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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Dec 1995
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Aug 1995
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Apr 1995
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Behavioral Pharmacological Studies of Nootropic Candidates on the Central Dopaminergic Activity Rats
Lee, Soon-Chul ; You, Kwan-Hee ; Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 3, 1995, Pages 197~201
The present study was undertaken to elucidate the behavioral characteristics of nootropic candidates, entrophenoxine, N-methyl-D-glucamine, piracetam and red ginseng saponin components on stereotyped sniffing behavior induced by apomorphine in rats. Apomorphine, a direct dopaminergic receptor agonist, induced stereotyped behaviors including sniffing licking growing and biting in a dosedependent manner, and that behaviors were completely inhibited when measured at 1 week after 6-ydroxydopamine(6-HDA) treatment. Centrophenoxine, N-methyl-D-glucamine, red ginseng total saponin(TS), panaxatriol (PT), and Rg1 enhanced but panaxadiol (PD) inhibited, whereas piracetam and Rb1 were not effective of the sterotyped sniffing behavior induced by apomorphine(1mg/kg). The enhanced stereotyped behavior by centrophenoxine, N-methyl-D-glucamine, red ginseng total saponin, panaxatriol(PT), and Rg1 seems to have a similarity to entrophenoxine, N-methyl-D-glucamate in modulating of dopaminergic neuroal activity and also my be useful for the nootropic candidates.
Inhibitory Effect of Ginseng Total Saponins on the DEvelopement of Tolerance to U-50,488H-Induced Antinociception is Dependent on Serotonergic Mechanisms
Kim, Hack-Seang ; Rhee, Gyu-Seek ; Oh, Ki-Wan ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 3, 1995, Pages 202~205
We have previously reported that the antagonism of U-50,488H-induced antinociception in mice pretreated with ginseng total saponins (GTS) Ivas abolished by pretreatment with a serotonin precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), but not by a noradrenaline precursor, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) in the tail flick test. In the present experiments, the effect of the same GTS on the development of tolerance to U-50,488H-induced antinociception was determined. GTS inhibited the development of tolerance to U-50,488H-induced antinociception. The inhibitory effect of GTS on the development of tolerance to U-50,488H-induced antinociception was reversed by 5-HTP, but not by L-DOPA. These findings suggest that the inhibitory effect of GTS on the development of tolerance to U-50,488H-induced antinociception is dependent on serotonergic mechanisms. Key words Ginseng total saponin, U-50,488H, tolerance, serotonin.
Effects of Lipophilic Fraction from Korean Red Ginseng on Platelet Aggregation and Blood Coagulation in Rats Fed with Corn Oil and Beef-tallow Diet
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 3, 1995, Pages 206~211
This study was investigated to find the effects of petroleum ether extract (Lipophilic fraction) from Korean red ginseng on platelet aggregation and thrombin time of the plasma in two groups of the experimental rats. One group of rats were fed with 15% corn oil (15%kg-diet) containing a number of 18 : 2 (linoleic acid) or 15% beef-tallow (15%/kg-diet) containing saturated fatty acids for 3 weeks, and were followed by feeding the petroleum ether extract (25 mg/kg-diet) for 3 weeks. The other group of rats (control group) were fed with 15% corn oil or 15% beef-tallow for 6 weeks. The platelet aggregation induced by thrombin and collagen was significantly inhibited and the thrombin time was prolonged in the 15% corn oil plus petroleum ether extract administrated group than in the 15% corn oil administrated group. And the same results were shown in the 15% beef-tallow plus petroleum ether extract administrated group. These results suggest that the petroleum ether extract from Korean red ginseng may have the beneficial effects on the inhibition of the platelet aggregation and the inhibition of blood coagulation induced by dietary fats.
