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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Dec 1995
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Aug 1995
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Apr 1995
Selecting the target year
A Prospective Study on Ginseng Intake and Cancer for Population -Preliminary Report-
Yun, Taik-Koo ; Choi, Soo-Yong ; Lee, Yun-Sil ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 2, 1995, Pages 87~92
We conducted a prospective cohort study to evaluate the preventive effect of ginseng on the development of cancer in the population over 40 years old residing in Kangwha-eup from August 1987 to December 1992. Alnong 4, 634 persons (2, 362 men, 2, 272 women), 335 (7.6%) persons had died. Cancer accounted for 79 (22.8%) of the total death. Of 4, 634 persons eligible for analysis, 70.475 (3, 263) were ginseng intakes. Ginseng intakes had a decreased risk (RR=0.48, 95% Cl : 0.34~0.67) compared with non-intakes. The relative risk of cancer according to the kind of ginseng was 0.23 (95% Cl : 0.08~ 0.63) for fresh ginseng extract intakes. There was a decrease in risk with rising the frequency of ginseng intake, showing statistically significant dose-response relationship. The longer the duration of ginseng intake or the greater the total number of ginseng consumed, the lower the risk. Newly diagnosed cancer cases have been identified: 42 stomach, 24 lung, 14 liver and 57 at other sites. The relative risks of ginseng intakes were 0.34 (95% Cl 0.19~0.60) in gastric cancer and 0.27 (95% Cl : 0.12-0.60) in lung cancer. Among ginseng preparations, fresh ginseng intakes were significantly associated with the decreased risk of gastric cancer (RR: 0.19, 95% Cl : 0.04~0.98). These results strongly revealed that Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer (Korean ginseng) has preventive effect against cancer.
Effects of Standardized Ginseng Extract and Exercise Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise Capacities in Humans
Pipat , Cherdrungsi ; Kanyarat , Rungroeng ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 2, 1995, Pages 93~100
This study was undertaken to determine whether administration of a standardized gindeng extract at 300 mg.
for 8 weeks could enhance maximum aerobic and anaerobic exercise capabilities and whether any changes of such effects can be occurred when exercise training was added. Forty-one male university students were randomly divided into four groups as ginseng-untrained (GU, n=10), ginseng-trained (GT, n=10), placebo-untrained (PU, n=10), and placebo-trained (PT, n=11). The trained groups underwent 8 weeks of aerobic exercise at 65% of individual's maximum oxygen consumption (
max) for 30 min.
. Prior to and at the end of experiment,
max, anaerobic power (AP), anaerobic capacity (AC), and leg muscle strength were determined and some physiological parameters related to
max were measured. Initially, all subject groups did not differ in average
max (range 45.9 to 47.9 ml/.kg-1.min-1). After 8 weeks, the
max increased significantly from the initial level by 12.6% in group GU, 14.5% in group PT, and 24.5% in group GU which was significantly higher than group GU but not group PT. Changes in all measured parameters related to
max were similar among the subject groups except group PU. Both the AP and the AC were significantly increased in all subject groups (range +3.6 to +13.1% above initial for the AP and +4.4 to) 8.955 above initial for the AC) but the higher changes were found for the AP in groups PT and GU, and for the AC in grouts PT, when compared with group PU. No significant differences in the two anaerobic variables were observed between group GT and the other groups of subjects. Leg strength was also significantly enhanced over group PU in groups PT, GU and GT. There were no significant differences among the latter three subject groups. As a result of these findings, it was concluded that under the conditions of this study ginseng administration at the prescribed dose exhibited the training-like effects on
max as well as anaerobic power and leg muscle strength but no clear synergistic action on these physical fitness variables occurred when both g inseng administration and exercise training were combined.
