/kg/day, while there was no change in the activity of the enzyme in the brain. The GST activity in the liver was increased in a dose-dependent fashion up to 142% of the control value at the dose of 150 mg/kg/day. while there was no change in the activity of the enzyme in the brain. The ginseng-induced increase in the activities of these hepatic phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes which are involved in the detoxification of carcinogens, is suggested to underlie, at least in part, the anticarcinogenic activity of Panax ginseng.
Inhibition of Perotonin Release by Lipophilic Fraction From Korean Red Ginseng
Rhee, Man-Hee ; Park, Kyeong-Mee ; Park, Hwa-Jin ; Nam, Ki-Yeul ; Park, Ki-Hyun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 17, issue 2, 1993, Pages 127~130
Lipophilic Fraction (LF) from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer strongly inhibited human platelet aggregations induced by thrombin. When platelets were prelabeled with 5-hydroxy[G-
H]-tryptamine (serotonin) and then stimulated by thrombin, LF inhibited the release of serotonin in a dose-dependent manner. From this result, we suggest that LF have antiplatelet and antimigraine functions by inhibiting the release of serotonin.
Panaxadiol from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer Inhibits Synthesis of Thromboxane
in Platelet Aggregation Induced by Thrombin
Park, Hwa-Jin ; Rhee, Man-Hee ; Park, Kyeong-Mee ; Nam, Ki-Yeul ; Park, Ki-Hyun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 17, issue 2, 1993, Pages 131~134
Panaxadiol (PD) from Korean red ginseng C.A. Meyer did not control the concentration of cytosolic free
influxes by thrombin (5
/ml). However, PD strongly inhibited the synthesis of thromboxane.
) in the aggregation of human platelets induced by thrombin (5
/ml). These rexults suggest that PD blocks the any Pathway transforming to TX
from arachidonic acid (AA) which release out of plasma membrane phospholipids by
-dependent phospholipase C or phospholipase
. It may be also concluded that PD has the antiplatelet function by inhibiting the synthesis of TX
, which known to be the potent stimulator of the aggregation of human platelet.
Aqueous Fraction from Korean Red Ginseng Inhibits the Protein Phosphorylation Induced by Tumor Promoter
Park, Hwa-Jin ; Park, Kyeong-Mee ; Rhee, Man-Hee ; Park, Ki-Hyun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 17, issue 2, 1993, Pages 135~138
Aqueous fractions from Korean red ginseng inhibited the phosphorylations of 40 KD and 20 KD polypeptides which were induced by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (100 nM) in human platelets. Much more carbohydrates were contained in the aqueous fractions than proteins. An aqueous fraction extracted with methanol, mainly, consists of glycoproteins, molecular weights of which were below 18 KD. We may infer that the aqueous fraction from Korean red ginseng do antitumorous and antiplatelet functions.
Colorimetric Determination of Acidic Polysaccharide from Panax ginseng, its Extraction Condition and Stability
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 17, issue 2, 1993, Pages 139~144
The method for colorimetric determination of acidic polysaccharide from Panax ginseng was investigated. It is possible to apply the method of carbazole-sulfuric acid to determination of pectin, and also to measure the amount of pectin in the mixture of various high molemlu compounds such as starch. cellulose and gum, etc. When the method of carbazole-sulfuric acid was applied to determine the amount of acidic polysaccharide, optical density at 525 nm increased linearly with an increase in the concentration of pure acidic polysaccharide. Effective extraction temperature with water for the determination of the amount of ginseng acidic polysaccharide (GAP) was
. In order to separate or concentrate GAP it was appropriate to precipitate the extract only once with 80% ethyl alcohol. GAP was very stable at
for 4 hrs in aqueous solution and between pH values of 5.0~ 12.0.
Comparisons of Acidic Polysaccharide Content in Various Ginseng Species and Parts
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 17, issue 2, 1993, Pages 145~147
The amounts of ginseng acidic polysaccharide (GAP) in red ginseng (Panax ginseng) were higher than those of wild and cultured Panax quinquefolius, Panax notoginseng as well as white ginseng (Panax ginseng). In white ginseng, there is no difference in the GAP amount among root ages or sizes. Also, the GAP amount of red ginseng body was similar to that of ginseng rhizome, but was higher than that of leaf and epidermis.
Identification and Thermal Resistance of Penicillium sp. Isolated from Korean Ginseng
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 17, issue 2, 1993, Pages 148~152
One kind of microorganism was isolated and identified from Korean fresh, white and red ginseng, and the effect of a preservative, sodium benzoate on the microorganism and its thermal resistant propertues were studied. The results obtained were as follows. The predominant strain on ginseng and ginseng products was identified as Penicillium sp. The strain showed perithecium structure producing ascospores. The growth of the strain was slightly inhibited at 0.0571 concentration of sodium benzoate. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of sodium benzoate against the strain was 0.26%. The D value of the strain at 56, 59,
were 9.9, 5.0 and 4.5 min, respectively.
Survey of Proper Primers and Genetic Analysis of Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) Variants using the RAPD Technique
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 17, issue 2, 1993, Pages 153~158
The study was carried out for comparison of variants and development of genetic markers using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic D사A (RAPD) analysis method. The ginseng variants used were as follows: Chungkyung-Chong, Hwangskoog-Chong, KG101 selected by the pureline selection method, and 6 kinds of Jakyung-Chong strains Uinjakyung, Jakyung-Chong 81783, Jakyung-Chong 847913, Jaky tong-Chong 79742, Jinjakyung of USSR, and Mimaki of Japan). Four of 10 RAPD primers showed the distinctive polymorphism among 9 ginseng variants and lines, and were selected for more detailed polymorphic analysis. The sequences of 4 selected primers were TGCCGAGCTG (Primer#2), AATCGGGCTG (#4), GAAACGGGTG (U7), and GTGACGTAGG (#8). All primers produced several common bands among the strains. However, when primer # 2 was applied, the electrophoregram showed the specific band at 1.8 kb region in Chungkyung-Chong, Hwangskoog- chong, and KG101, and 1 kb in the Jakyung-Chong 847913. In primer #4, 1.1 kb band was shown in Chungkyung-Chong, Hwangskoog-Chong, KG101, and Jakyung-Chong 79742. In primer # 7, 700 bp band was appeared in Jakyung-Chong 81783 and Jinjakyung of USSR In primer # 8, 800 bp band was observed only in Mimaki, comparing to another strains. When Similarity Index (SI) was calculated, Chungkyung-Chong and Hwngskoog-Chong, and Jakyung- chong 81783 and Jinjakyung of USSR showed the most close SI, 0.11 and 0.08, respectively. The data of KG101, which showed the SI of 0.13 with the group of Chungkyung-Chong and Hwangskoog-Chong, coincided with the fact that it was released from Hwangskoog-Chong by breeding process. The data of Jakyung strains indicated the significant variation among the strains. From these results, RAPD analysis method could be succesively applied to the classification and genetic analysis for breeding of Korean ginseng.
Effect of Ginsenosides Rb
and Re on Enzymes Content and Unschduled DNA Synthesis of Cells in Vitro
Liu, Ping ; Zhang, Wei ; Ge, Ying-Chun ; Zhang, Shu-Chen ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 17, issue 2, 1993, Pages 159~183