Effect of Ginseng Components on Content of Cholesterol and Activity of Acyl CoA.Cholesterol Acyltransferase in Hep G2 Cells Cultured in Cholesterol Rich Medium
Park, Song-Chul ; Noh, Yun-Hee ; Koo, Ja-Hyun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 3, 1995, Pages 212~218
A human hepatoma cell line, hep G2, was used to investigate the mechanism of serum cholesterol reduction by ginseng total saponin, ginsenoside-
, and non-saponin fraction (ether extraction). Hep G2 cells were incubated in 10
/ml of cholesterol containing serum free-RPMl1640 medium with various concentration of ginseng components. The amounts of cholesterol in Hep G2 cells were decreased to maximum 51% in total saponin or two ginsenoside-treated groups while there was 137% increase in cholesterol level of control group as compared with that of normal group. Nonsaponin groups did not show the same effect. In order to elucidate the observed changes in the amount of cholesterol, the activity of amyl CoA : cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) in groups showing remarkable reduction in cholesterol amount, i.e., total saponin 10-6%, ginsenoside-
%, and non-saponin fraction
%, was assayed using [1-
%]oleic acid as enzyme substrate. The activity of ACAT was increased in all groups tested as compared with that of control group except for non-saponin group cultured in water soluble cholesterol containing medium. The serum cholesterol lowering effects of ginseng components can partially be attributed to the increased hepatocellular ACAT activity.
Effect of Total Ginseng Saponin on the Opioid Receptor Binding in Mouse Brain
Kim, Soo-Kyung ; Lee, Seong-Ryong ; Park, Chang-Gyo ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 3, 1995, Pages 219~224
The modulatory effects of total ginseng saponin (TGS) on the 1, 6, and opioid receptor binding in morphine tolerance and dependence were examined in this study. The specific [
] enkephalin) binding was significantly increased in chronic morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) treated mouse striatum. The specific [
] enkephalin) binding was ignificantly increased following morphine treatment in the mouse striatum and cortex. Also, an apparent decrease in the affinity of [
]DPN (diprenorphine) was observed after chronic morphine treatment in mouse striatum and cortex. 7GS produced a sleight increase of specific [
]DPDPE binding and a significant increase of specific [
]DPN binding in the mouse brain striatum. In cortex, TGS produced an inhibition of specific [
]DAGO and [
]DPDPE binding and increase of the specific [
]DPN binding. The prolonged administration of TGS (25, 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg, i.p., 3 wks) produced an inhibition of increased [
]DAGO specific binding following morphine without significant changes in the agonist binding to and receptors in mouse striatum and cortex. These contracted alterations in
opiate receptor binding were dependent in TGS dogs and brain sites.
Effect of Chronic Treatment of Ginseng Extract on the Clearance of Blood Carbon Monoxide in Rat
Lee, Young-Gu ; Sohn, Hyung-Ok ; Lim, Heung-Bin ; Lee, Dong-Wook ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 3, 1995, Pages 225~230
The effect of long-term ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) administration on the clearance of carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) and the property of blood gases was investigated in rats. Rats were received ginseng water extract (0.025% in drinking water) for 42 weeks starting at the age of 6 weeks. They were exposed to the diluted mainstream smoke generated from 15 filter cigarettes for 20 min in a round polycarbonate chamber (D37 cmXH13 cm). Under this condition, the mean CO-Hb content of control and the ginseng-treated rats immediately after the exposure was nearly the same as 13.8
2.9 f) and 13.9
1.6%, respectively. However, CO-Hb was more rapidly removed from blood in the ginseng treated rats than in untreatEd control with the laps of time, namely, its biological half life In the former was 36.9
1.5 min and in the latter was 56.9
13.2 min. Although long-term ginseng treatment did not affect the content of hemoglobin and blood pH of rats, it slightly increased blood oxygen content and its partial pressure value, and decreased levels of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate. These results suggest that long-term administration of rats with ginseng extract accelerate the elimination of CO from the blood. This effect seems to be related to the enhancement of oxygen consumption of the rat by a certain action of ginseng components as previously reported.
Comparative Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Ethylene Oxide Fumigation on Antioxidant Activity of White Ginseng Powder
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 3, 1995, Pages 231~236
The antioxidant activity and the pharmacologically active constituents such as nucleosides and phenolic substancs of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (white ginseng powder) treated with gamma irradiation (Rl group) and ethylene oxide fumigation (EO group) were compared with those of non-treated ginseng (control group). High performance liquid chromatograms of nucleosides in three groups were similar with each other. The bathochromic effect of phenolic substances at W absorption region tends to be higher for EO group than Rl group. This tendency was also observed in heat treatment of each group. However, the antioxidant activity may have some effects on the labile property of phenolic substances. In summary the gamma-irradiated ginseng was more stable than the ethylene oxide-treated ginseng, but both ginseng samples gave the similar antioxidant activity.