Effects of Ginseng Saponins on Cocaine-Induced Hyperactivity, Reverse Tolerance and Dopamine Receptor Super-sensitivity in Mice
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 2, 1995, Pages 101~107
The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of ginseng saponins [ginseng total saponin (GTS), protopanaxadiol saponin (PD) and protopanaxatriol saponin (PT)] on the hyperactivity, reverse tolerance and dopamine receptor super-sensitivity induced by cocaine. A single treatment with cocaine produced hyperactivity. Repeated administration of cocaine developed reverse tolerance and dopamine receptor super-sensitivity was also developed in reverse tolerant mice which had received the same cocaine. The hyperactivity and the developments of reverse tolerance and dopamine receptor super-sensitivity by cocaine were inhibited by ginseng saponins. From these results, it is proposed that ginseng saponins may be useful for the prevention and therapy of the adverse actions of cocaine. In addition, the rank order of inhibitory potential was observed as PT>GTS>PD. Key words Cocaine, hyperactivity, reverse tolerance, dopamine receptor super-sensitivity, ginseng saponins.
Protective Effect of Ginseng Polysaccharide Fraction on CCl4-induced Hepatotoxicity in vitvo ana in vivo
Kim, Young-Sook ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 2, 1995, Pages 108~113
Effect of ginseng polysaccharide fraction was examined for
-induced hepatotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. In
-injured primary cultured rat hepatocytes, treatment of the polysaccharide fraction (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 mg/ml) significantly Inhibited the release of LDH and GOT into the culture medium in a dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of the polysaccharide fraction (100, 200 mg/kg) inhibited the decrease of body weight and the increase of the ratio of liver to body weight in
-intoxicated rats. Elevation of GOT, GPT and ALP activity in the serum by
-induced hepatotoxicity was suppressed by administration of ginseng polysaccharide fraction. MDA levels increased in the serum as well as in the liver tissue by treatment with
showed a tendency to be 연w in the rats given to the polysaccharide fraction. These results suggest that the polysaccharide fraction may be active substance responsible for antihepatotoxic effect of Panax ginseng.
Antiproliferative Effects of Panu ginseng Glycosides on DNA Synthesis in Cultured Mouse Fibroblasts
Byun, Boo-Hyeong ; Shin, In-Cheol ; Lee, Lil-Ha ; Joe, Cheol-O ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 2, 1995, Pages 114~116
Panax ginseng ginsenosides were examined for their affects on the DNA synthesis. The DNA 1 synthesis was measured by the thymidine incorporation into NIH3T3 cells. The ginsenoside, panaxytriol,
showed reduced [
]-thymidine incorporation. However, other ginsenosides of
did not inhibit DNA synthesis. Among the various ginsenosides, ginsenoside
was found to be the most inhibitory on DNA synthesis. We suggest
as one of the potential choice of antiproliferative drugs.
Stimulatory Effects of Ginsenoside-Rg1 on p56lck Kinase and Cell Proliferation in Jurkat T Cells
Hong, Hee-Youn ; Na, Do-Seong ; Kwon, Tae-Ik ; Choi, Jung-Kap ; Yoo, Gyurng-Soo ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 2, 1995, Pages 117~121
We studied the effects of ginsenoside-
) extracted from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer on
kinase and cell proliferation in Jurkat T cells.
was maximally activated within 5 min after the treatment of 16.7
/ml of G-
increasing the activity by 1.2-2 times relative to untreated control, thereafter its activity was gradually decreased to the level of untreated control. The action of EGTA on the kinase was altered by the addition of G-
, accompanying the band shift of
. In addition, G-
promoted cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that G-
may be involved in T cell receptor-CD3 (TCR) signaling via the activation of
and the chance of cellular calcium concentration.
Surface Activities of Ginseng Saponins and Their Interactions with Biomolecules'(V) Ginseng Saponins Can Be Vsed in Cytochrome c Isolation
Lee, Jae-Yang ; Lee, Sang-Jik ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 2, 1995, Pages 122~126
The effects of treating bovine heart mitochondria with potassium chloride and surfactants such as digitonin and n-dodecy-
-maltoside (DMS) including plant saponins on extracting cytochrome c were examined. The spectra given by the cytochrome c-containing solutions from the extraction were inspected to ascertain whether ginseng and bellflower saponins could be used instead of the generally- employed surfactants of digitonin and DMS. These studies implied that the effect of ginseng saponins is superior to that of digitonin but inferior to that of DMS, and give rise to the idea of substitutional property of ginseng saponins for the widely-employed surfactants in the extraction of mitochondria intermembrane cytochrome c. The substitution for the solubilizing surfactants by bellflower saponins could, however, not presumably be anticipated; while ginseng saponin mixture are a suitable substitute.
GTG as a Potential Translation Initiation Godon in Mitochondrial F1 ATPase
-Subunit Gene(atpA) of Korean Ginseng
Kim, Kab-Sig ; Park, Ui-Sun ; Choi, Kwan-Sam ; Choi, Kwang-Tae ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 2, 1995, Pages 127~133
The complete open reading frame (ORF) of o-subunit of the
ATP synthase (atPA) in Korean ginseng mitochondria was identified by the sequence similarity with atPA genes in other plant mitochondria. The sequence alignment showed that the common translation initiation codon, ATG, in plant genes was replaced with GTG valid codon in Korean ginseng. The atPA gene from GTG to TGA termination codon was 1524 nucleotides long, and the sequence homology of nucleotides and deduced amino acids revealed high values of 92~97%. A deletion event of 6 nucleotides was observed at the 1468th nucleotide from the GTG in Korean ginseng, in contrast to that at the 1450th in other plants such as pea, common bean, soybean, sugar beet, and radish. An unidentified open reading frame (on7) was observed upstream of atmA ORF. No other ATG as an initiation codon was detected in the region between off and atmA ORF in Korean ginseng, although a pyrimidine cluster "TTTTCTTTT" was located in this region as in Oenothera and maize genes. It could be supposed that GTG codon in atpA gene of Korean ginseng mitochondria would act as an initiation codon as in microbial genes.ial genes.
Analysis of Ginsenosides by Thermospray LC/MS
Park, Man-Ki ; Park, Jeong-Hill ; Hwang, Gwi-Seo ; Lee, Mi-Young ; Park, In-Jeong ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 2, 1995, Pages 134~137
Ginseng saponins were analyzed by thermospray (TSP) LCMS method using ODS column and with acetonitrile/ammonium acetate solution. Optimal condition for TSP Lchfs was found as follows: capillary temperature: 33
repelled voltage: 200 V, and concentration of ammonium acetate: 0. 05 M. Panaxadiol and panaxatriol type saponins showed characteristic fragment ions. The calibration curve of ginseng saponin showed good linearity with a correlation coefficient of 0.99. Detection limits using selected ion monitoring (SIM) technique were improved by 10~200 times compared to conventional HPLCnnr detection method.
Component Profile Analysis of Irradiated Korean White Ginseng Powder
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 2, 1995, Pages 138~143
Currently, some food materials are disinfected by
-irradiation (using Co-60) or ethylene oxide treatment. These treatments were applied to ginseng powder and the ginseng components such as ginsenosides, polyacetylenes and phenolic acids were analyzed by HPLC to determine any compositional changes due to irradiation. No appreciable difference was observed in the HPLC pattern of ginsenosides, polyacetylenes of ginseng powder after 10 key irradiation or ethylene oxide treatment (EO
= 3 : 7, w/wfb) from those of untreated fresh ginseng powder when they were analyzed soon after treatments. When the ginseng powders were stored at room temperature for three years after the same treatment, the HPLC patterns of polyacetylenes and phenolic acid fraction showed appreciable change from those of fresh ginseng powder, however, the HPLC patterns of three year old samples did not show any appreciable difference.