Purification and Characterization of Agmatine Iminohydrolase from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer(I)
Kim, Hyo-Sup ; Kim, Hee-Jung ; Cho, Young-Dong ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 3, 1995, Pages 237~243
Agmatine iminohydrolase (EC 126.96.36.199) catalyzes the hydrolysis of agmatine into putrescine. The enzyme seems to be one of the critical enzymes in putrescine biosynthesis. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer by combined method of ammonium sulfate 1 fractionation, DEAR anion exchange column, hydroxyapatite column and agmatine carboxyhexyl Sepharose 4B affinity column. The molecular weight estimated by native pore gadient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was 71, 000 Dalton, while that estimated by SDS-PAGE was 70, 000 Dalton, indicating a monomeric enzyme. The optimal pH and temperature were 9.0 and 37
, respectively. The Km and 1 Vmax for agmatine were 8.3 mM and 14.4 nmole/hr, respectively. Heat stability of this enzyme was high. The enzyme was observed to be inhibited by polyamines such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine. Especially, putrescine was a potent inhibitor of the purified enzyme. These results suggest that polyamines could be important in growth regulation of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.
Water Soluble Browning Pigments of Korean Red Ginseng(Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer)
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 3, 1995, Pages 244~248
Water-soluble browning pigments were artily purified from Korean red ginseng through the several procedures such as fractionation by n-butanol, precipitation by ethanol, dialysis and gel filtration. At least four kinds of water-soluble browning pigment were separated from each other, two kinds of low-molecular-weight and two kinds of high-molecular-weight pigments.
Browning Reaction of Fresh Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) as Affected by Heating Temperature
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 3, 1995, Pages 249~253
In the browning reaction of Korean ginseng, it appears that enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning reaction occurred in the initial stage of heating fresh ginseng at low temperature, and then non-enzymatic browning reaction followed in the drying period after heating. Activation energy of the browning reaction for red ginseng was about 9.0 kcal/mol. Browning reaction of red ginseng was accede- rated with an increase in steaming time, and a great extent of browning reaction occurred between 60-90 min of steaming at 10
. Browning pigments of red ginseng were mostly water soluble subset.
Content and Composition of Saponin Compounds of Panax Species
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 3, 1995, Pages 254~259
The content and composition of saponin compounds of Panax species were analyzed according to their species, region and processing type of red and white ginseng. The species employed were Korean-, Chinese-, Japanese red ginsengs, and Korean white ginseng of Panax ginseng, American- and Canadian ginsengs of Panax quinquefolium, and Panax notoinseng. Twelve main saponin components in the ginseng were identified and quantified using TLC and HPLC. All three species had remarkably different content and composition. However, within each species they were similar. Twelve major ginsenosides were determined in P. ginseng, eight in p. quinquefolium, and six in P. notoginseng. Of the components of P ginseng Rf,
and Ra were not detected in P quinquefolium, and
, Rc, Rf,
, Ra and Ro not detected in P. notoinseam. Crude saponin content and protopanaxadiol/protopanaxatriol saponin ratio were compared. They were 4.81~5.24% and 1.27~ 1.45 in p. ginsengs, 7.01~7.25% and 2.12~ 2.15 in p. quinquefolium, 9.80% and 0.99 in P. notoineng. The prosapogenin and sapogenin content were different among the Panax species.
Effect of Controlled Atmosphere and Modified Atmosphere Storage on the Fatty Acid of Fresh and Red Ginseng
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 3, 1995, Pages 260~266
Fifteen free fatty acids including myristic acid were isolated and identified from red ginseng processed from CA and MA stored fresh ginseng. Linoleic acid (80%) and palmitic acid (10.5%) content were the major components accounting for more than 90% of the total free fatty acid. The contents of free and identified fatty acids were not greatly changed in all the treatments. Especially when preservative was treated, the change of free fatty acid was quite stable over the control. Each fraction of neutral, glyco- and phospholipid was constant in terms of quantities before and after the treatment. Key words Controlled atmosphere, modified atmosphere, fresh ginseng, red ginseng, fatty acid.