Changes in Physicochemical Components of Ginseng Marc by Roasting Process
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 2, 1995, Pages 144~152
This study was carried out in order to utilize ginseng marc (GM), a byproduct produced during the preparation of ginseng extract. For the utilization of GM as coffee-replacing beverage, GM was roasted at 140-23
, for 10-30 min to generate coffee-like flavor and taste. The physicochemical changes in GM induced by roasting process was measured. Weight and moisture contents of GM abruptly decreased while roasting at various temperature and period of time, and the amount of water-extracted solid substances decorated beyond 23
. Among the proximate components, total and free sugar decreased remarkably, while crude fat content increased. Crude protein content did not change by the roasting process. pH derides to pH 4.9 after 30 min at 20
, but increased at higher temperatures. Hunter color L value of the GM powder decreased, whereas a and b values, increased up to 10 times as compared to that of the control. The brown color(O, D 490 nm) in 50% ethanol extract of the roasted GM was 46 times higher than that of the control.
Separation and Characteristics of the Extract Solution from Ginseng Marc by Roasting Process
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 2, 1995, Pages 153~159
Roasting ginseng marc was roasted at different temperatures (140, 170, 200, 23
) and for different periods (10, 20, 30 min) produced aqueous soluble brown pigments, gel filtration of which over Sephadex G-50 yielded 3 fractions A, B, C. The treatment at higher temperature and for longer time lead to increase of peak A and decrease of peak C. The contents of the brown pigments and the degree of brown color increased about 4 times and over 6 times, respectively, by roasting at 23
and for 30 min as compared to the control. 5-Hydroxymethyl furfural in aqueous and 50% ethanol extracts of treated samples at 23
and for 30 min was increased to 3.6 times and 8 times, respectively, and carbonyl compound in both aqueous and 50% ethanol extracts was increased 3 times. Also pyroxene-like substance was increased apparently in both aqueous and 50% ethanol extracts of treated samples.
Comparison of Agronomic Characteristics and Chemical Component of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and Panax quinquefolium L.
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 2, 1995, Pages 160~164
This study was carried out to compare the root yields, root characters, saponin and ginsenosides contents of 6-year-old p. ginseng and p. quinquefolium. These two ginseng species showed difference in the diameter and ten비h of mainroot. The main root length or p. quinquefolium was shorter than that of p. ginseng, whereas Jakyung-jong and Hwangsook-jong of P. ginseng showed similar root length. Proximate composition were similar between the two species, however, crude fibercontent was significantly higher in main and lateral root of Jakyung-jong and Hwang sook-jong of P ginseng than P quinquefolium. In regard to mineral contents of root, P ginseng contained more Ca and Mn and less Fe and Al than P. quinquefolium. P. quinquefolium contained more of Rbl and Rd of protopanaxadiol saponin, and less or Re,
of protopanaxatriol saponin than P ginseng. However, no Rf was detected in the p. quinquefolium. Key words Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium, ginseng character, ginsenoside.
The Correlation of Agronomic Characters and Path Coefficient Analysis in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer
Chung, Youl-Young ; Chung, Chan-Moon ; Choi, Kwang-Tae ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 2, 1995, Pages 165~170
This study was carried out to investigate the correlation of agronomic characters, their path coefficients in 2, 3 and 4-year old ginseng plants, and to provide a useful information for ginseng breeding. Correlation coefficients between stem fen변h, number of leaves and number of Iraflets in 2-year age, and stem diameter and leaf length in 3-year age showed highly significant correlation with number of fruits and root weight in 4-year age. The path coefficient analysis indicated that stem length and number of leaflets might give indirect effects on root weight regardless of plant age. On the other hand, stem length and number of leaflets in 2-year age and, stem diameter and leaf length in 3-year age showed direct effects on root weight in 4-year old ginseng. These results may be used for selection of high-yielding ginseng plants. Key words Selection information, correlation and path coefficient analysis.
Stratification of American Ginseng Seed: Embryo Growth and Temperature
John, T.A.Proctor ; Dean, Louttit ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 2, 1995, Pages 171~174
Freshly harvested American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) seeds were stratified at two locations over each of three years. Seed development and temperature in the stratification boxes were investigated until the seed was removed 12 months later and direct-seeded in the field. During stratification and seeding (14 months) three embryo stages were identified. In Stage I of 250 days (Sept. to mid-May) embryo length increased from about 0.5 to 1.0 mm: in Stage II of 100 days (mid-May to late Aug. when seeded) length increased to 2.0 mm and in Stage III (late Aug. to late Nov.) length increased to 5.3 mm. Excerpt split width could also be placed in three stages. Changes in embryo length correlated with embryo endosperm length ratio. Insertion compression tests showed that the excerpt softened rapidly in late Stage II and throughout Stage III. The stratification box temperatures at all depths (10, 25 and 50 cm) never exceeded -2
even when the air temperatures dropped to -13
and were, therefore not damaging to the seeds.
Root-Rot Development of 2-Year old Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) Caused by Cylindrocarpon destructans (Zinssm.) Scholten in the Continuous Cultivation Field
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 2, 1995, Pages 175~180
The disease development of root-rot [pathogen:Cylindrocarpon destruction (Zinssm.) Scholten] occurred in 2-year old ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) was investigated in the continuous (the first cultivation: 1978∼1982, 2nd cultivation: 1990∼1993 and abolished in 1993 due to replanting problem) and replanted cultivation (period of cultivation: 1980∼1984). In the continuous cultivation, incidences of root-rot were 0.7% on May 3, 48.6% on May 24, and 95.8% on June 14, respectively. In the replanted cultivation, no symptom was observed on May 3 and disease incidence was generally lower compared with the continuous cultivation. On the aerial part of the ginseng infected by C. desiccates, the end and/or margin of leaves were changed to dark reddish color that appeared for behind the root-rot symptom. In this field, the longitudinal growth of lateral root was more inhibited than in the case of the replanted cultivation by C. destmctans. The inhibition rate of rootlet growth was 37.3% in the continuous cultivation as compared with that of replanted cultivation at June 14. Though lesions of root-rot were formed all over the roots, 61.2% of the lesions was positioned within 6 cm under the rhizome. Key words Panax ginseng, Cylindrocarpon destmtan, root-rot of ginseng, replanting problem of ginseng.
Effect of Incubation Period, Temperature and pH on Mycelial Growth of Cylindrocarpon destructans (Zinssm.) Scholten Causing Root-rot of Ginseng
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 2, 1995, Pages 181~187
Cylindvocarpon destmtalns isolate CY-92-01, pathogen of root-rot of Panax ginseng showed t the maximum mycelial growth on the Czapek solution agar among the thirteen kinds of media. Five isolates (Isolate CY-92-01, CY-92-03, CY-92-07, CY-94-01, CY-94-02) of C. destructan from various growth stages of p. ginseng recovered from several geographical sites also showed maximum growth in the Czapek-Dox broth compared with potato dextrose broth and V-8 juice broth. Rapid growth rate was maintained until 12 days after inoculation on the Czapek-Dox broth and mycelial weight was somewhat constant until 20 days. After 30 days of incubation, the mycelial weight began to decrease. The fungal growth occurred from 5
and optimum temperature for growth was 2
. Mycelial weight orderly decreased at 15, 25, 10, and 5
. Quantitative measurement was impossible at 5
. No fungal growth was occurred at the temperature higher than 3
. Growth was observed at all tested pH ranges from 2.8 to 8.0. Optimum pH for growth was 4.0~5.0 followed by pH 3.3~3.5 and 5.4~6.0. The least growth occurred at pH 2.8.
고려인삼의 기계화 재배에 의한 생산비 절감 및 수삼품질향상 방안
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 2, 1995, Pages 188~194