Determination of the Synthetic Time and the Transport Pattern of Vicilin and Legumin in Ginseng Endosperm Cell Using Double Immunogold Labeling
Lee, Chang-Seob ; Yu, Seong-Cheol ; Kim, Woo-Kap ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 3, 1995, Pages 267~274
Vicilin and legumin, the storage Proteins of seed, were Purified from ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) endosperm cells. They were immunized in rabbits, and antibodies were raised respectively. Using these two antibodies, double immunogold labeling of vicilin and legumin was carried out to determine the gap of synthetic time and the transport pattern of vicilin and legumin in the ginseng endosperm cells. Vicilin and legumin were synthesized at the same time at early embryo developmental stage. They were secreted from the Golgi bodies and accumulated into the small vacuoles. As the endosperm cells developed, vicilin and legumin localized in the small vacuoles were gradually transported toward the large central vacuole where they were stored. Protein bodies were derived from the vacuoles filled with proteins and distributed in the endosperm cells of mature red seed. Protein bodies were various in size from 1 to 8
in which vicilin and legumin were mixed each other. The number of small particles labeled on the vicilin was greater than that of large particles labeled on the legumin in the protein bodies indicating that the amount of vicilin is higher than that of legumin in the protein bodies.
Changes of Chloroplast Ultrastructure and Thylakoid Membrane Proteins during Growth of Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) Leaf
Ahn, Joung-Sook ; Park, Hoon ; Kim, Woo-Kap ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 3, 1995, Pages 275~280
The formation of thylakoid membrane proteins and changes in the chloroplast ultrastructure of ginseng leaf were investigated as a function of time following the leaf emergence. The leaf chloroplast obtained just after the leaf emergence showed short rod-like thylakoids which were connected and arranged in 3~4 layers along the longitudinal axis of the chloroplast. The 10 DAE (days after emergence) chloroplast started to form grana structure. The typical grana structure was observed 17 DAE, and the grana was fully developed 28 DAE. The membrane proteins obtained from just after emerging leaf were separated into many minor bands indicating no CP-complex formation yet. LHC II was detected after 10 days. CP 47 and CP 43 were detected after 17 days. After 28 days, the PS I and PS II proteins were distinctly separated into CP 1, LHC II, CP 47, CP 43, CP 29, CP 27+24. Thus, the appearance of the light harvesting protein, LHC II, which was concentrated in grana stacks, was consis tent in time with the formation of grana stacks 17 DAE. Key words Chloroplast ultrastructure, grana, CP-complex, LHC II.
Histological and Morphological Characteristics of New and Latent Bud Formation in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 3, 1995, Pages 281~286
This experiment was conducted to obtain the basic information on new- and latent-bud formation, and stem vestige arrangement on the rhizome of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. Latent buds emerged from meristematic region between shoot and root of the embryo, and new buds for the next year were distributed both at the bottom portion of the stem and the rhizome. In the new buds, organs such as leaf, stem, and flower bud were already completely differentiated, while the latent bud had an undifferentiated meristematic tissue arranged linearly in a vertical line, indicating that each year new- and latent-buds are formed successively. This result suggests that the number of stem vestige may be used for the determination of ginseng age. Key words Rhizome, new-bud, latent-bud, histology, morphology, stem vestige, vestige arrangement.
Effect of Physical Properties of Soil on Ginseng Seedling Growth in Nursery Bed
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 3, 1995, Pages 287~290
This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of physical properties of soil in nursery bed with different densities on growth of ginseng seedling. Stem length, leaf length and leaf width of ginseng seedling showed the decreasing tendency with increasing the hardness of the nursery soil. Fresh root weight per seedling and number of available seedlings were increased significantly with decrease of the soil hardness. For solid, liquid phases, bulk density and hardness of soil, negative correlations were shown in stem length, leaf length, leaf width, root weight per seeding, and number t of available seedlings. On the other hand, gas phase, air permeability and porosity of soil had positive correlations with stem length, leaf length, leaf width, root weight per seedling and number of available seedlings. Key words Yang-Jik nursery, ginseng seedling, soil physical properties.
Anticancer Effect of the Hydrolyzed Monogluco-Ginsenoside of Total Saponin from Ginseng Leaf
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 19, issue 3, 1995, Pages 291~294
Total saponin was isolated from ginseng leaf, which was hydrolyzed in alkaline condition. The hydrolyzed products were identified as monogluco-ginsenoside, ginsenoside Rh1, Rh2 and compound K, which showed anticancer effects against human cancer cell lines (SNU 717, Daudi, and Jurkat).